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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109648, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506766

RESUMO

Allium chinense is a vegetable with nutrition and unique flavor, and it is used as traditional Chinese medicine. We previously reported that the active compound A-24 induces apoptosis and autophagy in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our present work indicates that A-24 also has a significant proliferation inhibition effect on p53-deficient KATO-III cells, and the p53 status did not affect A-24 induced migration inhibition, but negatively controlled the occurrence of autophagy. We also found that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated A-24 induced apoptosis is p53-independent. Besides, p-Akt was not downregulated by A-24 in p53-deficient gastric cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that A-24 induced apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells and through the ROS-mTOR pathway in p53-deficient gastric cancer cells. Our study recommended A-24 as a promising future phytotherapeutic candidate for gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443463

RESUMO

In our study, Allium subhirsutum L. (AS) was investigated to assess its phenolic profile and bioactive molecules including flavonoids and organosulfur compounds. The antioxidant potential of AS and wound healing activity were addressed using skin wound healing and oxidative stress and inflammation marker estimation in rat models. Phytochemical and antiradical activities of AS extract (ASE) and oil (ASO) were studied. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups: group I served as a control and was treated with simple ointment base, group II was treated with ASE ointment, group III was treated with ASO ointment and group IV (reference group; Ref) was treated with a reference drug "Cytolcentella® cream". Phytochemical screening showed that total phenols (215 ± 3.5 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (172.4 ± 3.1 mg QE/g) were higher in the ASO than the ASE group. The results of the antioxidant properties showed that ASO exhibited the highest DPPH free radical scavenging potential (IC50 = 0.136 ± 0.07 mg/mL), FRAP test (IC50 = 0.013 ± 0.006 mg/mL), ABTS test (IC50 = 0.52 ± 0.03 mg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 0.34 ± 0.06 mg/mL). In the wound healing study, topical application of ASO performed the fastest wound-repairing process estimated by a chromatic study, percentage wound closure, fibrinogen level and oxidative damage status, as compared to ASE, the Cytolcentella reference drug and the untreated rats. The use of AS extract and oil were also associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress damage in the wound-healing treated rats. Overall, the results provided that AS, particularly ASO, has a potential medicinal value to act as effective skin wound healing agent.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Tecido de Granulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) is an organosulfur compound from Allium spp. that has shown interesting antimicrobial properties and immunomodulatory effects in different experimental models. In this sense, our aim was to evaluate its effect on an experimental model of obesity, focusing on inflammatory and metabolic markers and the gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a high-fat diet and orally treated with different doses of PTSO (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. PTSO lessened the weight gain and improved the plasma markers associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms. PTSO also attenuated obesity-associated systemic inflammation, reducing the immune cell infiltration and, thus, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose and hepatic tissues (Il-1ẞ, Il-6, Tnf-α, Mcp-1, Jnk-1, Jnk-2, Leptin, Leptin R, Adiponectin, Ampk, Ppar-α, Ppar-γ, Glut-4 and Tlr-4) and improving the expression of different key elements for gut barrier integrity (Muc-2, Muc-3, Occludin, Zo-1 and Tff-3). Additionally, these effects were connected to a regulation of the gut microbiome, which was altered by the high-fat diet. CONCLUSION: Allium-derived PTSO can be considered a potential new tool for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/química , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Propano , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445062

RESUMO

Allium hookeri (AH) is a medicinal food that has been used in Southeast Asia for various physiological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the activation of the cholinergic system and the anti-neuroinflammation effects of AH on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) impaired the performance of the mice on the Y-maze test, passive avoidance test, and water maze test. However, the number of error actions was reduced in the AH groups supplemented with leaf and root extracts from AH. AH treatment improved working memory and avoidance times against electronic shock, increased step-through latency, and reduced the time to reach the escape zone in the water maze test. AH significantly improved the cholinergic system by decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity, and increasing acetylcholine concentration. The serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IFN-γ) increased by scopolamine treatment were regulated by the administration of AH extracts. Overexpression of NF-κB signaling and cytokines in liver tissue due to scopolamine were controlled by administration of AH extracts. AH also significantly decreased Aß and caspase-3 expression but increased NeuN and ChAT. The results suggest that AH extracts improve cognitive effects, and the root extracts are more effective in relieving the scopolamine-induced memory impairment. They have neuroprotective effects and reduce the development of neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Allium , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolina/sangue , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Allium/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Escopolamina
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(10): 10550-10557, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334196

