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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 1974-1986, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850583

RESUMO

GC-MS profiling and metabolomics study of anise and star anise oils obtained by hydrodistillation, n-hexane, and microwave-assisted extraction methods were conducted herein. Trans-anethole was the major phenylpropanoid in both oils. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses revealed a clear separation of different extraction methods. Microwave-assisted star anise oil (MSA) revealed the highest anethole content (93.78%). MSA oil showed antioxidant activity using DPPH and ABTS assays, this was verified via an in-silico docking study of its major compounds on human tyrosinase and NAD(P)H oxidase. Trans-anethole displayed the best fitting scores (-8.9 and -10.1 Kcal/mole, respectively). MSA oil showed promising cytotoxic activity on different cell lines, mainly the cervical (HeLa) cell lines. Cell cycle inhibition at the G0-G1 phase was observed with an early apoptotic effect of the oil on HeLa cells. Trans-anethole achieved the best docking scores (-7.9, -9.3 and -9.9 Kcal/mole) for in-silico study on EGFR, CDK2 and CDK4 enzymes engaged in cancer, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Óleos Voláteis , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Anisóis , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química
2.
Parasitol Int ; 90: 102620, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792323

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are potent vectors by serving as agents to life-threatening diseases in humans. Increasing resistance in mosquitoes against existing insecticides and repellents brings new challenges and an opportunity to explore sustainable compounds. We chose six medicinal plants to screen potential bioactive compounds that could act as an insecticide. Among these, crude hexane leaf extract of Acorus calamus showed higher mortality percentage against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 and LC90 values were 151.86 ppm and 536.36 ppm, respectively, for the third instar A. aegypti larvae, and 174.70 ppm and 696.73 ppm, respectively, for C. quinquefasciatus. The treated larvae of both species showed morphological and physiological variations when compared to control. The GC-MS profile of purified fractions showed a single peak. Further, FT-IR and NMR analyses confirmed the propensity of the purified compound as trans asarone (phenylpropanoid; C12H16O3. LC50 and LC90 values of purified asasone-treated larvae were 2.35 ppm and 12.58 ppm, respectively, for A. aegypti and 2.15 ppm and 11.58 ppm, respectively, for C. quinquefasciatus. Treatment of different sub-lethal doses of asarone to mosquito larvae at various time intervals showed disruption of intestinal layers. By showing negligible toxicity to non-target organism, purified asarone has a great potential in vector management.


Assuntos
Acorus , Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Inseticidas , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9978, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705583

RESUMO

Anethole, a widely used industrial flavoring agent is majorly sourced from anise and star anise. The present study is aimed to the in-depth pharmacological analysis i.e. anti-diabetic, skin whitening, neurodegenerative disorder inhibitory activities of anethole-rich Clausena heptaphylla leaf essential oil (ARCHEO) (88.59%) as revealed by the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and further confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR as well as to compare with standard compound anethole. ARCHEO (ABTS EC50 6.97 ± 0.004 µg/mL; Protease assay 4.51 ± 0.004 µg/mL) outperformed the standard compound anethole (ABTS EC50 9.48 ± 0.048 µg/mL; Protease assay EC50 22.64 ± 0.016 µg/mL) in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory experiments. ARCHEO was also shown to be more effective than the reference compound anethole in terms of anti-diabetic activity (EC50 22.35 ± 0.121 µg/mL), tyrosinase inhibitory activity (EC50 16.45 ± 0.012 µg/mL), and anti-cholinesterase activity (EC50 22.32 ± 0.016 µg/mL). However, ARCHEO exhibited lower antimicrobial activity towards all the tested microbes compared to standard compound anethole and as for the MIC, ARCHEO was effective only towards Salmonella typhimurium (60 µg/mL), Streptococcus mutans (20 µg/mL), and Aspergillus fumigatus (75 µg/mL). ARCHEO (11.11%) and anethole (12.33%) showed no genotoxic effect based on Allium cepa assay mitotic index value. Thus, ARCHEO could be a commercially viable and widely available cheaper source of anethole, which has buoyant demand in the field of food flavoring, fragrance, and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Clausena , Óleos Voláteis , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Anisóis , Dano ao DNA , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases
4.
Poult Sci ; 101(8): 101962, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690001

