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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1190: 339263, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857131

RESUMO

In this study, a sampling rate-corrected in vivo solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (SR-in vivo SPME-GC-MS) was constructed to simultaneously detect fipronil and three of its metabolites in garlic, and their environmental behavior was long-term monitored in in vivo mode. All of three fipronil metabolites were more difficult to degrade than the parent pesticide. The final degradation rates of the metabolites in garlic were in the range of 4.4%-25.1%, much lower than that of the parent (78.6%-85.8%). While their total residues amount was about 3 times as high as fipronil, exceeding the maximum residue limits regulated by China and the European Union. The steady-state concentrations of fipronil and its metabolites in garlic were positively correlated with the pesticide stress dose. In short, the established in vivo tracking method is efficient and convenient. The features of simple operation, fast analysis, acceptable sensitivity, non-harmful or non-lethal to plants, available repeated and long-term monitoring of the same organism make it attractive for in vivo tracking assay, it is of great significance for the guidance of rational use of fipronil and protection of food safety.


Assuntos
Alho , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Pirazóis , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131160, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598117

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of edible oil on the volatile aroma profile and storage quality of garlic paste, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The administration of blend oil at 40 °C in a garlic to oil ratio of 1.8 had a higher overall acceptance by affective sensory test. Compared with the original garlic paste, the sensory aroma profile of the oil-immersed garlic paste was characterized by suppressed pungency, garlic scent and garlic odor, and enhanced oil scent. SPME-GC-MS and HS-GC-IMS showed that the application of blend oil caused great changes in the level of some compounds, which could explain its role in the oil-immersed garlic paste. Furthermore, the blend oil also reduced the growth rate of the total number of colonies and browning intensity, and inhibited the loss of allicin. Therefore, the application of blend oil in garlic paste improved the sensory aroma and delayed the deterioration of the product quality.


Assuntos
Alho , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130740, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375891

RESUMO

Traditional sample preparation methods for insecticide analysis are laborious and fatal to living organisms. In the work, an in vivo sampling rate calibrated-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established and successfully used for in vivo sampling and quantitative determination of three insecticides (hexachlorobenzene, fipronil and chlorfenapyr) by direct exposing micron-sized fiber in living garlic. Absorption, enrichment, migration and elimination behavior of insecticides in garlic were investigated. Bioaccumulative effects with obvious tissue differences were observed to all three insecticides, especially for chlorfenapyr. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.0342 to 1.0887 were obtained, and the closer to roots, the higher BCFs. The half-life of insecticides in garlic ranged from 0.43 to 0.96 d. In the first 24 h, 55.0% - 80.3% insecticides residues in garlic were eliminated with first-order elimination kinetics. The research provides in vivo insights into the environmental fates of insecticides in complex living system with minimized organism damage.


Assuntos
Alho , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
4.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133263, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906531

RESUMO

This study put forward a one-step carbonization method by concentrated sulfuric acid to prepare garlic peel derived biochar, and the synthetic conditions were optimized by L16(45) orthogonal experiments. Notably, in order to study the differences between the proposed synthetic method and the conventional pyrolysis method, the concentrated sulfuric acid carbonized garlic peels biochar (CSGPB) was compared with pyrolysis derived garlic peel biochar (HTGPB) in characterization and adsorption capacities for Enrofloxacin (ENR). Results showed that CSGPB exhibited more graphite-like structures with more active functional groups on the surface, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity of CSGPB (142.3 mg g-1) was 13.7 times of HTGPB (10.4 mg g-1) under identical conditions. Moreover, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics of CSGPB for ENR were fully investigated and discussed. Based on the above experiments, density functional theory (DFT) simulations were performed to reveal the interfacial interaction and adsorption mechanism. Results showed π-π interaction between quinolone moieties of ENR and graphite-like structures in CSGPB might be the dominant mechanism. As for the functional groups, the adsorption energies were -40.46, -15.21 and -5.96 kJ mol-1 for -SO3H, -OH and -COOH, respectively, which indicated -SO3H was the most active functional groups on the surface of CSGPB. This study provided a new sustainable perspective for the design of efficient biochars, and explored the interfacial interaction mechanism of antibiotics removal on biochars.


