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1.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(1): 116-124, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592387

RESUMO

Different genetic and environmental factors are implicated in type I diabetes (T1DM) pathogenesis. About 50% of the genetic susceptibility for T1DM is related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Other non-HLA genes have variable roles in the destruction of pancreatic ß cells. A highly variable gene called endoplasmic reticulum associated with antigen processing gene 1(ERAP1) shares in activating autoreactive CD8+ T lymphocytes, peptide trimming, and subsequent pancreatic ß cells destruction. Local production of inflammatory cytokines within the cells of islets of Langerhans is linked to T1DM progression. Different viral and autoimmune disorders have been linked to genetic variations in type III interferon (IFNλs). This study aimed to determine genetic polymorphisms of interferon lambda 4 (IFNλ4rs 73555604) and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases 1 (ERAP1 rs26618) in Egyptian patients with T1DM. The study recruited 120 patients with T1DM from Kafrelsheikh University Hospital and 100 normal controls who were age and sex matched with the patients' group. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of ERAP1(rs26618) and IFN-λ-4(rs73555604) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with CC genotype were less likely to develop T1DM than those with TC and TT genotypes for both genes. In addition, T allele frequency in comparison to C allele frequency was significantly increased in T1DM patients when compared to control group (p < 0.001). There were positive correlations between studied SNPs for both genes, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels which suggest the association of these genes with T1DM occurrence. We concluded that the studied SNPs of ERAP1gene (rs26618) and IFNλ-4 gene(rs73555604) may be associated with T1DM development. In addition, T alleles for both genes could be considered risk alleles while C alleles would be regarded as a protective allele. Patients with TC and TT genotypes would be at a higher risk for T1DM than those carrying CC genotype.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Egito , Aminopeptidases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Retículo Endoplasmático , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1292, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690679

RESUMO

Human metallothionein-2A (MT2A) protein participates in metal homeostasis, detoxification, oxidative stress reduction, and immune defense. It decreases heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) during injury of cells and tissues. The single nucleotide polymorphisms at the MT2A gene have been associated in various human diseases including cancer. The current study aimed to elucidate associations between MT2A genotypes with the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics that potentially related to lowered MT2A ex-pression. One hundred and forty-one healthy Taiwanese subjects were enrolled from Changhua Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital. Clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics including the frequent minor allele SNPs, rs28366003 and rs10636, within the MT2A gene were determined. The genotype distribution of MT2A rs10636 fits the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The significant associations with gradually decline of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were identified with MT2A rs10636 and rs28366003 using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's analysis as a post hoc test. We further validated the correlations between the expressions of genes in erythropoiesis, cholesterol synthesis, platelet synthesis, insulin with MT2A using the web-based Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases. The results revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), erythropoietin (EPO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) mRNA ex-pression are significantly correlated with MT2A mRNA expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that genetic variations of MT2A rs10636 and rs28366003 might be an important risk factor for erythropoiesis in the Taiwanese general population.


Assuntos
Índices de Eritrócitos , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Genótipo , Alelos , Metalotioneína/genética
3.
PeerJ ; 11: e14707, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691482

