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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130740, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375891

RESUMO

Traditional sample preparation methods for insecticide analysis are laborious and fatal to living organisms. In the work, an in vivo sampling rate calibrated-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established and successfully used for in vivo sampling and quantitative determination of three insecticides (hexachlorobenzene, fipronil and chlorfenapyr) by direct exposing micron-sized fiber in living garlic. Absorption, enrichment, migration and elimination behavior of insecticides in garlic were investigated. Bioaccumulative effects with obvious tissue differences were observed to all three insecticides, especially for chlorfenapyr. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.0342 to 1.0887 were obtained, and the closer to roots, the higher BCFs. The half-life of insecticides in garlic ranged from 0.43 to 0.96 d. In the first 24 h, 55.0% - 80.3% insecticides residues in garlic were eliminated with first-order elimination kinetics. The research provides in vivo insights into the environmental fates of insecticides in complex living system with minimized organism damage.


Assuntos
Alho , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502163

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important vegetable and is cultivated and consumed worldwide for its economic and medicinal values. Garlic cloves, the major reproductive and edible organs, are derived from the axillary meristems. KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins, such as SHOOT MERISTEM-LESS (STM), play important roles in axillary meristem formation and development. However, the KNOX proteins in garlic are still poorly known. Here, 10 AsKNOX genes, scattered on 5 of the 8 chromosomes, were genome-wide identified and characterized based on the newly released garlic genome. The typical conserved domains of KNOX proteins were owned by all these 10 AsKNOX homologs, which were divided into two Classes (Class I and Class II) based on the phylogenetic analysis. Prediction and verification of the subcellular localizations revealed the diverse subcellular localization of these 10 AsKNOX proteins. Cis-element prediction, tissue expression analysis, and expression profilings in responding to exogenous GA3 and 6-BA showed the potential involvement of AsKNOX genes in the gibberellin and cytokinin signaling pathways. Overall, the results of this work provided a better understanding of AsKNOX genes in garlic and laid an important foundation for their further functional studies.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Alho/genética , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alho/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500571

RESUMO

In isoprenaline (ISO)-induced myocardial infarcted rats, garlic oil (GO) and its main ingredient, diallyl disulfide (DADS), were examined for cardioprotective effects when used with carvedilol (CAR). GO, DADS and CAR were given to rats in their respective groups, either alone or together, with the addition of isoprenaline (3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) during the last 10 days of treatment. At the end of 14 days of treatment, blood samples were collected, the hearts were excised under anesthesia and weighed. Heart tissue homogenate was used to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Furthermore, the serum activities of cardiac markers, including lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin, were checked. Moreover, inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin one beta, interleukin six, and kappa bp65 subunit were assessed. Rats that received GO, DADS, and CAR exhibited a significant increase in the cardiac antioxidant enzyme activities with a simultaneous decrease in serum cardiac markers enzymes and inflammatory markers. The TBARS were significantly reduced in rats that received treatment. The addition of carvedilol to GO or DADS significantly elevated antioxidant activities and decreased the release of cardiac enzymes into blood circulation. Both DADS and GOl were almost similar in efficacy, indicating the potential role of DADS in garlic oil-mediated cardioprotection. Combining GO or DADS with CAR increased CAR's cardioprotective impact and protected rats from developing ISO-induced myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Carvedilol/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443625

RESUMO

Black garlic (BG) is a form of aged garlic obtained from raw garlic (Allium sativum) via Millard reaction under high temperature (60-90 °C) and humidity (70-90%) for a period of time. Several studies reported higher contents of water-soluble antioxidants compounds (S-allyl cysteine, S-allyl-mercapto cysteine), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, organosulfur compounds, polyphenol, volatile compounds, and products of other Millard reactions compared to fresh garlic after the thermal processing. Recent studies have demonstrated that BG and its bioactive compounds possess a wide range of biological activities and pharmacological properties that preserve and show better efficacy in preventing different types of diseases. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, hepatoprotection, hypolipidemia, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, immunomodulation, nephroprotection, cardiovascular protection, and neuroprotection. Substantial studies have been conducted on BG and its components against different common human diseases in the last few decades. Still, a lot of research is ongoing to find out the therapeutic effects of BG. Thus, in this review, we summarized the pre-clinical and clinical studies of BG and its bioactive compounds on human health along with diverse bioactivity, a related mode of action, and also future challenges.