RESUMO

One of the most significant challenges within production of probiotic products is the survival and functionality of probiotic bacteria during processing and shelf life. In this research, the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum was used as adjunct culture for the production of Iranian white cheese containing different percentages of Allium ampeloprasum L. ssp. iranicum Wendelbo extracts (1% and 2% in fresh and dried form). The effects of the plant extract on bacterial growth and sensory properties of the model cheese were investigated. The in vitro experiments showed that probiotic bacteria growth was influenced by the presence of the plant extract. The highest bacterial growth (Δ growth = 25.82%) was observed when the probiotic was cultured in the medium supplemented with 1 g/L of plant extract. At time 0, the cheese samples were characterized by a pH value between 5.7 and 6.3 and a probiotic concentration of about 9 log cfu/g. Results showed that after 45 d of shelf life, the cheese model containing 1% dry extract had the best survival of probiotic B. bifidum (7-8 log cfu/g) and the most appreciated sensory properties. The findings of this study support the idea that A. ampeloprasum extract, acting as prebiotic substance, exerts a beneficial effect on probiotic bacteria.


Assuntos
Allium , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Queijo , Probióticos , Animais , Irã (Geográfico)
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 171-184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270029

RESUMO

Leek (A. ampeloprasum L.) is an economically important vegetable crop from Alliaceae family. It is a non-bulb forming biennial species grown for its pseudostem and leaves. Leek is a tetraploid with one of the largest genomes known among cultivated plant species. It has enormous economic importance all around the world for many purposes such as vegetable, medicinal herb, and food seasoning. Production and consumption of leek is in rise all around the world and breeders are trying to develop new F1 hybrid varieties with desired agronomical traits. Although self-compatible, leek shows high tendency toward outcrossing and display severe inbreeding depression when selfed with its own pollen. Therefore, inbred development through classical breeding techniques is very difficult in this crop. Traditional leek genotypes are highly heterozygous, open pollinated varieties. There is a high demand for F1 hybrid varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and high-quality plants. Our group is trying to incorporate gynogenesis-based doubled haploid technology to leek improvement programs. Over the years, many experiments were carried out to determine the gynogenic potential of donor leek genotypes of different genetic backgrounds in different induction media. Here, we report a protocol allowing production of green gynogenic leek plants via single step culture of unopened flower buds. Ploidy levels of gynogenic regenerants are determined by flow cytometry analysis. A majority of the gynogenic leek regenerants produced survived well in vivo.


Assuntos
Allium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Allium/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Gametogênese Vegetal , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haploidia , Técnicas In Vitro , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 708: 108961, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118216

RESUMO

Oxidative stress resulting from the depletion of glutathione (GSH) level plays a vital role in generating various degenerative diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). We tested the hypothesis that depleted glutathione levels can be enhanced and the impaired glucose metabolism can be prevented by supplementing Allium hookeri, a herb rich in organosulfur compounds, in a High Fat (HF) diet-induced T2D Male Sprague Dawley rat model. The experimental rats were divided into three groups (n = 6), namely normal diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet treated with A.hookeri methanolic leaf extract (250 mg/kg). Consumption of HF diet along with the plant extract resulted in significant reduction of the body weight (7.08%-14.89%) and blood glucose level (6.5%-16.4%) from the 13th week onward. There was a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and an increase in GSH level in skeletal muscle tissues supplemented with the plant extract. The protein expressions of the signaling molecules such as GCLC and GR involved in GSH synthesis and of GLUT4 in glucose transport were also upregulated in the skeletal muscle tissues of the plant extract-treated group. Results of in vitro studies with muscle cell line (L6) further demonstrated the beneficial effect of the plant extract in increasing glucose uptake and maintaining the GSH/GSSH equilibrium via regulation of protein expression of GCLC/GR/GLUT4 signaling molecules in sodium palmitate (0.75 mM) treated cells. Overall this study suggests that dietary supplementation with Allium hookeri, can restore the glutathione level and regulate the blood glucose level in T2D.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutationa/biossíntese , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 481, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic information for Allium cepa L. is limited as it is heterozygous and its genome is very large. To elucidate potential SNP markers obtained by NGS, we used a complete set of A. fistulosum L.-A. cepa monosomic addition lines (MALs) and doubled haploids (DHs). These were the parental lines of an A. cepa mapping population for transcriptome-based SNP genotyping. RESULTS: We mapped the transcriptome sequence reads from a series of A. fistulosum-A. cepa MALs onto the unigene sequence of the doubled haploid shallot A. cepa Aggregatum group (DHA) and compared the MAL genotype call for parental bunching onion and shallot transcriptome mapping data. We identified SNP sites with at least four reads on 25,462 unigenes. They were anchored on eight A. cepa chromosomes. A single SNP site was identified on 3,278 unigenes and multiple SNPs were identified on 22,184 unigenes. The chromosome marker information was made public via the web database Allium TDB ( http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp/ ). To apply transcriptome based genotyping approach for genetic mapping, we gathered RNA sequence data from 96 lines of a DHA × doubled haploid bulb onion A. cepa common onion group (DHC) mapping population. After selecting co-dominant SNP sites, 16,872 SNPs were identified in 5,339 unigenes. Of these, at least two SNPs with identical genotypes were found in 1,435 unigenes. We developed a linkage map using genotype information from these unigenes. All unigene markers mapped onto the eight chromosomes and graphical genotyping was conducted based on the unigene order information. Another 2,963 unigenes were allocated onto the eight chromosomes. To confirm the accuracy of this transcriptome-based genetic linkage map, conventional PCR-based markers were used for linkage analysis. All SNP - and PCR-based markers were mapped onto the expected linkage groups and no inconsistency was found among these chromosomal locations. CONCLUSIONS: Effective transcriptome analysis with unique Allium resources successfully associated numerous chromosome markers with unigene information and a high-density A. cepa linkage map. The information on these unigene markers is valuable in genome sequencing and useful trait detection in Allium.


