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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Assuntos
Plantas/toxicidade , Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Alimentos/toxicidade
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133968, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027813

RESUMO

Carbohydrates, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, are widely distributed in food resources. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), a soft ionization technique, is extensively applied in carbohydrates analysis. MALDI mass spectrometers are capable to generate spectra rapidly and record mass profiles or fingerprints from foods, usually with simple sample preparation or pretreatment. Therefore, this review described recent research progress on MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) detection in food carbohydrates, especially for the improvement of ionization efficiency and their application in structure characterization of polysaccharides from food and edible herbs. Furthermore, the quantitative study and mass spectrometry imaging were also briefly summarized.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Oligossacarídeos , Carboidratos/análise , Alimentos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
3.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136864, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243085

RESUMO

Bioconversion is an important method for transforming food waste (FW) into high value-added products, rendering it harmless, and recycling resources. An artificial microbial consortium (AMC) was constructed to produce FW-based lipopeptides in order to investigate the strategy of FW bioconversion into value-added products. Exogenous fatty acids as a precursor significantly improved the lipopeptide production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HM618. To enhance fatty acid synthesis and efflux in AMC, the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica YL21 (strain YL21) was constructed by screening 12 target genes related to fatty acids to replace exogenous fatty acids in order to improve lipopeptide production. The levels of fengycin, surfactin, and iturin A in the AMC of strains HM618 and YL21 reached 76.19, 192.80, and 31.32 mg L-1, increasing 7.24-, 12.13-, and 3.23-fold compared to the results from the pure culture of strain HM618 in flask with Landy medium, respectively. Furthermore, free fatty acids were almost undetectable in the co-culture of strains HM618 and YL21, although its level was around 1.25 g L-1 in the pure culture of strain YL21 with Landy medium. Interestingly, 470.24 mg L-1 of lipopeptides and 18.11 g L-1 of fatty acids were co-produced in this AMC in a bioreactor with FW medium. To our knowledge, it is the first report of FW biotransformation into co-produce of lipopeptides and fatty acids in the AMC of B. amyloliquefaciens and Y. lipolytica. These results provide new insights into the biotransformation potential of FW for value-added co-products by AMC.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos , Yarrowia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos , Lipopeptídeos
4.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136856, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243094

RESUMO

Food waste have become a growing concern worldwide with raising population and economic growth. Wastewater discharged from food industries contains many valuable and toxic components that have a negative impact on the ecological system. Large amounts of wastewater are discharged from the food industry, which necessitates the creation of effective technologies. Wastewater from the food industry can be seen as a rich source of energy and a primary source for generating valuable products. Waste disposal and resource recovery are sustainably valued by anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the food sector. The characteristics, composition, and nature of wastewater produced from various food sectors are elaborated upon in this review. An overview of the anaerobic digestion process for wastewater treatment in the food industry is included. Enhancement strategies for the anaerobic digestion process have been discussed in detail. In addition, various types of reactors utilized for performing anaerobic digestion is illustrated. Though anaerobic digestion process possesses advantages, the challenges and future scope are examined for improving the outcome.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Alimentos , Reatores Biológicos , Indústria Alimentícia , Metano/análise , Esgotos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116607, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419291

RESUMO

Challenges at the intersection of water conservation, land protection, food security, and economic growth cross industrial boundaries, and also involve synergies with multiple policy domains. Despite this, little is known about how system heterogeneity affects water, land, and food (WLF) consumption performance at a sectoral level. This study integrates superedge analysis with a flow interaction network, elasticity theory, and utility analysis to detect the WLF nexus with regard to resource efficiency gains. Three indicators (intra-sector recycling efficiency, trans-sector allocation efficiency, and symbiosis of system structure) are proposed as mechanisms by which to quantitatively explore intra-sector and trans-sector nexus, and formulate improvement strategies for sectoral WLF savings. The results show synergies between recycling efficiency and water/food productivity. Manufacturing servitization and agricultural industrialization can drive more efficient WLF allocation by minimizing resource misallocation, whilst positive industrial ecology enhances WLF circulation and facilitates reducing resource undue competition. In addition, the ability of industries to save resources under the nexus is examined. Approximately 93% of sectors suffer from resource waste, misallocation, and undue competition. Therefore, strategic paths enhance resource synergy and, through so doing, enable WLF efficiency gains.