Assuntos
Doença , Alho/química , Saúde , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10163-10173, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459194

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Garlic reportedly has various physiological effects, including a role in protecting against dementia. However, the action mechanisms of garlic on AD are not entirely clear. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of garlic essential oil (GEO) against AD-related enzymes and evaluated the distribution of active substances in GEO to the brain. We found that several sulfur compounds in GEO significantly inhibited AD-related enzymes. Sulfur compounds were detected in the serum and brain 6 h post administration. The ratios of allyl mercaptan (24.0 ± 3.9%) and allyl methyl sulfide (49.8 ± 15.6%) in the brain were significantly higher than those in GEO, while those of dimethyl trisulfide (0.89 ± 34.8%), allyl methyl trisulfide (0.41 ± 19.0%), and diallyl trisulfide (0.43 ± 72.8%) in the brain were significantly lower than those in GEO. Similar results were observed in the serum, suggesting that the organosulfur compounds were converted to allyl mercaptan or allyl methyl sulfide in the body. Although allyl mercaptan and allyl methyl sulfide are not the main components of GEO, they might be key molecules to understand the bioactivities of GEO in the body.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos , Doença de Alzheimer , Alho , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Óleos Voláteis , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo , Camundongos , Sulfetos , Compostos de Enxofre
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451006

RESUMO

Garlic is one of the main economic crops in China. Accurate and timely extraction of the garlic planting area is critical for adjusting the agricultural planting structure and implementing rural policy actions. Crop extraction methods based on remote sensing usually use spectral-temporal features. Still, for garlic extraction, most methods simply combine all multi-temporal images. There has been a lack of research on each band's function in each multi-temporal image and optimal bands combination. To systematically explore the potential of the multi-temporal method for garlic extraction, we obtained a series of Sentinel-2 images in the whole garlic growth cycle. The importance of each band in all these images was ranked by the random forest (RF) method. According to the importance score of each band, eight different multi-temporal combination schemes were designed. The RF classifier was employed to extract garlic planting area, and the accuracy of the eight schemes was compared. The results show that (1) the Scheme VI (the top 39 bands in importance score) achieved the best accuracy of 98.65%, which is 6% higher than the optimal mono-temporal (February, wintering period) result, and (2) the red-edge band and the shortwave-infrared band played an essential role in accurate garlic extraction. This study gives inspiration in selecting the remotely sensed data source, the band, and phenology for accurately extracting garlic planting area, which could be transferred to other sites with larger areas and similar agriculture structures.


Assuntos
Alho , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Estações do Ano
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443330

RESUMO

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a harmful substance generated during the processing of black garlic. Our previous research demonstrated that impregnation of black garlic with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) could reduce the formation of 5-HMF. However, there is still a lack of relevant research on the mechanism and structural identification of EGCG inhibiting the production of 5-HMF. In this study, an intermediate product of 5-HMF, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), was found to be decreased in black garlic during the aging process, and impregnation with EGCG for 24 h further reduced the formation of 3-DG by approximately 60% in black garlic compared with that in the untreated control. The aging-mimicking reaction system of 3-DG + EGCG was employed to determine whether the reduction of 3-DG was the underlying mechanism of decreased 5-HMF formation in EGCG-treated black garlic. The results showed that EGCG accelerated the decrease of 3-DG and further attenuated 5-HMF formation, which may be caused by an additional reaction with 3-DG, as evidenced by LC-MS/MS analysis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights regarding the role of EGCG in blocking 5-HMF formation.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiglucose/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Alho/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Desoxiglucose/biossíntese , Desoxiglucose/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Furaldeído/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444931

RESUMO

Over the centuries, humans have traditionally used garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a food ingredient (spice) and remedy for many diseases. To confirm this, many extensive studies recognized the therapeutic effects of garlic bulbs. More recently, black garlic (BG), made by heat-ageing white garlic bulbs, has increased its popularity in cuisine and traditional medicine around the world, but there is still limited information on its composition and potential beneficial effects. In this study, the metabolite profile of methanol extract of BG (BGE) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in high-resolution mode. Results allowed to establish that BGE major components were sulfur derivatives, saccharides, peptides, organic acids, a phenylpropanoid derivative, saponins, and compounds typical of glycerophospholipid metabolism. Characterization of the BGE action in cancer cells revealed that antioxidant, metabolic, and hepatoprotective effects occur upon treatment as well as induction of maturation of acute myeloid leukemia cells. These results are interesting from the impact point of view of BG consumption as a functional food for potential prevention of metabolic and tumor diseases.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Peptídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Saponinas/análise , Especiarias/análise , Enxofre/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Células U937
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371842