Assuntos
Alho , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Enrofloxacina , Cinética , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944518

RESUMO

The deodorant activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed, a spice used to flavor curry and vegetable foods in Southwest Asia, against garlic (Allium sativum L.) organosulfur compounds related to human malodor was evaluated. Black cumin seed essential oil showed remarkable deodorant activity against garlic essential oil. The mode of action of this deodorant activity was presumed to be that black cumin seed essential oil covalently reacted with the organosulfur compounds in garlic. Therefore, thymoquinone, which is a major constituent in black cumin seed essential oil, and allyl mercaptan, which is one of the organosulfur compounds produced by cutting garlic, were reacted in vitro, and the products were purified and elucidated using spectroscopic data. As a result, these substances were identified as different allyl mercaptan adducts to dihydrothymoquinone. This chemical reaction was presumed to play a key role in the deodorant activity of black cumin seed essential oil.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Desodorantes/farmacologia , Alho/química , Nigella sativa/química , Benzoquinonas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
7.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111095, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763878

RESUMO

Photoperiod is dominant environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Even though research on plants response to photoperiod is significant in agriculture, molecular mechanisms of garlic in response to photoperiod remain largely unknown. In the current investigation, 3 months old garlic plants were treated with long day (LD) and short day (SD) for 10 and 20 days after treatment (DAT). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of phytohormones exhibited that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin riboside (ZR) and salicylic acid (SA) were observed maximum under LD at 10 DAT, whereas abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA3), zeatin (ZT) and jasmonic acid (JA) were observed maximum under LD at 20 DAT. Transcriptome sequencing analysis was done to evaluate the transcriptional response to LD and SD. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected to have pathway enrichment. i.e., DNA binding transcription factor activity, transcription regulator activity, transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups, and sequence specific-DNA binding activity, plant hormone signal transduction, circadian rhythm-plant, biosynthesis of amino acids, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose metabolism. Furthermore, 28 and 40 DEGs were identified related to photoperiod and hormone signaling, respectively and their interaction in response to LD and SD were discussed in detail. Outcomes of current investigation might be useful to provide novel resources for garlic bulb formation in response to photoperiod.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/genética , Alho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alho/genética , Fotoperíodo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Transcriptoma
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4969-4990, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most perishable foods due to microorganism growth. Using essential oil-based nanoemulsion as a biodegradable and edible coating can enhance the shelf life of shrimp at refrigerated temperature through retarding microbial growth compared to synthetic coatings. METHODS: Zein was extracted from 50 g dry milled corn with ethanol. Garlic essential oil was prepared by mixing with Tween 80. Nanoemulsion was prepared in an ultrasonic bath. DLS analysis, turbidity, and stability of nanoemulsions were performed. Radical scavenging activity, and total phenol content were done for evaluation of garlic essential oil and nanoemulsion. A 10% zein solution was prepared using ethanol 95% and glycerol plasticizer (2.5%). In the end, various microbial analysis, peroxide value, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values, and sensory evaluations of different shrimp samples were determined. RESULTS: Corn zein along with garlic-based nanoemulsion, had a great impact on the TVB-N, TBARS, and peroxide value (which indicated that z+24% garlic nanoemulsion group was the lowest among other groups on days 3, 7, and 14 (p < 0.05) as well as microbial properties (garlic EO nanoemulsion had significantly better antibacterial effectiveness compared to other groups (p < 0.05)), and sensory evaluation (the z+24% garlic nanoemulsion sample received a significantly higher score than other groups (p < 0.05)) of Litopenaeus vannamei. CONCLUSIONS: Corn zein nanoemulsion functioned as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent, increasing the shelf life of Litopenaeus vannamei at refrigerated temperature. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Emerging nanotechnology-based approaches with no side-effects on immune system of consumers plays a vital role in bioactive packaging, and on reduction of food spoilage or food poisoning in the transportation, exporting, and distribution stages of food products, especially marine-based products with cold chain transportation. Additionally, it can reduce aquaculture and environmental risks due to the usage of chemical agents used in packaging. Our results showed that administration of a corn zein with nanoemulsion of garlic extract can prolong shelf life of Litopenaeus vannamei. The paper should be of interest to readers such as food microbiologists, aquaculture scientists, fisheries scientists, marine biologists, biomaterial scientists, food packaging industrialists, medical microbiologists, public health managers, and health system managers.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Alho , Zeína , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Temperatura , Zea mays
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684574