RESUMO

In mid-2021, the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant caused the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in several countries worldwide. The pivotal studies were aimed at studying changes in the efficiency of neutralizing antibodies to the spike protein. However, much less attention was paid to the T-cell response and the presentation of virus peptides by MHC-I molecules. In this study, we compared the features of the HLA-I genotype in symptomatic patients with COVID-19 in the first and third waves of the pandemic. As a result, we could identify the diminishing of carriers of the HLA-A*01:01 allele in the third wave and demonstrate the unique properties of this allele. Thus, HLA-A*01:01-binding immunoprevalent epitopes are mostly derived from ORF1ab. A set of epitopes from ORF1ab was tested, and their high immunogenicity was confirmed. Moreover, analysis of the results of single-cell phenotyping of T-cells in recovered patients showed that the predominant phenotype in HLA-A*01:01 carriers is central memory T-cells. The predominance of T-lymphocytes of this phenotype may contribute to forming long-term T-cell immunity in carriers of this allele. Our results can be the basis for highly effective vaccines based on ORF1ab peptides.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Alelos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antígenos HLA-A
5.
BMC Genom Data ; 24(1): 1, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I glycoproteins present selected peptides or antigens to CD8 + T cells that control the cytotoxic immune response. The MHC class I genes are among the most polymorphic loci in the vertebrate genome, with more than twenty thousand alleles known in humans. In sheep, only a very small number of alleles have been described to date, making the development of genotyping systems or functional studies difficult. A cost-effective way to identify new alleles could be to use already available RNA-Seq data from sheep. Current strategies for aligning RNA-Seq reads against annotated genome sequences or transcriptomes fail to detect the majority of class I alleles. Here, I combine the alignment of RNA-Seq reads against a specific reference database with de novo assembly to identify alleles. The method allows the comprehensive discovery of novel MHC class I alleles from RNA-Seq data (DinoMfRS). RESULTS: Using DinoMfRS, virtually all expressed MHC class I alleles could be determined. From 18 animals 75 MHC class I alleles were identified, of which 69 were novel. In addition, it was shown that DinoMfRS can be used to improve the annotation of MHC genes in the sheep genome sequence. CONCLUSIONS: DinoMfRS allows for the first time the annotation of unknown, more divergent MHC alleles from RNA-Seq data. Successful application to RNA-Seq data from 16 animals has approximately doubled the number of known alleles in sheep. By using existing data, alleles can now be determined very inexpensively for populations that have not been well studied. In addition, MHC expression studies or evolutionary studies, for example, can be greatly improved in this way, and the method should be applicable to a broader spectrum of other multigene families or highly polymorphic genes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Alelos , RNA-Seq
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 3, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597080

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of depression involves cAMP-response element binding protein1 (CREB1) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (GRM7), and their genetic polymorphisms may affect susceptibility to depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the CREB1 polymorphisms rs2253206 and rs10932201 and the GRM7 polymorphism rs162209 are associated with the risk of depression. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing, we analyzed the rs2253206, rs10932201, and rs162209 frequencies in 479 patients with depression and 329 normal controls. The results showed that the rs2253206 and rs10932201 polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of depression. However, no association was found between rs162209 and depression risk. When the data were stratified for several disease-related variables, none of the three polymorphisms were found to be correlated to onset, disease severity, family history, or suicidal tendency. Thus, the present findings indicate that the CREB1 polymorphisms rs2253206 and rs10932201 may be related to the occurrence of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Genótipo , Depressão/genética , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética
7.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 21, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624201

RESUMO

Global warming poses a major threat to food security and necessitates the development of crop varieties that are resilient to future climatic instability. By evaluating 149 spring wheat lines in the field under yield potential and heat stressed conditions, we demonstrate how strategic integration of exotic material significantly increases yield under heat stress compared to elite lines, with no significant yield penalty under favourable conditions. Genetic analyses reveal three exotic-derived genetic loci underlying this heat tolerance which together increase yield by over 50% and reduce canopy temperature by approximately 2 °C. We identified an Ae. tauschii introgression underlying the most significant of these associations and extracted the introgressed Ae. tauschii genes, revealing candidates for further dissection. Incorporating these exotic alleles into breeding programmes could serve as a pre-emptive strategy to produce high yielding wheat cultivars that are resilient to the effects of future climatic uncertainty.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Termotolerância/genética , Alelos , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 564, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631531

RESUMO

Allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis detects the relative abundance of alleles at heterozygous loci as a proxy for cis-regulatory variation, which affects the personal transcriptome and proteome. This study describes the development and application of an ASE analysis pipeline on a unique cohort of 87 well phenotyped and RNA sequenced patients from the Maastricht Cardiomyopathy Registry with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a complex genetic disorder with a remaining gap in explained heritability. Regulatory processes for which ASE is a proxy might explain this gap. We found an overrepresentation of known DCM-associated genes among the significant results across the cohort. In addition, we were able to find genes of interest that have not been associated with DCM through conventional methods such as genome-wide association or differential gene expression studies. The pipeline offers RNA sequencing data processing, individual and population level ASE analyses as well as group comparisons and several intuitive visualizations such as Manhattan plots and protein-protein interaction networks. With this pipeline, we found evidence supporting the case that cis-regulatory variation contributes to the phenotypic heterogeneity of DCM. Additionally, our results highlight that ASE analysis offers an additional layer to conventional genomic and transcriptomic analyses for candidate gene identification and biological insight.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Humanos , Alelos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 622, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635358