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of a garlic hydroalcoholic extract on the burden of oxidative stress and inflammation occurring on mouse heart specimens exposed to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a well-established inflammatory stimulus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) technique was applied to determine the volatile fraction of the garlic powder, and the HS-SPME conditions were optimized for each of the most representative classes of compounds. CIEL*a*b* colorimetric analyses were performed on the powder sample at the time of delivery, after four and after eight months of storage at room temperature in the dark, to evaluate the color changing. Freshly prepared hydroalcoholic extract was also evaluated in its color character. Furthermore, the hydroalcoholic extract was analyzed through GC-MS. The extract was found to be able to significantly inhibit LPS-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 8-iso-PGF2α levels, as well as mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), in heart specimens. Concluding, our findings showed that the garlic hydroalcoholic extract exhibited cardioprotective effects on multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Microextração em Fase Sólida
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361695

RESUMO

The active ingredients allicin and curcumin have a wide range of actions against fungi, bacteria, and helminths. Therefore, the study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of allicin (AL) and curcumin (CU) as antischistosomal drugs and their biochemical effects in normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Praziquantel (PZQ) was administrated for two successive days while AL or CU was given for two weeks from the week 7th postinfection (PI). The possible effect of different regimens on Schistosoma worms was evaluated by measuring the percentage of the recovered worms, tissue egg load, and oogram pattern. Serum alanine transaminase activity and levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and uric acid were measured. Liver tissue malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels besides, the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were assessed for the oxidative/antioxidant condition. DNA electrophoresis of liver tissue was used to indicate the degree of fragmentation. There was a significant reduction in the recovered worms and egg load, with a marked change of oogram pattern in all treated groups with PZQ, AL, and CU in comparison with infected-untreated mice. PZQ, AL, and CU prevented most of the hematological and biochemical disorders, as well as significantly improved the antioxidant capacity and enhanced DNA fragmentation in the liver tissue of schistosomiasis mice compared to the infected-untreated group. These promising results suggest that AL and CU are efficient as antischistosomal drugs, and it would be beneficial to test their combination to understand the mechanism of action and the proper period of treatment leading to the best result.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Dissulfetos/uso terapêutico , Alho/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Sulfínicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259780

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Alho , Animais , Aquicultura , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206508

RESUMO

Plants of the genus Allium developed a diversity of defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi of the genus Fusarium, including transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. However, the information on the regulation of PR factors in garlic (Allium sativum L.) is limited. In the present study, we identified AsPR genes putatively encoding PR1, PR2, PR4, and PR5 proteins in A. sativum cv. Ershuizao, which may be involved in the defense against Fusarium infection. The promoters of the AsPR1-5 genes contained jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, gibberellin-, abscisic acid-, auxin-, ethylene-, and stress-responsive elements associated with the response to plant parasites. The expression of AsPR1c, d, g, k, AsPR2b, AsPR5a, c (in roots), and AsPR4a(c), b, and AsPR2c (in stems and cloves) significantly differed between garlic cultivars resistant and susceptible to Fusarium rot, suggesting that it could define the PR protein-mediated protection against Fusarium infection in garlic. Our results provide insights into the role of PR factors in A. sativum and may be useful for breeding programs to increase the resistance of Allium crops to Fusarium infections.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Alho/genética , Alho/microbiologia , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Família Multigênica , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Fusarium/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202675

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a perennial bulbous plant. Due to its clonal propagation, various diseases threaten the yield and quality of garlic. In this study, we conducted in silico analysis to identify microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, and viruses in six different tissues using garlic RNA-sequencing data. The number of identified microbial species was the highest in inflorescences, followed by flowers and bulb cloves. With the Kraken2 tool, 57% of identified microbial reads were assigned to bacteria and 41% were assigned to viruses. Fungi only made up 1% of microbial reads. At the species level, Streptomyces lividans was the most dominant bacteria while Fusarium pseudograminearum was the most abundant fungi. Several allexiviruses were identified. Of them, the most abundant virus was garlic virus C followed by shallot virus X. We obtained a total of 14 viral genome sequences for four allexiviruses. As we expected, the microbial community varied depending on the tissue types, although there was a dominant microorganism in each tissue. In addition, we found that Kraken2 was a very powerful and efficient tool for the bacteria using RNA-sequencing data with some limitations for virome study.


