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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126768, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365232

RESUMO

This study provides new knowledge on the mobility, behavior, and partitioning of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the water-sediment-plant system along the Dongzhulong and Xiaoqing Rivers. The fate of PFASs in these rivers is also discussed. The study area is affected by the industrial production of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The ∑PFASs in water and sediments close to the industrial discharge were 84,000 ± 2000 ng/L and 2300 ± 200 ng/g dw, respectively, with the concentrations decreasing along the river due to dilution. PFOA was the dominant compound (74-97% of the ∑PFASs), although other PFASs were identified close to urban areas. Principal component analysis and solid-liquid distribution coefficients revealed that long-chain PFASs accumulated in the sediment whereas short-chain PFASs remained in the water all along the river. PFASs were taken up by plants and remobilized to different plant compartments according to shoot concentration factors (SCFs), root concentration factors (RCF), and transfer factors (TFs). Among the four plant species studied, floating plants absorbed high levels of PFASs, while rooted species translocated short-chain PFASs from the roots to the shoots. Therefore, floating species, due to their high uptake capacity and large proliferation rate, could eventually be used for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126827, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388917

RESUMO

Although the Nrf2-ARE pathway plays a critical role in cellular protection against toxicity and oxidative stress from environmental chemical stressors, the association between exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) mixtures and the changes of Nrf2-ARE pathway remains largely unexplored. This study evaluated the potential of PFAS to induce the Nrf2-ARE pathway as individual compounds and as binary, ternary, and multicomponent mixtures in the ARE reporter-HepG2 cells and compared the mixture toxicity data to the predictions by concentration addition (CA) model. The toxicological interactions between PFAS mixture components were also determined by the model deviation ratio (MDR) between the CA predicted and mixture toxicity values. The induction of the Nrf2-ARE pathway was quantified using the luciferase system, and the endpoint assessed was the concentration that induced an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (ECIR1.5). The results showed that exposures to both individual and mixed PFAS induced the Nrf2-ARE pathway in ARE reporter-HepG2 cells. Based on the MDRs, the combinations with PFOS showed synergistic interactive effects, while the combinations with PFOA showed additive effects. These results indicate that the CA model underestimated the mixture toxicity of PFAS with PFOS co-exposures and may have health risk assessment implications.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150003, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492487

RESUMO

Enrichment of ionic poly/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aqueous aerosol (AA) is an important pathway for them to enter atmosphere. In this study, the enrichment behaviors of 12 legacy and emerging PFASs in AA in both single solute and mixed solutions were investigated. The enrichment factors (EF) displayed a general increasing trend with the fluorinated carbon chain length. For the first time, a robust Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model coupled with partial least-square method was established with fifteen quantum chemical descriptors. Four molecular descriptors, including dipole moment (µ), molecular weight (MW), the maximal value of the molecular surface potential (Vs, max) and molecular volume (V) were identified as the key structural variables affecting the PFASs enrichment. Inorganic salts and humic acid (HA) which are common in seawater, facilitated the PFASs enrichment as a result of enhanced hydrophobicity and the bridging effect caused by divalent cations. The typical cationic and anionic surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate, both inhibited the enrichment due to the competition between PFASs and surfactants. It is interesting that 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F53B) had the highest EF among the 12 PFASs, implying its strong potential of atmosphere transport.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aerossóis , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131748, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352549

RESUMO

Concerns have been raised about per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sewage sludge given the urgent need of finding suitable disposal methods for sludge. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ultrasonication on PFAS changes in sewage sludge. It was revealed that although ultrasonication at 20 kHz increased the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of treated sewage sludge, this technique was ineffective for degrading perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors. Ultrasonic treatment for longer time (>15 min) led to concentration increase of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in the liquid phase, possibly due to their release from disrupted sludge flocs during cavitation. Adding permanganate (10 mM) to the ultrasonic system could also enhance the disruption of sludge particles, resulting in higher concentrations of PFOA and PFHxA in the solid phase and PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA, and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) in the liquid phase. Overall, ultrasonic pretreatment at 20 kHz and 0.7 W/mL is unlikely to remove PFAS from sewage sludge. Instead, it could increase the risk of PFAS pollution upon final sludge disposal. Effective treatment technologies are thus demanded if PFAS in sludge are regulated.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131851, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391114