Assuntos
Allium , Cebolas , Allium/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Cebolas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
9.
Environ Entomol ; 50(4): 878-887, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043759

RESUMO

Allium leafminer, Phytomyza gymnostoma (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is an invasive species first recorded in the Western Hemisphere in 2015 and has expanded its range into northeastern and MidAtlantic states. Its host range encompasses Allium species grown for food and ornamentals, weedy species, species used for pollinator provisioning, and species of conservation concern. Using field and laboratory studies, we advanced methods for rearing, developed a phenology model for spring emergence, describe pupal development, and report on parasitism. Spring emergence was best detected by scouting wild alliums as opposed to emergence cages, and modeled using 350 degree-days above a lower threshold of 1.0°C. Spring adult flight occurred for about 5 wk. Larval development required 22 and 20 d at 17.5 and 25°C, respectively. Pupal development progressed along a color gradient, and an initial presence of fat cell clusters and an air bubble, followed by an exarate pupa. Pupal developed at 3-5% per day at 3°C and reached 25% per day at 21.5°C, but development was not successful at 30°C. Although parasitism rates were low, we documented two Chalcidoidea parasitoids, Halticoptera circulus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Chrysocharis oscinidis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Together, these data provide baseline information to advance IPM for this invasive species both in crops and noncrop areas.


Assuntos
Allium , Dípteros , Vespas , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Pupa , Estados Unidos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44998-45008, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860424

RESUMO

Copper oxychloride gained great importance due to its broad-spectrum antifungal action to combat various fungal diseases of plants. However, excess quantity of cupric fungicides on plants causes enzymatic changes and toxic effects. Thus, the current study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of copper oxychloride on Allium cepa root cells. The root growth, mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and DNA damage were assessed through root growth inhibition, A. cepa ana-telophase, and alkaline comet assays. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to evaluate binding affinities of two copper oxychloride polymorphs (atacamite and paratacamite) on DNA. In root growth inhibition test, onion root length was statistically significantly decreased by changing the copper oxychloride concentration from lower (2.64±0.11 cm) to higher (0.92±0.12 cm). Concentration- and time-dependent decrease in MI was observed whereas increase in CAs such as disturbed ana-telophase, chromosome laggards, stickiness, anaphase bridges, and DNA damage were caused by the copper oxychloride on A. cepa root cells. Molecular docking results revealed that the two main polymorphs of copper oxychloride (atacamite and paratacamite) bind selectively to G and C nucleotides on the B-DNA structure. It is concluded that the atacamite- and paratacamite-induced DNA damage may be through minor groove recognition and intercalation. Findings of the current study revealed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of copper oxychloride on A. cepa root cells. However, further studies should be carried out at the molecular level to reveal the cyto-genotoxic mechanism of action of copper oxychloride in detail.