Assuntos
Alho/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
Toxicon ; 200: 30-37, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217748

RESUMO

Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxic cyanotoxins implicated in several incidents of human and animal toxicity. Microcystin-(Lysine, Arginine) or MC-LR is the most toxic and encountered variant of MCs where oxidative stress plays a key role in its toxicity. This study investigated the oxidative damages induced in the liver and heart of Balb/C mice by an intraperitoneal injected acute dose of MC-LR. Thereafter, the potential protective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract supplementation against such damages was assessed through the evaluation of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity markers. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), carbonyl content (CC), glutathione content (GSH), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities were measured. Results showed important oxidative damages in hepatic and cardiac cells of mice injected with the toxin. However, these damages have been significantly reduced in mice supplemented with garlic extract. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time the effective use of garlic as an antioxidant agent against oxidative damages induced by MC-LR. As well, this study supports the use of garlic as a potential remedy against pathologies related to toxic agents.


Assuntos
Alho , Microcistinas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas , Camundongos , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071846

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the potential interaction of aged garlic extract (AGE) with carvedilol (CAR), as well as to investigate the role of S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an active constituent of AGE, in rats with isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial dysfunction. At the end of three weeks of treatment with AGE (2 and 5 mL/kg) or SAC (13.1 and 32.76 mg/kg), either alone or along with CAR (10 mg/kg) in the respective groups of animals, ISO was administered subcutaneously to induce myocardial damage. Myocardial infarction (MI) diagnostic predictor enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine kinase (CK-MB), were measured in both serum and heart tissue homogenates (HTH). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were estimated in HTH. When compared with other groups, the combined therapy of high doses of AGE and SAC given alone or together with CAR caused a significant decrease in serum LDH and CK-MB activities. Further, significant rise in the LDH and CK-MB activities in HTH was noticed in the combined groups of AGE and SAC with CAR. It was also observed that both doses of AGE and SAC significantly increased endogenous antioxidants in HTH. Furthermore, histopathological observations corroborated the biochemical findings. The cytoprotective potential of SAC and AGE were dose-dependent, and SAC was more potent than AGE. The protection offered by aged garlic may be attributed to SAC. Overall, the results indicated that a high dose of AGE and its constituent SAC, when combined with carvedilol, has a synergistic effect in preventing morphological and physiological changes in the myocardium during ISO-induced myocardial damage.


Assuntos
Carvedilol/administração & dosagem , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Alho/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Cisteína/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Isoproterenol/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Necrose , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1179-1198, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164770

RESUMO

The aquaculture industry's rapid growth to meet commercial demand can trigger an outbreak of infectious diseases due to high-density farming. Antibiotic overuse and misuse in fish farming and its global health consequences have led to searching for more natural alternatives such as medicinal plants. In this sense, garlic (Allium sativum) has different bioactive compounds with biological properties for animal health. Among them are the ajoene, alliin, and allicin, which confer biological properties such as growth promotion, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, and antiparasitic. Ways to use garlic in aquaculture include oil, fresh mash, aqueous extract, and garlic powder. The powder presentation is the most used in aquaculture; it is generally applied by oral administration, adding to the feed, and the dose used ranges from 0.05 to 40 g/kg of feed. Garlic has been used in the aquaculture of different species such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), catfish (Clarias gariepinus), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and barramundi (Lates calcarifer). In addition to its properties, garlic's usage became popular, thanks to its low cost, easy incorporation into food, and little environmental impact. Therefore, its application can be an effective solution to combat diseases, improve organisms' health using natural supplies, and as an alternative to antibiotics. This review reports and discusses plant-derived products' beneficial properties, emphasizing garlic and its usages in fish aquaculture.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Alho , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia
17.
Mol Ecol ; 30(15): 3716-3729, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087027