RESUMO

It has been shown that living in risky environments, as well as having a risky occupation, can moderate risk-tolerance. Despite the involvement of dopamine in the expectation of reward described by neurobiologists, a GWAS study was not able to demonstrate a genetic contribution of genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway in risk attitudes and gene candidate studies gave contrasting results. We test the possibility that a genetic effect of the DRD4-7R allele in risk-taking behavior could be modulated by environmental factors. We show that the increase in risk-tolerance due to the 7R allele is independent of the environmental risk in two populations in Northern Senegal, one of which is exposed to a very high risk due to dangerous fishing.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Receptores de Dopamina D4 , Alelos , Genótipo , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Senegal , Humanos
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 86(1): 47-51, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanded HTT alleles with 40 or more CAG repeats were recently found to be a rare cause of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spectrum diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HTT repeat expansions in a Taiwanese cohort with ALS. METHODS: We analyzed the numbers of CAG repeats in exon 1 of HTT in a cohort of 410 Taiwanese patients with ALS and 1514 control individuals by utilizing polymerase chain reaction and amplicon fragment length analysis. RESULTS: Only one of the 410 ALS patients carried a reduced-penetrance HD-causing allele with 39 CAG repeats, and none had an expanded HTT CAG repeats ≥40. The patient presented with rapidly progressive bulbar-onset ALS with disease onset at the age of 64 years. He had neither chorea nor cognitive impairment. He had a family history of chorea, but no other family member manifested with ALS. None of the 1514 control individuals carried an HTT expanded allele with CAG repeats larger than 37 repeats. CONCLUSION: The HTT allele with 39 CAG repeats could be a genetic factor linked to ALS susceptibility.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Coreia , Doença de Huntington , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alelos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Coreia/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Penetrância , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 490, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627439

RESUMO

Mercaptopurine intolerance is an adverse effect of mercaptopurine administration in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). NUDT15 variants have emerged as major determinants of mercaptopurine intolerance, especially in the Asian population. Two variants, c.55_56insGAGTCG in exon 1 and c.415C > T in exon 3, were commonly detected in the same allele, named NUDT15*1/*2. Although rare, compound heterozygous mutations also occur, with the two variants on different alleles (NUDT15*3/*6), which may confer tolerance to considerably lesser mercaptopurine dosage. Sanger sequencing or pyrosequencing can determine the NUDT15 variants but not the phase. Here, we designed an allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) with locked nucleic acid-modified primers. A cohort of 63 patients harboring heterozygous c.55_56insGAGTCG and c.415C > T NUDT15 variations was selected for haplotyping using AS-PCR. Of the 63 patients, 60 harbored the NUDT15*1/*2 variant and three harbored compound heterozygous mutations, including two NUDT15*3/*6 and one NUDT15*2/*7 variants. These findings suggest that AS-PCR can determine NUDT15 diplotype and identify patients with compound heterozygous NUDT15 variants, which may enable precise genetic diagnosis of NUDT15. Nevertheless, a larger clinical trial is required to understand the clinical significance of NUDT15*3/*6 in pediatric patients with ALL because of its low incidence rate and challenges in detecting this variant.