Assuntos
Recursos Hídricos , Água , Alimentos , Agricultura , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136670, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280116

RESUMO

Energy crisis and increasing rigorous management standards pose significant challenges for solid waste management worldwide. Several emerging diseases such as COVID-19 aggravated the already complex solid waste management crisis, especially sewage sludge and food waste streams, because of the increasingly large production year by year. As mature waste disposal technologies, landfills, incineration, composting, and some other methods are widespread for solid wastes management. This paper reviews recent advances in key sewage sludge disposal technologies. These include incineration, anaerobic digestion, and valuable products oriented-conversion. Food waste disposal technologies comprised of thermal treatment, fermentation, value-added product conversion, and composting have also been described. The hot topic and dominant research foci of each area are summarized, simultaneously compared with conventional technologies in terms of organic matter degradation or conversion performance, energy generation, and renewable resources production. Future perspectives of each technology that include issues not well understood and predicted challenges are discussed with a positive effect on the full-scale implementation of the discussed disposal methods.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Alimentos , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Metano
7.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116460, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283169

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to identify the phenolic composition of 18 different vegetable residues and to determine the relationship between their phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and sun protection factor. For this purpose, samples of agri-food residues were analyzed to quantify their antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content, sun protection factor and individual phenolic compounds through HPLC-DAD-FLD. Among the different phenolic compounds found in the extracts, the phenolic acids, especially caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid were the ones that have been most frequently identified, and, therefore, are present in a wide range of extracts. Black chai tea, lemon ginger tea and peanut extracts were the most antioxidant and photoprotective extracts. Phenolic compounds in the extracts have been found to contribute to their antioxidant activity and are closely correlated to their photoprotective capacity. A regression model that allows predicting the photoprotective capacity of any extract based on its total phenol content has been developed as a tool to determine the most suitable industrial application for each vegetable extract.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Eliminação de Resíduos , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Protetores Solares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alimentos , Fenóis/química , Chá
8.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116531, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308788

RESUMO

The influences of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) at the ratios of 0% (CK), 0.5% (F1), 1.0% (F2), 1.5% (F3), 2.0% (F4) and 2.5% (F5) on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community composition were investigated in the composting of food waste digestate (FWD) and corn straw (CS). PAAS addition increased the thermophilic temperature but had no significant effect on pH values. PAAS exerted significantly effects on the concentration of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N). The compost product in 1.0% PAAS treatment was more active in absorbing nutrients. Firmicutes (9.40-83.54%), Actinobacteriota (9.98-51.50%), Proteobacteria (0.20-27.87%) and Bacteroidota (0.11-34.69%) were the dominant phyla in FWD composting. Moreover, relative to CK, PAAS promoted the propagation of dominant bacterial phyla Firmicutes with increment of 30.05-102.06% in the thermophilic phase. Kroppenstedtia, Thermobifida and Saccharomonospora were observed to be dominant at the maturing phase and correlated with NH4+-N, NO2--N, TN and NO3--N. Therefore, they might be regarded as probable biomarkers symbolic for the maturing phase during FWD composting. The compost product had the highest maturity degree in 1.0% PAAS treatment. These results indicated that PAAS addition improved the maturity and nutrient contents of the compost product as well as altered compost bacterial community dynamics.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Nitrogênio/análise , Esterco/microbiologia , Alimentos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Solo , Bactérias , Firmicutes
9.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116585, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326526

RESUMO

Significant loss of valuable resources and increasing burdens on landfills are often associated with a lack of proper planning in waste management and resource recovery strategy. A sustainable waste management model is thus urgently needed to improve resource efficiency and divert more waste from landfills. This paper proposes a comprehensive system model using stock-and-flow diagram to examine the current waste management performance and project the future waste generation, treatment and disposal scenarios, using England as a case study. The model comprises three integrated modules to represent household waste generation and collection; waste treatment and disposal; and energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance has been established and waste management performance has been evaluated using six upstream and downstream indicators. The base case scenario that assumes constant waste composition shows that waste to landfills can be reduced to less than 10% of the total amount, by 2035. However, it entails greater diversion of waste to energy-from-waste facilities, which is not sustainable and would incur higher capital investment and gate fees. Alternative case scenarios that promote recycling instead of energy recovery result in lower capital investment and gate fees. Complete elimination of the food and organic fraction from the residual waste stream will help meet the 65% recycling target by 2035. In light of the need for achieving a more circular economy in England, enhancing material recovery through reuse and recycling, reducing reliance on energy-from-waste and deploying more advanced waste valorisation technologies should be considered in future policy and planning for waste management.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Reciclagem , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Alimentos , Resíduos Sólidos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116651, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343401