Assuntos
Allium , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cobre , Dano ao DNA , Meristema , Índice Mitótico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Cebolas/genética , Raízes de Plantas
11.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(2): 301-307, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hemoheal cream, an anti-hemorrhoid herbal preparation, (inspired by Persian medicine literatures in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Hemoheal cream consists of aqueous extract of Allium ampeloprasum L., Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks) Engl and the oil of Sesamum indicum L. Fifty-two patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids were randomized to receive hemoheal cream or placebo for 3 weeks. The patients were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of the severity of anal irritation, bleeding, anal itching, pain, defecation discomfort and swelling sense, and overall subjective improvement (%), as well as any reported adverse events. RESULTS: The results showed that after 3 weeks of treatment, distribution of anal irritation, bleeding, pain as well as swelling sense were significantly different (P < 0.05), while the analysis showed no significant differences between two groups for anal itching and defecation discomfort (P > 0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between the overall subjective improvement of Hemoheal cream and placebo groups (P = 0.012). One patient in the treatment group complained of rashes on the application site. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a positive effect of Hemoheal cream in improving clinical signs and symptoms in patients with hemorrhoids.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Commiphora/química , Hemorroidas/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Sesamum/química , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Assuntos
Allium , Cebolas , Chile , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índice Mitótico , Raízes de Plantas , Rios
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(4): e2100058, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660411

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to extract Allium ursinum L. for the first time by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) as green sustainable method. The impact of temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C and pressure between 150 and 400 bar on the quality of the obtained extracts and efficiency of the extraction was investigated. The highest extraction yield (3.43 %) was achieved by applying the extraction conditions of 400 bar and 60 °C. The analysis of the extracts was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The most dominant sulfur-containing constituent of the extracts was allyl methyl trisulfide with the highest abundance at 350 bar and 50 °C. In addition, the presence of other pharmacologically potent sulfur compounds was recorded including S-methyl methanethiosulfinate, diallyl trisulfide, S-methyl methylthiosulfonate, and dimethyl trisulfide. Multivariate data analysis tool was utilized to investigate distributions of the identified compounds among the extracts obtained under various extraction conditions and yields. It was determined that the SC-CO2 extraction can by efficiently used for A. ursinum.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Enxofre/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Multivariada , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pressão , Compostos de Enxofre/química
14.
Physiol Plant ; 172(3): 1662-1672, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665820

RESUMO

With the rapid development of facility agriculture, it has become popular to study the influences of different light qualities on the growth, material metabolism, and morphology of horticultural crops. Last several years, green onions cultivation models have undergone major changes, and facility cultivation has developed rapidly. To determine the impact of light quality on the green onions, we studied the parameters connected to photosynthesis, incorporating growth, and development, photosynthetic rate (Pn ), chlorophyll fluorescence, light response curve, photosynthetic electron transfer, and chloroplast ultrastructure. We roundly analyzed the influences of different LED light combination (white: W, white-blue combination 3:1:WB, white-green combination 3:1:WG, white-yellow combination 3:1:WY, and white-red combination 3:1:WR, light intensity: 500 ± 10 µmol photons m-2 s-1 ) on the photosynthetic performance of green onions. The WB light led to better results than those of the WR, WG, and WY. There were significant performance improvements in leaf area, plant height, stem thickness, relative growth rate (RGR), pigment content, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic electron transfer efficiency, and chloroplast ultrastructure integrity. In contrast, plants treated with WG and WY were exposed to appreciably blocked light, but they effectively formed a light protection mechanism. The results of this research not only provided insight into the response mechanism of crop photosynthesis to different light qualities, but they also provided a scientific foundation for better planting green onions.


Assuntos
Allium , Cebolas , Clorofila , Cloroplastos , Elétrons , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 34: 102243, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677069

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy (PTT) procedure is anticipated as a new generation of cancer therapy techniques. With this in mind, in this work, an effective drug-free approach was developed to kill MCF7 breast cancer cells using PTT. A novel biocompatible nanocomposite as a PTT transducer was prepared from the in situ phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the presence of perlite as a platform and extract of Allium Fistulosum L. as a stabilizing and reducing agent (Au/perlite NC). The common characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to approve the synthesis of Au/perlite NC. The potential of the synthesized NCs on ROS generating and antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH. In the following, the PTT efficacy of the Au/perlite NC on the destruction of MCF-7 breast cancer cells was assessed in vitro via the cell cycle, cell viability, and DAPI staining assays. The DPPH assay results showed that Au/perlite NC had a radicals scavenging capacity of about 41.47 % in 30 min. Cellular uptake results indicated a significant cell uptake after 1.5 h exposure with Au/perlite NC. Interestingly, cell death was increased dramatically by increasing irradiation time from 6 to 10 min. Cell viability assay revealed that the maximum number of cell death is around 50 % which was observed in the presence of Au/perlite NC by irradiation time of 10 min. Cell cycle results showed that the maximum amount of apoptotic cells (85 %) was observed in Au/perlite NC treatment group received laser irradiation for 10 min. The outcomes demonstrated that the Au/perlite NC can be used as a new drug-free and efficient agent for PTT of breast cancer cells without any concern cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Allium , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Fotoquimioterapia , Óxido de Alumínio , Ouro , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Dióxido de Silício , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 113918, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588008