RESUMO

Food consumption has been recognized as the most significant contributor to human exposure to polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for the general population. In 2020, EFSA introduced for the first time safety limit of 4.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) for weekly intake for the sum of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) which are all perfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) that belong to PFASs group. Fish and eggs have been found to contribute significantly, almost 50 % to PFOS and PFOA dietary intake of the Greek population. In the present study, estimation of human intake of these four PFASs from fish, eggs and drinking water consumption is attempted. Data from EFSA food consumption database for fish and eggs are used for assessment. Mean weekly intake estimated is above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) recently proposed, mainly due to fish consumption. Exceedance of the proposed TWI emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of levels of PFASs in food in parallel with efforts to lower these levels.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Caprilatos/análise , Ovos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Grécia , Humanos , Ácidos Sulfônicos
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131940, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435575

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely perfluoroalkane sulfonates and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, in Spanish river basins in order to: identify potential spatiotemporal variations; evaluate the effectiveness of the measures implemented for the reduction/elimination of these pollutants; verify the fulfillment of the Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) in the European Union. PFOS and PFOA were determined in 116 water samples from four sites in the Duero basin, the largest in the Iberian Peninsula, collected seasonally from 2013 to 2020. In addition, 30 fish sample composites from the sample banks of Duero, Tagus, Ebro, Eastern Cantabrian and Catalonian basins were analyzed for 15 PFAAs. Median PFOS and PFOA concentrations were 0.72 and 0.42 ng/L, ranging from values below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 81 and 22 ng/L, respectively. During the studied period, 51% of water samples were above the EQS of 0.65 ng/L for PFOS. In the case of fish, the PFOS range was

Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Espanha , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150110, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525704

RESUMO

Identifying sources of exposure to chemical stressors is difficult when both target organisms and stressors are highly mobile. While previous studies have demonstrated that populations of some organisms proximal to urban centers may display increased burdens of human-created chemicals compared to more distal populations, this relationship may not be universal when applied to organisms and stressors capable of transboundary movements. We examined eggs of brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), a nearshore seabird with daily movements ranging from local to 50 km and annual migrations ranging from year-round residency to 1500 km. Thirty-six eggs from three breeding colonies located at increasing distances to a major urban center (Charleston, South Carolina, USA) were analyzed for concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Areas of high use for each colony during the breeding season were also assessed via the tracking of adult pelicans from each colony using GPS-PTT satellite transmitters and overlapped with measures of relative urbanization via land cover data. We report potentially significant ∑PFAS concentrations in the eggs of pelicans (175.4 ± 120.1 ng/g w wt. SD), driven largely by linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (n-PFOS) (48-546 ng/g w wt.). Residues of the precursor compound perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were also present in pelican eggs, suggesting continued exposure of local wildlife beyond implemented phaseouts of some PFAS. For most analytes, egg concentrations did not exhibit a significant spatial structure despite some differentiation in high-use areas unlike similar data for another regional apex predator, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). We suggest that the partially migratory nature of brown pelicans during the non-breeding season, combined with daily ranges that may extend to 50 km from local point sources, may have homogenized exposure across individuals. Charleston likely remains a major source for PFAS in the overall region, however, given the high concentrations observed as well as known releases of PFAS in the nearshore environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Aves , Cruzamento , Ovos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150211, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798742