RESUMO

Significant amounts of heat can be generated during the initial stages after wastes are deposited in landfills, primarily due to decomposition of food waste. Objectives of this study are to compile, examine and compare thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) components, and liquid and gas phases in MSW landfills and their thermal responses that effect temperature increases in gas and leachate. Specific thermal properties examined include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of waste materials deposited in landfills, liquids (water), and gases present. Compilation of these properties will allow in depth thermal analyses to evaluate heat transfer dynamics in landfills with different waste compositions. Examination of thermal characteristics of MSW components indicate that heat generated during decomposition of waste components would primarily be transferred to liquid (leachate) due to formation of water and gaseous components and their high specific heats. As a result, both the leachate and gases released from a landfill during the initial stages after wastes are deposited and when some oxygen is present as an electron acceptor will be warmer. Except for the metals and construction waste, it is likely that most waste components will have a significant temperature gradient during warming up and cooling off stages due to their low thermal conductivities and low thermal diffusivities. Even when the gas phase is at higher temperatures, it will take long time for waste materials (other than food waste and metals) to come to a uniform temperature during the heat generation (primarily due to decomposition of food waste) in a landfill.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Alimentos , Difusão Térmica , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gases/análise , Água
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128298, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368484

RESUMO

The bioconversion of food waste to renewable products has an important role in alleviating the environmental burden of food wastage. This study evaluates the effect of solids retention time (1.5, 4, and 7 days) and lipid content (up to 30 % DS) on the solid's destruction efficiency and VFA yield from food waste fermentation. Although SRT below 4 days and lipid content beyond 20 % reduced the solids destruction efficiency (SRT -12 %, lipids -13 %), the VFA yield improved (SRT 0.36 to 0.48 g CODVFA/TCODFED; lipids 0.17 to 0.39 g CODVFA/TCODFED). This appeared to be a mechanism of improved acidification which doubled to 0.77 gCODVFA/g SCOD at 1.5-day SRT. The introduction of easily degradable organics in waste oils and methanogen inhibition by LCFAs were likely causes of process instability when lipids >20 %. Further research is needed considering the COD fractionation of the feed to maximize recoverable products on a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Anaerobiose
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159101, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181818

RESUMO

Bio-based polymers are increasingly attracting attention as a solution to reducing the consumption of non-renewable resources and curbing the accumulation of fossil-based plastic waste. In this study, we analyze the economics of a new packaging film based on a polylactic acid-polyhydroxybutyrate blend (PLA-PHB), with PHB obtained from agro-industrial residues (potato peels). We model various sizes of biorefineries using the new biotechnology in Europe. For a four-year payback period, which is generally accepted in the industry, the calculated minimum product selling price ranges from 9.7 euros per kilogram to 37.2 euros per kilogram, depending, among other factors, on the production capacity of the biorefinery. We have incorporated the uncertainty over the model parameters in a Monte Carlo simulation and investigated the relative impact of individual factors on the minimum product selling price. Overall, the results indicate that the bio-based feedstock availability is the most influential factor on the profitability of the new biotechnology.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Alimentos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Biotecnologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159521, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270363

RESUMO

The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) is gaining momentum due to their central role in the emerging carboxylate platform. Particularly, the production of the longest VFA (from butyrate to caproate) is desired due to their increased economic value and easier downstream processing. While the use of undefined microbial cultures is usually preferred with organic waste streams, the use of defined microbial co-culture processes could tackle some of their drawbacks such as poor control over the process outcome, which often leads to low selectivity for the desired products. However, the extensive experimentation needed to design a co-culture system hinders the use of this technology. In this work, a workflow based on the combined use of mathematical models and wet experimentation is proposed to accelerate the design of novel bioprocesses. In particular, a co-culture consisting of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Megaphaera cerevisiae is used to target the production of high-value odd- and even­carbon VFA. An unstructured kinetic model was developed, calibrated and used to design experiments with the goal of increasing the selectivity for the desired VFA, which were experimentally validated. In the case of even­carbon VFA, the experimental validation showed an increase of 38 % in caproate yield and, in the case of enhanced odd­carbon VFA experiments, the yield of butyrate and caproate diminished by 62 % and 94 %, respectively, while propionate became one of the main end products and valerate yield value increased from 0.007 to 0.085 gvalearte per gconsumed sugar. The workflow followed in this work proved to be a sound tool for bioprocess design due to its capacity to explore and design new experiments in silico in a fast way and ability to quickly adapt to new scenarios.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos , Alimentos , Caproatos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Butiratos , Carbono , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105546, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099753