Assuntos
Mercaptopurina , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , Criança , Mercaptopurina/efeitos adversos , Alelos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pirofosfatases/genética
12.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 12, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in various disease symptoms and severity, ranging from asymptomatic, through mildly symptomatic, up to very severe and even fatal cases. Although environmental, clinical, and social factors play important roles in both susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and progress of COVID-19 disease, it is becoming evident that both pathogen and host genetic factors are important too. In this study, we report findings from whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 27 individuals who died due to COVID-19, especially focusing on frequencies of DNA variants in genes previously associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: We selected the risk DNA variants/alleles or target genes using four different approaches: 1) aggregated GWAS results from the GWAS Catalog; 2) selected publications from PubMed; 3) the aggregated results of the Host Genetics Initiative database; and 4) a commercial DNA variant annotation/interpretation tool providing its own knowledgebase. We divided these variants/genes into those reported to influence the susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and those influencing the severity of COVID-19. Based on the above, we compared the frequencies of alleles found in the fatal COVID-19 cases to the frequencies identified in two population control datasets (non-Finnish European population from the gnomAD database and genomic frequencies specific for the Slovak population from our own database). When compared to both control population datasets, our analyses indicated a trend of higher frequencies of severe COVID-19 associated risk alleles among fatal COVID-19 cases. This trend reached statistical significance specifically when using the HGI-derived variant list. We also analysed other approaches to WES data evaluation, demonstrating its utility as well as limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results proved the likely involvement of host genetic factors pointed out by previous studies looking into severity of COVID-19 disease, careful considerations of the molecular-testing strategies and the evaluated genomic positions may have a strong impact on the utility of genomic testing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Alelos , DNA
13.
Iran J Med Sci ; 48(1): 70-76, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688194

RESUMO

Background: Genetic diversity in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles across populations is a significant risk factor for drug-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), e.g., carbamazepine (CBZ)- and lamotrigine (LTG)-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of different HLA alleles in Iranian patients with CBZ- and LTG-induced SJS/TEN. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from 2011 to 2018 at various hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran). A total of 31 patients receiving anticonvulsant drugs (CZB or LTG) were recruited and divided into two groups. The drug-induced group (n=14) included hospitalized patients due to CBZ- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN. The drug-tolerant group (n=17) included individuals receiving CBZ or LTG for at least three months with no adverse effects. In addition, 46 healthy individuals (control group) were recruited. The frequency of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles in patients with CZB- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN was investigated. HLA typing was performed using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. The Chi square test and Fisher's exact test were used to determine a potential association between SJS/TEN and HLA alleles. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: CBZ- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN was not significantly associated with HLA alleles. However, HLA-DRB1*01 showed a significantly higher frequency in patients with CBZ-induced SJS/TEN than the CBZ-tolerant patients (30% vs. 9%, P=0.07). Conclusion: Overall, no significant association was found between CBZ- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN and HLA alleles. Further large-scale studies are required to substantiate our findings.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Irã (Geográfico) , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Carbamazepina/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas
14.
Clin Lab ; 69(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal was to identify a novel FUT1 allele and to study serologic and gene feature of the para-Bombay blood type of one expectant mother in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: ABO and Lewis groups were recognized by standard serologic techniques in an ABO typing discrepancy specimen from one person at the Tianjin Blood Center. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) was collected and polymerase chain reactions with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) were performed to sequence exons 6 and 7 of ABO gene, exon 4 of FUT1 gene, and exon 2 of FUT2. PCR products were sequenced to identify ABO groups and the variation sites. The genotype was determined by family study. RESULTS: In our laboratory testing, erythrocytes from the proposita did not react with anti-A and anti-B reagents. B antigen was discovered only after adsorption and elution. Red cells were nonreactive with monoclonal anti-H. The sera of the proposita contained anti-A and were weakly agglutinated by B cells. The hybrid 902 A>G mutation was detected in the proposita's father and mother. The proposita has the same mutation 902 A>G, which was conjectured as homozygosity for 902 A>G. CONCLUSIONS: One novel mutation of FUT1 gene was observed in our laboratory. It has never been reported previously. The para-Bombay phenotype in the proposita originating from Xinjiang (China) results from homozygosity for FUT1 902 A>G, together with 357 C>T of FUT2.