RESUMO

An herbal mixture composed of lemon, apple cider, garlic, ginger and honey as a polyphenol-rich mixture (PRM) has been reported to contain hypolipidemic activity on human subjects and hyperlipidemic rats. However, the therapeutic effects of PRM on metabolites are not clearly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to provide new information on the causal impact of PRM on the endogenous metabolites, pathways and serum biochemistry. Serum samples of hyperlipidemic rats treated with PRM were subjected to biochemistry (lipid and liver profile) and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA enzyme reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) analyses. In contrast, the urine samples were subjected to urine metabolomics using 1H NMR. The serum biochemistry revealed that PRM at 500 mg/kg (PRM-H) managed to lower the total cholesterol level and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (p < 0.05) and reduce the HMG-CoA reductase activity. The pathway analysis from urine metabolomics reveals that PRM-H altered 17 pathways, with the TCA cycle having the highest impact (0.26). Results also showed the relationship between the serum biochemistry of LDL-C and HMG-CoA reductase and urine metabolites (trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethylglycine, allantoin and succinate). The study's findings demonstrated the potential of PRM at 500 mg/kg as an anti-hyperlipidemic by altering the TCA cycle, inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and lowering the LDL-C in high cholesterol rats.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Mel , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/terapia , Malus/química , Metaboloma , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/urina , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos Wistar
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502163

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important vegetable and is cultivated and consumed worldwide for its economic and medicinal values. Garlic cloves, the major reproductive and edible organs, are derived from the axillary meristems. KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins, such as SHOOT MERISTEM-LESS (STM), play important roles in axillary meristem formation and development. However, the KNOX proteins in garlic are still poorly known. Here, 10 AsKNOX genes, scattered on 5 of the 8 chromosomes, were genome-wide identified and characterized based on the newly released garlic genome. The typical conserved domains of KNOX proteins were owned by all these 10 AsKNOX homologs, which were divided into two Classes (Class I and Class II) based on the phylogenetic analysis. Prediction and verification of the subcellular localizations revealed the diverse subcellular localization of these 10 AsKNOX proteins. Cis-element prediction, tissue expression analysis, and expression profilings in responding to exogenous GA3 and 6-BA showed the potential involvement of AsKNOX genes in the gibberellin and cytokinin signaling pathways. Overall, the results of this work provided a better understanding of AsKNOX genes in garlic and laid an important foundation for their further functional studies.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Alho/genética , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alho/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500571

RESUMO

In isoprenaline (ISO)-induced myocardial infarcted rats, garlic oil (GO) and its main ingredient, diallyl disulfide (DADS), were examined for cardioprotective effects when used with carvedilol (CAR). GO, DADS and CAR were given to rats in their respective groups, either alone or together, with the addition of isoprenaline (3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) during the last 10 days of treatment. At the end of 14 days of treatment, blood samples were collected, the hearts were excised under anesthesia and weighed. Heart tissue homogenate was used to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Furthermore, the serum activities of cardiac markers, including lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin, were checked. Moreover, inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin one beta, interleukin six, and kappa bp65 subunit were assessed. Rats that received GO, DADS, and CAR exhibited a significant increase in the cardiac antioxidant enzyme activities with a simultaneous decrease in serum cardiac markers enzymes and inflammatory markers. The TBARS were significantly reduced in rats that received treatment. The addition of carvedilol to GO or DADS significantly elevated antioxidant activities and decreased the release of cardiac enzymes into blood circulation. Both DADS and GOl were almost similar in efficacy, indicating the potential role of DADS in garlic oil-mediated cardioprotection. Combining GO or DADS with CAR increased CAR's cardioprotective impact and protected rats from developing ISO-induced myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Carvedilol/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 6335-6342, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496450