RESUMO

Speciation proceeds through mechanisms that promote reproductive isolation and shape the extent of genetic variation in natural populations, and thus its study is essential to understand the evolutionary processes leading to increased biodiversity. Chromosomal rearrangements are known to facilitate reproductive isolation by hybrid sterility and favour speciation events. The genus Ipheion (Amaryllidaceae, Allioideae) is unique as its species exhibit a remarkable karyological variability but lack population-level genetic data. To unveil the diversification processes acting upon the formation of new lineages within Ipheion in the Pampas of South America, we combined morphology and karyology approaches with genotyping-by-sequencing. Our phylogenomic and population genomics results supported the taxonomic division of Ipheion into three morphological and genetically well-differentiated groups. The origin of Ipheion uniflorum was traced back to its current southern distribution area in the southern Pampean region (in Argentina), from where it had expanded to the north reaching Uruguay. Our results further suggested that chromosome rearrangements and ploidy shifts had triggered speciation events, first during the origin of I. uniflorum and later during its subsequent diversification into I. recurvifolium and I. tweedieanum, in both cases reinforced by extrinsic factors and biogeographical settings. The current study illustrates the analytical power of multidisciplinary approaches integrating phylo- and population genomics with classic analyses to reveal evolutionary processes in plants.


Assuntos
Alho , Evolução Biológica , Especiação Genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Isolamento Reprodutivo
18.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063337

RESUMO

The functional food market is growing with a compound annual growth rate of 7.9%. Thai food recipes use several kinds of herbs. Lemongrass, garlic, and turmeric are ingredients used in Thai curry paste. Essential oils released in the preparation step create the flavor and fragrance of the famous tom yum and massaman dishes. While the biological activities of these ingredients have been investigated, including the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the responses to the essential oils of these plants. To investigate the effects of essential oil inhalation on the brain and mood responses, electroencephalography was carried out during the non-task resting state, and self-assessment of the mood state was performed. The essential oils were prepared in several dilutions in the range of the supra-threshold level. The results show that Litsea cubeba oil inhalation showed a sedative effect, observed from alpha and beta wave power reductions. The frontal and temporal regions of the brain were involved in the wave alterations. Garlic oil increased the alpha wave power at lower concentrations; however, a sedative effect was also observed at higher concentrations. Lower dilution oil induced changes in the fast alpha activity in the frontal region. The alpha and beta wave powers were decreased with higher dilution oils, particularly in the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Both Litsea cubeba and turmeric oils resulted in better positive moods than garlic oil. Garlic oil caused more negative moods than the others. The psychophysiological activities and the related brain functions require further investigation. The knowledge obtained from this study may be used to design functional food products.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Alho/química , Litsea/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Administração por Inalação , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimento Funcional/economia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133490

RESUMO

Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Assuntos
Alho , Brasil , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071454

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally and hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors associated with CVD. Due to a growing body of research on side effects and long-term impacts of conventional CVD treatments, focus is shifting towards exploring alternative treatment approaches such as Ayurveda. However, because of a lack of strong scientific evidence, the safety and efficacy profiles of such interventions have not been well established. The current study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses to explore the strength of evidence on efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic herbs for hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Literature searches were conducted using databases including Medline, Cochrane Database, AMED, Embase, AYUSH research portal, and many others. All randomized controlled trials on individuals with hypercholesterolemia using Ayurvedic herbs (alone or in combination) with an exposure period of ≥ 3 weeks were included, with primary outcomes being total cholesterol levels, adverse events, and other cardiovascular events. The search strategy was determined with the help of the Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group. Two researchers assessed the risk of each study individually and discrepancies were resolved by consensus or consultation with a third researcher. Meta-analysis was conducted using the inverse variance method and results are presented as forest plots and data summary tables using Revman v5.3. Results: A systematic review of 32 studies with 1386 participants found randomized controlled trials of three Ayurvedic herbs, Allium sativum (garlic), Commiphora mukul (guggulu), and Nigella sativa (black cumin) on hypercholesterolemia that met inclusion criteria. The average duration of intervention was 12 weeks. Meta-analysis of the trials showed that guggulu reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels by 16.78 mg/dL (95% C.I. 13.96 to 2.61; p-value = 0.02) and 18.78 mg/dL (95% C.I. 34.07 to 3.48; p = 0.02), respectively. Garlic reduced LDL-C by 10.37 mg/dL (95% C.I. -17.58 to -3.16; p-value = 0.005). Black cumin lowered total cholesterol by 9.28 mg/dL (95% C.I. -17.36, to -1.19, p-value = 0.02). Reported adverse side effects were minimal. Conclusion: There is moderate to high level of evidence from randomized controlled trials that the Ayurvedic herbs guggulu, garlic, and black cumin are moderately effective for reducing hypercholesterolemia. In addition, minimal evidence was found for any side effects associated with these herbs, positioning them as safe adjuvants to conventional treatments.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Alho , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipidemias , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Ayurvédica
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