RESUMO

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a problematic group of chemicals used in various industrial and household products. They have been extensively detected in wastewater as a result of day-to-day product usage. Due to concerns about their safety, voluntary and regulatory action to limit the manufacture and use of some individual PFAS has occurred since the year 2000. The impact that this intervention has had on the use and potential exposure of Australians has not been measured. Wastewater serves as a powerful tool to assess the chemical use or consumption patterns of a population over time. We accessed a ten-year wastewater archiving program to conduct a temporal analysis of PFAS trends in an urban Australian population between the years 2010 and 2020. Results showed a decline in the concentrations for most PFAS, and a change in the PFAS profile from perfluorosulfonic acids and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids, to the short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and PFOS-replacement degradation products such as 5:3 FTCA. Intermittent pulses of PFAS that were significantly higher than 'background' levels (i.e., representing the PFAS input from primarily households) were observed, suggesting continuing industrial PFAS input within the wastewater catchment. This study highlights the long-term consequences of the diffuse use of persistent chemicals in products, and their ability to continue to enter the wastewater stream for decades.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Purificação da Água , Austrália , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Águas Residuárias
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769660

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging environmental crisis. Deemed forever chemicals, many congeners bioaccumulate and are incredibly persistent in the environment due to the presence of the strong carbon-fluorine covalent bonds. Notable PFAS compounds include perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and GenX. Robust toxicological knowledge exists for these substances, but regulatory decisions based on this knowledge has fallen behind. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has addressed this issue with the PFAS Action Plan and EPA Council on PFAS, but the regulatory framework is severely lacking. Currently, no federal regulations or standards exist. Many occupational and non-occupational human cohorts exist that can lend knowledge on the environmental implications of PFAS and associated health effects. Occupationally, firefighters face significant exposure risks due to use of PFAS containing aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) and personal protective equipment contamination. Non-occupationally, wastewater discharge in North Carolina led to chronic and widespread residential exposure to GenX via drinking water contamination. This public health review seeks to convey the current and future significance of PFAS as an environmental contaminate, to lend considerations on regulatory frameworks within the USA, and to help guide and promote the need for future epidemiological studies in order to tackle this environmental emergency. While the PFAS Action Plan creates a scientific and regulatory foundation, it is important to take these lessons and apply them to future environmental health issues.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682448

RESUMO

There is concern that immunotoxic environmental contaminants, particularly perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), may play a role in the clinical course of COVID-19 and epidemiologic studies are needed to answer if high-exposed populations are especially vulnerable in light of the ongoing pandemic. The objective was, therefore, to determine if exposure to highly PFAS-contaminated drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of COVID-19 in Ronneby, Sweden, during the first year of the pandemic. We conducted an ecological study determining the sex- and age-standardized incidence ratio (SIR) in the adult population relative to a neighboring reference town with similar demographic characteristics but with only background levels of exposure. In Sweden, COVID-19 is subject to mandatory reporting, and we retrieved aggregated data on all verified cases until 3 March 2021 from the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The SIR in Ronneby was estimated at 1.19 (95% CI: 1.12; 1.27). The results suggest a potential link between high PFAS exposure and susceptibility to COVID-19 that warrants further research to clarify causality.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , COVID-19 , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Água Potável/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Suécia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 219-236, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607670

RESUMO

Certain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exhibit significant bioaccumulation/biomagnification behaviors in ecosystems. PFASs, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and related precursors, have elicited attention from both public and national regulatory agencies, which has resulted in worldwide restrictions on their production and use. Apex predators occupy the top trophic positions in ecosystems and are most affected by the biomagnification behavior of PFASs. Meanwhile, the long lifespans of apex predators also lead to the high body burden of PFASs. The high body burden of PFASs might be linked to adverse health effects and even pose a potential threat to their reproduction. As seen in previous reviews of PFASs, knowledge is lacking between the current stage of the PFAS body burden and related effects in apex predators. This review summarized PFAS occurrence in global apex predators, including information on the geographic distribution, levels, profiles, and tissue distribution, and discussed the trophic transfer and ecotoxicity of PFASs. In the case where legacy PFASs were restricted under international convention, the occurrence of novel PFASs, such as 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), in apex predators arose as an emerging issue. Future studies should develop an effective analytical method and focus on the toxicity and trophic transfer behavior of novel PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ecossistema , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13749-13758, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617730