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Allium hooshidaryae (sect. Pseudoprason) is a wild plant in northwestern Iran. The plant is traditionally used, besides as spice, also for its medicinal properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: Due to the shortcoming evidence in scientific research and the importance of this plant in folk medicine, this study aims to assess the chemical compositions and biological activities, which have no longer reported to date. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bulbs of A. hooshidaryae were collected from West Azerbaijan, Iran. The plant essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus according to the European pharmacopeia. The plant hydromethanolic extract was obtained using maceration method. The volatile oil compositions of A. hooshidaryae bulbs were evaluated by use of combined gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Furthermore, different biological activities of the yielded essential oil and hydromethanolic extract were in vitro evaluated. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using disc diffusion assay, tube dilution assay, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The cytotoxic activities were assayed by reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) toward two human cancerous cell lines (MOLT-4 and MCF-7). Antioxidant activity was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging assay. RESULTS: GC/FID and GC/MS analyses allowed detecting 62 components in the A. hooshidaryae essential oil representing the 91.87% of the total oil. The volatile compounds were identified by comparison of the relative retention indices (RRI), mass spectra with those in NIST08/NIH and Wiley (257 and 7 L) libraries and co-elution with authentic samples where available. Surprisingly, the most abundant compound was obtained as menthol (19.0%) followed by carvacrol (10.1%), menthone (6.4%), methyl (methylthiomethyl) disulfide (4.2%), dimethyl disulfide (3.8%), and thymol (3.8%). Contrary to the other Allium species enriched by sulfur compounds, just three compounds accounting for 10.7% of the total oil were obtained as the sulfur-sulfur bond containing components (Dimethyl disulfide, Methyl (methylthio) methyl disulfide, Bis-methylthiomethyl disulfide). The hydromethanolic extract of A. hooshidaryae showed higher anti-radical (IC50DPPH of 9.81 µg/mL) and cytotoxic (for MOLT-4 and MCF-7, IC50s were 76.3 and 128.6 µg/mL, respectively) activities rather than that of the obtained essential oil (IC50 DPPH of 39.9 µg/mL; IC50 MOLT-4 of 109.2 µg/mL, and IC50 MCF-7 of 297.5 µg/mL). While, the essential oil exhibited the anti-Staphylococcus aurous and anti-Escherichia coli activities approximately the same as Chloramphenicol (positive control). The MIC values were 31.25 and 62.5 µg/mL and the disk inhibition zone values were 23 and 21 mm, respectively. In addition, Candida albicans had moderate sensitivity (MFC of 62.5 µg/mL) for the essential oil. CONCLUSIONS: The hydromethanolic extract of A. hooshidaryae shows the potency to be used for food protection in addition to further cytotoxic investigations. Associated with antimicrobial abilities of both A. hooshidaryae products, the compatible results was observed with the traditional claim having being not investigated to date. These findings will facilitate the development of A. hooshidaryae for further deep investigations.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Medicina Tradicional , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 768, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436989

RESUMO

Allium is one of the well-known genera of the Amaryllidaceae family, which contains over 780 species. Onions, garlic, leeks, and shallots are the most important species of this genus. Allium hirtifolium (shallot) is a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and bioactive compounds such as organic sulfur compounds with an expansive range of biological activities and medicinal attributes. To identify the putative compounds and genes involved in the organic sulfur pathway, we applied GC-MS and RNA-seq techniques for the bulb, stem, and flower tissues of A. hirtifolium. The essential oil analysis revealed the maximum amount of sulfur compounds in stem against flower and bulb tissues. Transcriptome profiling showed 6155, 6494, and 4259 DEGs for bulb vs. flower, bulb vs. stem, and flower vs. stem, respectively. Overall, more genes were identified as being up-regulated rather than down-regulated in flower tissue compared to the stem and bulb tissues. Our findings in accordance with other results from different papers, suggest that carbohydrates are vital to bulb formation and development because a high number of identified DEGs (586 genes) were mapped to carbohydrate metabolism. This study has detected the genes in the organic sulfur pathway and indicated that the alliinase gene shows a high variability among different tissues. In general, this study formed a useful genomic resource data to explore tissue-specific sulfur pathway in A. hirtifolium, which is helpful for functional breeding.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Enxofre/metabolismo , Allium/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(11): 4360-4369, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415587