RESUMO

Previous research established that children with poorer taxonomic knowledge in the food domain display increased levels of food rejection. However, the food domain heavily lends itself to script and thematic conceptual knowledge (e.g., pancakes at breakfast), to which young children already attend. This series of studies investigated the development of conceptual knowledge, specifically in the food domain, and the link with food rejection. Study 1 used a nonconflicting triad task testing children's knowledge of four subtypes of script and thematic associations (food-food pairs, food-utensil pairs, event scripts, and meal scripts) with children aged 3-6 years living in the United States (18 males and 14 females). Study 2 employed the same design along with a measure of food rejection in 3- to 6-year-olds living in France (67 males and 62 females). There was significant conceptual development in both groups, but thematic food concepts are acquired earlier than meal script concepts. Study 3 investigated the link between thematic and script cross-classification and food rejection in 39 females and 33 males living in France (4- to 7-year-olds). Results demonstrate that children as young as 3 years old are already attending to thematic and script structures to inform food-based decision making. Even more critically, Study 3 showed that increased food rejection tendencies are negatively related to script and thematic understanding in the food domain. Such seminal studies illustrate the importance of conceptual knowledge in children's interpretation and acceptance of food, highlighting promising avenues for knowledge-based interventions to foster dietary variety.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Alimentos , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Conhecimento , França
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158803, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115402

RESUMO

Mineral extraction areas represent an environmental, social, and also a food sovereignty challenge for several countries. Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLC) are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of mining activities, particularly those that affect their lands and waters. At the global level, scientific evidence on the impacts of mining on the food sovereignty of IPLC is meagre, scattered, and fragmented across disciplines and geographic regions. This study aims to assess whether factors such as mining, trace elements contamination, social inequality, lack of environmental deficitary environmental policy and practice, and socio-environmental conflicts directly impact the food sovereignty of IPLC worldwide. Through a comprehensive literature review of 403 articles, we mapped globally the impacts of mining activities on the food sovereignty of IPLC. Our results reveal that the combination of mining, social inequality and weak environmental strategies impinge negatively on the food sovereignty of IPLC. A hundred and six articles reviewed contained a detailed ecotoxicological analysis of food resources used by IPLC in mining areas. Of all documented species, 52.9 % were vascular plants, 40.3 % were fish and 6.8 % were mammals, presenting substantial scientific evidence of the contamination of food systems of IPLC as a direct result of mining. Given the magnitude of the evidence presented in this review, we propose strategic policy actions to address the impacts of mining on IPLC food sovereignty, such as the strengthening of social, cultural, and environmental safeguards in the mining sector, which should include provisions for the protection of the food systems of IPLC and their culturally-valued food resources, as well as monitoring of contaminant concentrations in the environment and in culturally-valued food resources.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Povos Indígenas , Animais , Humanos , Política Ambiental , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Alimentos , Mamíferos
16.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134669, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323022

RESUMO

To routinely assess whether consumed food meets international guidelines, a single analytical method able to quantify minerals and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in real food matrices is required. This work validated a simple and efficient method to quantify nine elements in different food matrices by ICP-MS. Samples from local markets (chicken, mussels, fish, rice, and seaweed) and certified reference materials were digested with HNO3 68 % and H2O2 30 %. All performance criteria (working range, linearity, LOD, LOQ, selectivity, repeatability, and trueness) met the requirements of the Portuguese Association of Accredited Laboratories. Comparison between raw and cooked food showed significant changes in most element levels, and PTEs contents complied with the maximum permissible values (EC N° 1881/2006). The minimum and maximum amounts of the foods studied, alone or in combination, raw or cooked, that can be daily consumed to meet EFSA and WHO nutritional and safety requirements were analysed.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oligoelementos , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Alimentos , Minerais , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
17.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 78: 101806, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals are thought to be biased towards approaching positive stimuli and avoiding negative stimuli. Yet, it is unclear whether this general pattern applies to all stimulus classes or whether biases are more specific. We expected significant approach biases towards two types of positive stimuli, appetitive foods and butterflies; and avoidance biases away from two types of negative stimuli, spoiled foods and spiders. METHODS: A touchscreen-based Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), using hand gestures toward or away from stimuli assessed biases. Questionnaires and image ratings assessed individual differences in stimulus evaluations. RESULTS: Approach biases for butterflies and appetitive foods were found, the latter being strongest towards individually liked foods. There was no avoidance bias for spoiled foods. An avoidance bias for spiders was found in individuals with elevated spider fear. LIMITATIONS: Incomplete counterbalancing precluded direct comparison between both positive and negative stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural biases in the touchscreen AAT generally co-vary with individuals' affective evaluation of the stimuli. Approach biases were elicited by positive stimuli independently of whether they were regularly (foods) or rarely (butterflies) approached in everyday life. This may hint towards a tendency to approach positive stimuli regardless of the specific category, whereas avoidance biases may be more stimulus specific.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Transtornos Fóbicos , Aranhas , Animais , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Alimentos
18.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114513, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208781