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent female endocrine-related disorder in reproductive ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of garlic on the lipid parameters and blood pressure levels in women with PCOS. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded control trial, conducted on 80 PCOS patients. Participants were taught to intake either a total 800 mg/day garlic supplement or an identical placebo (starch) after lunch for 8 weeks. Physical activity, diet intake, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure were evaluated at baseline and end of the study. The blood sample was also taken to assess the change in outcomes of interest at the pre- and post-intervention. Garlic supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (change mean difference: -8.05, 95% CI: -15.47, -0.62) and LDL-C (change mean difference: -7.67, 95%CI: -14.64, -0.70) levels in comparison to the control group. In addition, a trend to a significant decrease was found in serum triglyceride levels and Systolic blood pressure; however, no significant difference was observed between two groups in HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure levels. The present study suggested that garlic supplementation might be effective on lipid markers improvement. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Alho , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Pressão Sanguínea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lipídeos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361695

RESUMO

The active ingredients allicin and curcumin have a wide range of actions against fungi, bacteria, and helminths. Therefore, the study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of allicin (AL) and curcumin (CU) as antischistosomal drugs and their biochemical effects in normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Praziquantel (PZQ) was administrated for two successive days while AL or CU was given for two weeks from the week 7th postinfection (PI). The possible effect of different regimens on Schistosoma worms was evaluated by measuring the percentage of the recovered worms, tissue egg load, and oogram pattern. Serum alanine transaminase activity and levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and uric acid were measured. Liver tissue malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels besides, the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were assessed for the oxidative/antioxidant condition. DNA electrophoresis of liver tissue was used to indicate the degree of fragmentation. There was a significant reduction in the recovered worms and egg load, with a marked change of oogram pattern in all treated groups with PZQ, AL, and CU in comparison with infected-untreated mice. PZQ, AL, and CU prevented most of the hematological and biochemical disorders, as well as significantly improved the antioxidant capacity and enhanced DNA fragmentation in the liver tissue of schistosomiasis mice compared to the infected-untreated group. These promising results suggest that AL and CU are efficient as antischistosomal drugs, and it would be beneficial to test their combination to understand the mechanism of action and the proper period of treatment leading to the best result.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Dissulfetos/uso terapêutico , Alho/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Sulfínicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371842

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of a garlic hydroalcoholic extract on the burden of oxidative stress and inflammation occurring on mouse heart specimens exposed to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a well-established inflammatory stimulus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) technique was applied to determine the volatile fraction of the garlic powder, and the HS-SPME conditions were optimized for each of the most representative classes of compounds. CIEL*a*b* colorimetric analyses were performed on the powder sample at the time of delivery, after four and after eight months of storage at room temperature in the dark, to evaluate the color changing. Freshly prepared hydroalcoholic extract was also evaluated in its color character. Furthermore, the hydroalcoholic extract was analyzed through GC-MS. The extract was found to be able to significantly inhibit LPS-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 8-iso-PGF2α levels, as well as mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), in heart specimens. Concluding, our findings showed that the garlic hydroalcoholic extract exhibited cardioprotective effects on multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Microextração em Fase Sólida
15.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443625

RESUMO

Black garlic (BG) is a form of aged garlic obtained from raw garlic (Allium sativum) via Millard reaction under high temperature (60-90 °C) and humidity (70-90%) for a period of time. Several studies reported higher contents of water-soluble antioxidants compounds (S-allyl cysteine, S-allyl-mercapto cysteine), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, organosulfur compounds, polyphenol, volatile compounds, and products of other Millard reactions compared to fresh garlic after the thermal processing. Recent studies have demonstrated that BG and its bioactive compounds possess a wide range of biological activities and pharmacological properties that preserve and show better efficacy in preventing different types of diseases. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, hepatoprotection, hypolipidemia, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, immunomodulation, nephroprotection, cardiovascular protection, and neuroprotection. Substantial studies have been conducted on BG and its components against different common human diseases in the last few decades. Still, a lot of research is ongoing to find out the therapeutic effects of BG. Thus, in this review, we summarized the pre-clinical and clinical studies of BG and its bioactive compounds on human health along with diverse bioactivity, a related mode of action, and also future challenges.