RESUMO

Allium vegetables belong to the most widespread and commonly grown vegetables in Slovakia. In this study, we dealt with the content of selected heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd) in cultivated garlic (Záhorský, Lukan, Makoi), onion (Amika, Red Matte, Diamant), and leek (Bavaria, Golem, Tango). We determined the total content of heavy metals (aqua regia), and available-mobile forms of heavy metals (1 M NH4NO3) in soils. Analytical final procedure was flame AAS. The results were compared with the limit values given by the Law no. 220/2004 (valid in the SR) as well as threshold values proposed by the European Commission (EC) (2006). Gained result showed that the total content of Cd (1.26 mg.kg-1) as well as the available mobile forms of Cd (0.16 mg.kg-1) and Pb (0.64 mg.kg-1) was exceeded on the soil on which Allium species were grown. Determined contents of heavy metals in garlic were in the range of 0.03-0.07 mg Cd.kg-1 FM (fresh matter), 0.02-0.11 mg Pb.kg-1 FM (fresh matter), in onion ranged from ND (not detected) to 0.03 mg Cd.kg-1 FM (fresh matter), 0.09-0.2 mg Pb.kg-1 FM (fresh matter), and in leek were in the range of, 0.07-0.13 mg Cd.kg-1 FM (fresh matter), and 0.3-0.5 mg Pb.kg-1 FM (fresh matter). Based on the obtained BAF values, we can conclude that the genus Allium does not belong to the accumulator of evaluated hazardous metals. Safe food production requires constant monitoring of hazardous metals in raw materials of plant origin, as these metals can have serious negative effects on human health.


Assuntos
Allium , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
19.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499159

RESUMO

Allium sativum L. (garlic bulbs) and Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion leaves) showed quantitative differences of identified compounds: allicin and alliin (380 µg/mL and 1410 µg/mL in garlic; 20 µg/mL and 145 µg/mL in Welsh onion), and the phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, kaempferol, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and rutin). The chemical composition determined the inhibitory activity of Allium extracts in a dose-dependent manner, on human normal cells (BJ-IC50 0.8841% garlic/0.2433% Welsh onion and HaCaT-IC50 1.086% garlic/0.6197% Welsh onion) and tumor cells (DLD-1-IC50 5.482%/2.124%; MDA-MB-231-IC50 6.375%/2.464%; MCF-7-IC50 6.131%/3.353%; and SK-MES-1-IC50 4.651%/5.819%). At high concentrations, the cytotoxic activity of each extract, on normal cells, was confirmed by: the 50% of the growth inhibition concentration (IC50) value, the cell death induced by necrosis, and biochemical determination of LDH, catalase, and Caspase-3. The four tumor cell lines treated with high concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%, and 1.25%) of garlic extract showed different sensibility, appreciated on the base of IC50 value for the most sensitive cell line (SK-MES-1), and the less sensitive (MDA-MB-231) cell line. The high concentrations of Welsh onion extract (5%, 2.5%, and 1.25%) induced pH changes in the culture medium and SK-MES-1 being the less sensitive cell line.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Cebolas/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
20.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(1): 83-90, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772453

RESUMO

Welsh onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are often affected by stressful environments, such as high light and drought, during summer cultivation, which hinders their growth. We used CO2 assimilation, OJIP transient and MR curves to analyse the photosynthetic characteristics of Welsh onion. The results showed that single high light stress caused a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate through stomatal limitation, while the single drought treatment and the combined stress induced nonstomatal limitation. FO and FJ increased, Fm decreased, and a distinct K-phase was induced. High light and drought stress blocked MR transients, leading to a gradual decrease in VPSI and VPSII-PSI . In general, photosynthesis of Welsh onion was inhibited by high light and drought, which destroyed the receptor and donor side of PSII and reduced electron transport capacity of PSII and PSI.


Assuntos
Allium/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Clorofila , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Solo , Água
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