RESUMO

The dispersion of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and deep-water profiles (down to 5845 m deep) was evaluated through the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO) between 15°N and 23°S. The sum concentrations for eight quantifiable PFAS (∑8PFAS) in surface waters ranged from 11 to 69 pg/L, which is lower than previously reported in the same area as well as in higher latitudes. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the predominant PFASs present in the Western TAO. The 16 surface samples showed variable PFAS distributions, with the predominance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) along the transect (67%; 11 ± 8 pg/L) and detection of perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) only in the Southern TAO. Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) was often detected in the vertical profiles. PFAS distribution patterns (i.e., profiles and concentrations) varied with depth throughout the TAO latitudinal sectors (North, Equator, South Atlantic, and in the Brazilian coastal zone). Vertical profiles in coastal samples displayed decreasing PFAS concentrations with increasing depth, whereas offshore samples displayed higher PFAS detection frequencies in the intermediate water masses. Together with the surface currents and coastal upwelling, the origin of the water masses was an important factor in explaining PFAS concentrations and profiles in the TAO.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Oceano Atlântico , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 238: 113860, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649073

RESUMO

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a range of persistent organofluorine contaminants, some of which have been found to accumulate in humans and have long half-lives. In longitudinal studies, when relying on measurements obtained at different points in time, it is critical to understand the associated analytical uncertainties when interpreting the data. In this manuscript we assess precision measurements of serum PFAS analysis in a follow-up study undertaken approximately 5 years after the initial study. These measurements included intra-(n = 58) and inter-batch duplicates (n = 57), inter-batch replicates (n = 58), inter-laboratory replicates (n = 10) and a re-analysis of 120 archived serum samples from the initial study. Average coefficients of variation (CV) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) associated with the reanalysis of archived samples ranged from 4 to 8%, which was greater than the inter- and intra -batch duplicates (<3%), but lower than the inter-laboratory comparison (CV ≥ 10%). Multi-centre analytical capacity in studies increases the variance within the dataset and implementation of variability-measures are useful to refine and maintain comparability. Due to long PFAS half-lives, this variance is an important consideration when deciding appropriate time intervals for sample collections in longitudinal studies, to ensure the difference is greater than the analytical uncertainty.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Manejo de Espécimes , Incerteza
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 227: 112902, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656858

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are human-made chemicals used in daily use products. Recent studies have shown that different perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and/or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers may have different biological effects. In vitro studies have also reported that PFAS exposure can alter the structure of hemoglobin (Hb). In epidemiology, however, few studies have investigated the relationship between PFAS exposure and erythrocytes. Additionally, the correlation between PFOA/PFOS isomers and full erythrograms has never been explored. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In cohorts comprising young and middle-aged Taiwanese populations, we enrolled 1483 participants (aged between 12 and 63 years) to analyze the correlations between the plasma levels of PFOA/PFOS isomers and whole-blood erythrograms. The study comprised 868 men and 615 women with a mean age of 31.2 years. When all PFOA/PFOS isomers were entered into the multiple linear regression model, the linear PFOA (L-PFOA) levels were positively correlated with the Hb, hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels while the branched PFOS (B-PFOS) levels were positively associated with the Hb, HCT, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The mean value of Hb was the highest (14.66 mg/dL (95% CI =14.52-14.80); P for trend <0.001) when both the L-PFOA and B-PFOS levels were above the 50th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that PFOA/PFOS isomers may increase the weight and volume of Hb/RBC and that L-PFOA/B-PFOS may have an additive effect on the Hb levels. However, it is also possible PFAS detected at a higher concentration may due to its binding to higher levels of Hb. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of PFOA/PFOS isomers on RBCs in humans.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Criança , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Isomerismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 470-481, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545443