Assuntos
Doença , Alho/química , Saúde , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10163-10173, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459194

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Garlic reportedly has various physiological effects, including a role in protecting against dementia. However, the action mechanisms of garlic on AD are not entirely clear. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of garlic essential oil (GEO) against AD-related enzymes and evaluated the distribution of active substances in GEO to the brain. We found that several sulfur compounds in GEO significantly inhibited AD-related enzymes. Sulfur compounds were detected in the serum and brain 6 h post administration. The ratios of allyl mercaptan (24.0 ± 3.9%) and allyl methyl sulfide (49.8 ± 15.6%) in the brain were significantly higher than those in GEO, while those of dimethyl trisulfide (0.89 ± 34.8%), allyl methyl trisulfide (0.41 ± 19.0%), and diallyl trisulfide (0.43 ± 72.8%) in the brain were significantly lower than those in GEO. Similar results were observed in the serum, suggesting that the organosulfur compounds were converted to allyl mercaptan or allyl methyl sulfide in the body. Although allyl mercaptan and allyl methyl sulfide are not the main components of GEO, they might be key molecules to understand the bioactivities of GEO in the body.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos , Doença de Alzheimer , Alho , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Óleos Voláteis , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo , Camundongos , Sulfetos , Compostos de Enxofre
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451006

RESUMO

Garlic is one of the main economic crops in China. Accurate and timely extraction of the garlic planting area is critical for adjusting the agricultural planting structure and implementing rural policy actions. Crop extraction methods based on remote sensing usually use spectral-temporal features. Still, for garlic extraction, most methods simply combine all multi-temporal images. There has been a lack of research on each band's function in each multi-temporal image and optimal bands combination. To systematically explore the potential of the multi-temporal method for garlic extraction, we obtained a series of Sentinel-2 images in the whole garlic growth cycle. The importance of each band in all these images was ranked by the random forest (RF) method. According to the importance score of each band, eight different multi-temporal combination schemes were designed. The RF classifier was employed to extract garlic planting area, and the accuracy of the eight schemes was compared. The results show that (1) the Scheme VI (the top 39 bands in importance score) achieved the best accuracy of 98.65%, which is 6% higher than the optimal mono-temporal (February, wintering period) result, and (2) the red-edge band and the shortwave-infrared band played an essential role in accurate garlic extraction. This study gives inspiration in selecting the remotely sensed data source, the band, and phenology for accurately extracting garlic planting area, which could be transferred to other sites with larger areas and similar agriculture structures.


Assuntos
Alho , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Estações do Ano
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443330

RESUMO

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a harmful substance generated during the processing of black garlic. Our previous research demonstrated that impregnation of black garlic with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) could reduce the formation of 5-HMF. However, there is still a lack of relevant research on the mechanism and structural identification of EGCG inhibiting the production of 5-HMF. In this study, an intermediate product of 5-HMF, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), was found to be decreased in black garlic during the aging process, and impregnation with EGCG for 24 h further reduced the formation of 3-DG by approximately 60% in black garlic compared with that in the untreated control. The aging-mimicking reaction system of 3-DG + EGCG was employed to determine whether the reduction of 3-DG was the underlying mechanism of decreased 5-HMF formation in EGCG-treated black garlic. The results showed that EGCG accelerated the decrease of 3-DG and further attenuated 5-HMF formation, which may be caused by an additional reaction with 3-DG, as evidenced by LC-MS/MS analysis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights regarding the role of EGCG in blocking 5-HMF formation.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiglucose/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Alho/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Desoxiglucose/biossíntese , Desoxiglucose/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Furaldeído/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444931

RESUMO

Over the centuries, humans have traditionally used garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a food ingredient (spice) and remedy for many diseases. To confirm this, many extensive studies recognized the therapeutic effects of garlic bulbs. More recently, black garlic (BG), made by heat-ageing white garlic bulbs, has increased its popularity in cuisine and traditional medicine around the world, but there is still limited information on its composition and potential beneficial effects. In this study, the metabolite profile of methanol extract of BG (BGE) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in high-resolution mode. Results allowed to establish that BGE major components were sulfur derivatives, saccharides, peptides, organic acids, a phenylpropanoid derivative, saponins, and compounds typical of glycerophospholipid metabolism. Characterization of the BGE action in cancer cells revealed that antioxidant, metabolic, and hepatoprotective effects occur upon treatment as well as induction of maturation of acute myeloid leukemia cells. These results are interesting from the impact point of view of BG consumption as a functional food for potential prevention of metabolic and tumor diseases.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Peptídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Saponinas/análise , Especiarias/análise , Enxofre/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Células U937
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259780

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Alho , Animais , Aquicultura , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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