Assuntos
Fucosiltransferases , Humanos , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Alelos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Fucosiltransferases/genética
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 18(1): 13, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare recessive genetic disease characterized by disruption of bile acid synthesis due to inactivation of the CYP27A1 gene. Treatment is available in the form of bile acid replacement. CTX is likely underdiagnosed, and prevalence estimates based on case diagnosis are probably inaccurate. Large population-based genomic databases are a valuable resource to estimate prevalence of rare recessive diseases as an orthogonal unbiased approach building upon traditional epidemiological studies. METHODS: We leveraged the Hardy-Weinberg principle and allele frequencies from gnomAD to calculate CTX prevalence. ClinVar and HGMD were used to identify high-confidence pathogenic missense variants and to calculate a disease-specific cutoff. Variant pathogenicity was also assessed by the VarSome implementation of the ACMG/AMP algorithm and the REVEL in silico predictor. RESULTS: CTX prevalence estimates were highest in Asians (1:44,407-93,084) and lowest in the Finnish population (1:3,388,767). Intermediate estimates were found in Europeans, Americans, and Africans/African Americans (1:70,795-233,597). The REVEL-predicted pathogenic variants accounted for a greater increase in prevalence estimates for Europeans, Americans, and Africans/African Americans compared with Asians. We identified the most frequent alleles designated pathogenic in ClinVar (p.Gly472Ala, p.Arg395Cys), labeled pathogenic based on sequence consequence (p.Met1?), and predicted to be pathogenic by REVEL (p.Met383Lys, p.Arg448His) across populations. Also, we provide a prospective geographic map of estimated disease distribution based on CYP27A1 variation queries performed by healthcare providers from selected specialties. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence estimates calculated herein support and expand upon existing evidence indicating underdiagnosis of CTX, suggesting that improved detection strategies are needed. Increased awareness of CTX is important for early diagnosis, which is essential for patients as early treatment significantly slows or prevents disease progression.


Assuntos
Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa , Humanos , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/epidemiologia , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/genética , Alelos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares
16.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678241

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported that the SIDT2 and ABCA1 genes are involved in lipid metabolism. We aimed to analyze the association-the gene x gene interaction between rs17120425 and rs1784042 on SIDT2 and rs9282541 on ABCA1 and their diet interaction on the HDL-c serum levels-in a cohort of 1982 Mexican adults from the Health Workers Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical data were collected through a structured questionnaire and standardized procedures. Genotyping was performed using a predesigned TaqMan assay. The associations and interactions of interest were estimated using linear and logistic regression. Carriers of the rs17120425-A and rs1784042-A alleles had slightly higher blood HDL-c levels compared to the non-carriers. In contrast, rs9282541-A was associated with low blood HDL-c levels (OR = 1.34, p = 0.013). The rs1784042 x rs9282541 interaction was associated with high blood HDL-c levels (p = 3.4 × 10-4). Premenopausal women who carried at least one rs17120425-A allele and consumed high dietary fat, protein, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids levels had higher HDL-c levels than the non-carriers. These results support the association between the genetic variants on SIDT2 and ABCA1 with HDL-c levels and suggest gene-gene and gene-diet interactions over HDL-c concentrations in Mexican adults. Our findings could be a platform for developing clinical and dietary strategies for improving the health of the Mexican population.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleotídeos , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , HDL-Colesterol , Alelos , Nutrientes , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleotídeos/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 830, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646847

RESUMO

Plant breeding efforts to boost rice productivity have focused on developing a haploid development pipeline. CENH3 gene has emerged as a leading player that can be manipulated to engineer haploid induction system. Currently, allele mining for the OsCENH3 gene was done by PCR-based resequencing of 33 wild species accessions of genus Oryza and in silico mining of alleles from pre-existing data. We have identified and characterized CENH3 variants in genus Oryza. Our results indicated that the majority CENH3 alleles present in the Oryza gene pool carry synonymous substitutions. A few non-synonymous substitutions occur in the N-terminal Tail domain (NTT). SNP A/G at position 69 was found in accessions of AA genome and non-AA genome species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that non-synonymous substitutions carrying alleles follow pre-determined evolutionary patterns. O. longistaminata accessions carry SNPs in four codons along with indels in introns 3 and 6. Fifteen haplotypes were mined from our panel; representative mutant alleles exhibited structural variations upon modeling. Structural analysis indicated that more than one structural variant may be exhibited by different accessions of single species (Oryza barthii). NTT allelic mutants, though not directly implicated in HI, may show variable interactions. HI and interactive behavior could be ascertained in future investigations.