RESUMO

The rapid aerobic composting process has been used to reduce organic wastes, but the associated risks of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) need to evaluate in an efficient way. The primary objective of this work was to explore the underlying mechanism of initial adjustment in composting temperature on the variation of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial composition during co-composting. The co-composting was initially externally heated (T2) for 5 days. The results showed that ARGs abundance in conventional composting (T1) was reduced by 49.36%, while multidrug was enriched by 86.16% after a period of 30 days. While in T2 ARGs were removed by 79.46% particularly the fraction of sulfonamide, multidrug, and vancomycin resistance genes were >90% without rebounding of any ARGs. Whereas, MGEs were reduced by 68.12% and 93.62% in T1 and T2, while the half-lives of ARGs and MGEs were lower in T2 compared to T1 (86.3%,86.7%). T2 also affected the metabolism function by regulating carbohydrate metabolism (9.62-10.39%) and amino acid metabolism (9.92-10.93%). Apart from this, the potential human pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas was reduced by 90.6% in T2 and only 32.9% in T1 respectively. Network analysis showed that Ureibacillus, Weissella, Corynebacterium, Escherichia-Shigella, Acinetobacter were the main host of multiple genes. Structural equation models exhibited that bacterial communities were mainly responsible for the enrichment of ARGs in T1, whereas, it was directly affected by MGEs in T2. Similarly, ARGs variation was directly related to composting temperature. With this simple strategy, ARGs associated risk can be significantly reduced in composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Esterco/microbiologia , Antibacterianos , Temperatura , Alimentos , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Bactérias/genética
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159323, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216063

RESUMO

The main aim of this study was to perform a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of the most used wine packaging systems in Italy. Packaging plays a key role in food and beverage production and supply chain, but the increasing volume of packaging used causes many environmental concerns. The wine sector is no exception, especially in Italy that is the largest producer in the world. Eight packaging alternatives were compared in environmental and economic terms assuming a functional unit of three litres and a cradle to grave approach: one aseptic carton system, two bag-in-box systems, two PET bottle systems, and three glass bottle systems. The results were analysed with an eco-efficiency portfolio approach. There was consistency between the LCA and LCC results for most of the packaging systems. From both the environmental and economical point of views, aseptic cartons and bag-in-box systems were the most sustainable alternatives, while the glass systems had the worst global performances due to the high weight and consequent huge energy consumption during bottle production. The size of the containers was the key factor that most affected the results both in environmental and economic terms.


Assuntos
Vinho , Animais , Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Itália , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159639, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283520

RESUMO

The potential of nanotechnology for the development of sustainable agriculture has been promising. The initiatives to meet the rising food needs of the rapidly growing world population are mainly powered by sustainable agriculture. Nanoparticles are used in agriculture due to their distinct physicochemical characteristics. The interaction of nanomaterials with soil components is strongly determined in terms of soil quality and plant growth. Numerous research has been carried out to investigate how nanoparticles affect the growth and development of plants. Nanotechnology has been applied to improve the quality and reduce post-harvest loss of agricultural products by extending their shelf life, particularly for fruits and vegetables. This review assesses the latest literature on nanotechnology, which is used as a nano-biofertilizer as seen in the agricultural field for high productivity and better growth of plants, an important source of balanced nutrition for the crop, seed germination, and quality enrichment. Additionally, post-harvest food processing and packaging can benefit greatly from the use of nanotechnology to cut down on food waste and contamination. It also critically discusses the mechanisms involved in nanoparticle absorption and translocation within the plants and the synthesis of green nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Nanotecnologia , Agricultura , Plantas , Solo
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