RESUMO

This study presents a comprehensive application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which are two types of perfluoroalkyl acids frequently studied in recent years. The exposure characteristics of PFOA and PFOS in Chinese surface water on a nationwide scale were summarized. Individual predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and the sensitivities for taxonomic groups of primary producers, invertebrates, and vertebrates were derived by the species sensitivity distributions method. Both hazard quotients (HQs) and joint probability curves were calculated to assess the risks to aquatic organisms. Among seven Chinese river basins, the mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the Yangtze River Basin were the highest (58 ng/L and 22 ng/L, respectively), while the lowest concentrations (< 1 ng/L) were in the Songhua River Basin. The acute PNEC value was 2.43 mg/L for PFOA and 0.96 mg/L for PFOS, and the chronic PNEC value was 0.0067 mg/L for PFOA and 0.0012 mg/L for PFOS, respectively. The sensitivities of different taxonomic groups revealed higher sensitivity of primary producers for PFOA and higher sensitivity of invertebrates for PFOS. The acute HQs of PFOA and PFOS were less than 1. The probabilities of exposure concentrations exceeding 5th percentile toxicity value of the chronic data for all aquatic organisms were 1.65% for PFOA and 1.23% for PFOS, respectively, suggesting a low probability of effects to aquatic organisms. Compared with the risk scenarios worldwide, the ecological risks for chronic effects decreased in the order of PFOS (worldwide) > PFOA (China) > PFOS (China) > PFOA (worldwide).


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Caprilatos/toxicidade , China , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12291-12301, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495656

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a diverse class of synthetic chemicals that accumulate in the environment. Many proteins, including the primary human serum transport protein albumin (HSA), bind PFAS. The predictive power of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches is currently limited by a lack of experimental data defining albumin-binding properties for most PFAS. A novel thermal denaturation assay was optimized to evaluate changes in the thermal stability of HSA in the presence of increasing concentrations of known ligands and a structurally diverse set of PFAS. Assay performance was initially evaluated for fatty acids and HSA-binding drugs ibuprofen and warfarin. Concentration-response relationships were determined and dissociation constants (Kd) for each compound were calculated using regression analysis of the dose-dependent changes in HSA melting temperature. Estimated Kd values for HSA binding of octanoic acid, decanoic acid, hexadecenoic acid, ibuprofen, and warfarin agreed with established values. The binding affinities for 24 PFAS that included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4-C8), mono- and polyether perfluoroalkyl ether acids, and polyfluoroalkyl fluorotelomer substances were determined. These results demonstrate the utility of this differential scanning fluorimetry assay as a rapid high-throughput approach for determining the relative protein-binding properties and identification of chemical structures involved in binding for large numbers of structurally diverse PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Albumina Sérica Humana , Ácidos Sulfônicos
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 682, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BES/BZR family genes have vital roles in plant growth, development, and adaptation to environmental stimuli. However, they have not yet been characterized and systematically analyzed in wheat and foxtail millet. RESULTS: In the current study, five common and two unique BES/BZR genes were identified by genome-wide analysis in wheat and foxtail millet, respectively. These genes were unevenly distributed on 14 and five chromosomes of wheat and foxtail millet, respectively, and clustered in two subgroups in a phylogenetic analysis. The BES/BZR gene family members in each subgroup contained similar conserved motifs. Investigation of cis-acting elements and expression profile analysis revealed that the BES/BZR genes were predominantly expressed in leaf tissues of wheat and foxtail millet seedlings and responded to brassinosteroid, abscisic acid, and NaCl treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a basis for future studies on the function and molecular mechanisms of the BES/BZR gene family in wheat, foxtail millet, and other plants.