Assuntos
Oryza , Alelos , Filogenia , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Evolução Biológica
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674965

RESUMO

Asexual lineages are perceived to be short-lived on evolutionary timescales. Hence, reports for exceptional cases of putative 'ancient asexuals' usually raise questions about the persistence of such species. So far, there have been few studies to solve the mystery in plants. The monotypic Kingdonia dating to the early Eocene, contains only K. uniflora that has no known definitive evidence for sexual reproduction nor records for having congeneric sexual species, raising the possibility that the species has persisted under strict asexuality for a long period of time. Here, we analyze whole genome polymorphism and divergence in K. uniflora. Our results show that K. uniflora is characterized by high allelic heterozygosity and elevated πN/πS ratio, in line with theoretical expectations under asexual evolution. Allele frequency spectrum analysis reveals the origin of asexuality in K. uniflora occurred prior to lineage differentiation of the species. Although divergence within K. uniflora individuals exceeds that between populations, the topologies of the two haplotype trees, however, fail to match each other, indicating long-term asexuality is unlikely to account for the high allele divergence and K. uniflora may have a recent hybrid origin. Phi-test shows a statistical probability of recombination for the conflicting phylogenetic signals revealed by the split network, suggesting K. uniflora engages in undetected sexual reproduction. Detection of elevated genetic differentiation and premature stop codons (in some populations) in genes regulating seed development indicates mutational degradation of sexuality-specific genes in K. uniflora. This study unfolds the origin and persistence mechanism of a plant lineage that has been known to reproduce asexually and presents the genomic consequences of lack of sexuality.


Assuntos
Ranunculales , Reprodução Assexuada , Humanos , Filogenia , Reprodução Assexuada/genética , Metagenômica , Sexualidade , Genômica , Alelos , Sementes
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675168

RESUMO

Indica(xian)-japonica(geng) hybrid rice has many heterosis traits that can improve rice yield. However, the traditional hybrid technology will struggle to meet future needs for the development of higher-yield rice. Available genomics resources can be used to efficiently understand the gene-trait association trait for rice breeding. Based on the previously constructed high-density genetic map of 272 high-generation recombinant inbred lines (RILs) originating from the cross of Luohui 9 (indica, as female) and RPY geng (japonica, as male) and high-quality genomes of parents, here, we further explore the genetic basis for an important complex trait: possible causes of grain number per panicle (GNPP). A total of 20 genes related to grains number per panicle (GNPP) with the differences of protein amino acid between LH9 and RPY were used to analyze genotype combinations, and PCA results showed a combination of PLY1, LAX1, DTH8 and OSH1 from the RPY geng with PYL4, SP1, DST and GNP1 from Luohui 9 increases GNPP. In addition, we also found that the combination of LAX1-T2 and GNP1-T3 had the most significant increase in GNPP. Notably, Molecular Breeding Knowledgebase (MBK) showed a few aggregated rice cultivars, LAX1-T2 and GNP1-T3, which may be a result of the natural geographic isolation between the two gene haplotypes. Therefore, we speculate that the pyramiding of japonica-type LAX-T2 with indica-type GNP1-T3 via hybridization can significantly improve rice yield by increasing GNPP.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Hibridização Genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Alelos
20.
Genome Biol ; 24(1): 11, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658652

RESUMO

Measuring allele-specific expression in interspecies hybrids is a powerful way to detect cis-regulatory changes underlying adaptation. However, it remains difficult to identify genes most likely to explain species-specific traits. Here, we outline a simple strategy that leverages population-scale allele-specific RNA-seq data to identify genes that show constrained cis-regulation within species yet show divergence between species. Applying this strategy to data from human-chimpanzee hybrid cortical organoids, we identify signatures of lineage-specific selection on genes related to saccharide metabolism, neurodegeneration, and primary cilia. We also highlight cis-regulatory divergence in CUX1 and EDNRB that may shape the trajectory of human brain development.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Organoides , Humanos , Alelos , Pan troglodytes , Animais
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