Assuntos
Setaria (Planta) , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Environ Int ; 157: 106843, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to be associated with diseases of dysregulated lipid and sterol homeostasis such as steatosis and cardiometabolic disorders. However, the majority of mechanistic studies rely on single chemical exposures instead of identifying mechanisms related to the toxicity of PFAS mixtures. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current study is to investigate mechanisms linking exposure to a PFAS mixture with alterations in lipid metabolism, including increased circulating cholesterol and bile acids. METHODS: Male and female wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed an atherogenic diet used in previous studies of pollutant-accelerated atherosclerosis and exposed to water containing a mixture of 5 PFAS representing legacy, replacement, and alternative subtypes (i.e., PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and GenX), each at a concentration of 2 mg/L, for 12 weeks. Changes at the transcriptome and metabolome level were determined by RNA-seq and high-resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. RESULTS: We observed increased circulating cholesterol, sterol metabolites, and bile acids due to PFAS exposure, with some sexual dimorphic effects. PFAS exposure increased hepatic injury, demonstrated by increased liver weight, hepatic inflammation, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. Females displayed increased lobular and portal inflammation compared to the male PFAS-exposed mice. Hepatic transcriptomics analysis revealed PFAS exposure modulated multiple metabolic pathways, including those related to sterols, bile acids, and acyl carnitines, with multiple sex-specific differences observed. Finally, we show that hepatic and circulating levels of PFOA were increased in exposed females compared to males, but this sexual dimorphism was not the same for other PFAS examined. DISCUSSION: Exposure of mice to a mixture of PFAS results in PFAS-mediated modulation of cholesterol levels, possibly through disruption of enterohepatic circulation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Colesterol , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Environ Int ; 157: 106853, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500361

RESUMO

Developing children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that early life exposure to PFASs is associated with poor metabolic health in children. We studied the association between prenatal and postnatal PFASs mixture exposure and cardiometabolic health in children, and the role of inflammatory proteins. In 1,101 mothers-child pairs from the Human Early Life Exposome project, we measured the concentrations of PFAS in blood collected in pregnancy and at 8 years (range = 6-12 years). We applied Bayesian Kernel Machine regression (BKMR) to estimate the associations between exposure to PFAS mixture and the cardiometabolic factors as age and sex- specific z-scores of waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), and concentrations of triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol. We measured thirty six inflammatory biomarkers in child plasma and examined the underlying role of inflammatory status for the exposure-outcome association by integrating the three panels into a network. Exposure to the PFAS mixture was positively associated with HDL-C and systolic BP, and negatively associated with WC, LDL-C and TG. When we examined the independent effects of the individual chemicals in the mixture, prenatal PFHxS was negatively associated with HDL-C and prenatal PFNA was positively associated with WC and these were opposing directions from the overall mixture. Further, the network consisted of five distinct communities connected with positive and negative correlations. The selected inflammatory biomarkers were positively, while the postnatal PFAS were negatively related with the included cardiometabolic factors, and only prenatal PFOA was positively related with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and WC. Our study supports that prenatal, rather than postnatal, PFAS exposure might contribute to an unfavorable lipidemic profile and adiposity in childhood.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez
20.
Water Res ; 205: 117662, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562805

RESUMO

Water diversion is increasingly utilized for water supply, flood control, irrigation, and water quality improvement in many water bodies globally. Our findings indicate that micropollutants such as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can be transported via dual-source water diversion projects during water diversion and flood discharge, which may negatively impact both receiving water bodies. However, the sources, spatiotemporal variations, and fluxes of PFAAs under water diversion projects remain unclear. Here we report patterns of 18 PFAA compounds in the surface water at 14 sites of a dual-source water diversion project (Wangyu River) connecting the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake in China. We found multiple contamination hotspots with PFHxA and PFOA dominantly originating from industrial and domestic sources during water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake. During the severe flooding in summer 2020, PFAA concentrations ranged from 82.0 to 114.0 ng L-1, while the concentrations and relative contributions of individual perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) increased along the mainstream due to the tributaries' contribution and high contamination level in the lake. Based on the spatiotemporal patterns of PFAA pollution, the flux of total PFAAs including both dissolved-phase and SS-phase into Taihu Lake was estimated as 26.6 kg in January 2020 as a reference value for water diversion. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the sources, occurrences, and transport of PFAAs in a dual-source water diversion project during water diversion and flooding. The results provide a novel perspective regarding the ecological safety of dual-source water diversion projects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Lagos , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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