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of trans-anethole (TA) on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver inflammation model of chickens by determining the levels of inflammatory mediators in serum and liver, relative mRNA expression and protein expression of inflammation-related genes in NF-κB signaling pathway. A total of 160 one-day-old male chickens (Arbor Acres) were assigned into 4 treatments with 8 replicates of 5 birds each. On d 20, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with sterile saline and the other groups were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg body weight). There were no significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among groups. However, compared with the control group, the LPS group significantly increased (P < 0.01) the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decreased (P < 0.01) the interleukin-10 (IL-10) level. TA attenuated (P < 0.01) these increases in IL-1ß, TNF-α, ALT, and AST levels and improved (P < 0.01) the IL-10 level. In liver, the groups fed with TA had lower (P < 0.01) concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α as well as higher (P < 0.05) concentration of IL-10. Furthermore, TA downregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) and TNF-α, also upregulated (P < 0.05) IL-10 and inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) upon LPS challenge. In protein level, supplementation of 600 mg/kg of TA downregulated (P < 0.05) and upregulated (P < 0.05) the protein expression of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, respectively. The present findings suggest that TA could alleviate the acute liver inflammation induced by LPS via blocking the activation of NF-κB and the 600 mg/kg of TA plays more fruitful role in protecting broilers against LPS stimulus.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , NF-kappa B , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Galinhas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683006

RESUMO

The study aimed to examine the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) of two different frequencies (5 and 50 Hz) on the expression of regulatory (agrA, hld, rot) and staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE-sea, sec, sel) genes as well as the production of SEs (SEA, SEC, SEL) by the Staphylococcus aureus FRI913 strain cultured on a medium supplemented with a subinhibitory concentration of trans-anethole (TA). Furthermore, a theoretical model of interactions between the bacterial medium and bacterial cells exposed to RMF was proposed. Gene expression and SEs production were measured using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA techniques, respectively. Based on the obtained results, it was found that there were no significant differences in the expression of regulatory and SE genes in bacteria simultaneously cultured on a medium supplemented with TA and exposed to RMF at the same time in comparison to the control (unexposed to TA and RMF). In contrast, when the bacteria were cultured on a medium supplemented with TA but were not exposed to RMF or when they were exposed to RMF of 50 Hz (but not to TA), a significant increase in agrA and sea transcripts as compared to the unexposed control was found. Moreover, the decreased level of sec transcripts in bacteria cultured without TA but exposed to RMF of 50 Hz was also revealed. In turn, a significant increase in SEA and decrease in SEC and SEL production was observed in bacteria cultured on a medium supplemented with TA and simultaneously exposed to RMFs. It can be concluded, that depending on SE and regulatory genes expression as well as production of SEs, the effect exerted by the RMF and TA may be positive (i.e., manifests as the increase in SEs and/or regulatory gene expression of SEs production) or negative (i.e., manifests as the reduction in both aforementioned features) or none.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Anisóis , Enterotoxinas/genética , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Campos Magnéticos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 113070, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658236

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia­reperfusion injury (MI/R) is considered a main risk factor for global cardiac mortality and morbidity, for which no effective treatment exists. Both inflammation and epigenetic regulation play a pivotal role in the early stage of MI/R. The present study aimed at investigating the prospective anti-inflammatory role of trans-anethole (TNA) in targeting MI/R and its related mechanism in upregulating the expression of the inflammatory and cardiac-related gene (VAV3), and its epigenetic regulators (lncRNA-JRKL-AS1 and miR-1298) that were retrieved from in-silico data analysis in an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model. MATERIALS & METHODS: TNA was administered in 3 doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), 15 min prior to coronary ligation in male Wistar rats. The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and dP/dtmax were assessed. Histopathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were performed to assess the effects of TNA pre-treatment on the I/R rats model. RESULTS: TNA alleviated the I/R-induced cardiac injury pathologically and improved the cardiac function tests and enzymes. At the molecular level, TNA upregulated the expression level of the retrieved RNA-based panel (VAV3 mRNA/miR-1298/lncRNA JRKL-AS1). At the protein level, TNA decreased the cardiac content of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. CONCLUSION: TNA has demonstrated a potential ability to alleviate the cardiac injury and attenuate the inflammatory response following ischemia-reperfusion in the rat model through modulation of the expression of RNA panel (VAV3 mRNA/miR-1298/lncRNA JRKL-AS1) and TNF- α protein.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , RNA Longo não Codificante , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Apoptose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 185: 105135, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772838

RESUMO

Plant secondary metabolites are currently known to interfere with basic metabolic, behavioral and physiological processes of insects. In the current study, the biological and physiological effects of trans-anethole were investigated against Hyphantria cunea Drury. The bioassay data demonstrated the high toxicity of trans-anethole against the fourth-instar larvae with the LC30, LC50 and LC90 values of 0.72, 1.41 and 7.20 µL/mL, respectively. Also the concentrations of LC30 and LC50 showed 53 and 87% feeding deterrency against the larvae. The biochemical experiments revealed that oral exposure of trans-anethole decreased the activities of digestive enzymes, acetylcholinesterase and the contents of energy reserves while, it induced the activities of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes compared to control. In fact, trans-anethole induced the inhibition of digestion and AChE activities accompanied by imbalance in metabolic and oxidative processes so it may be recommended as a potent biopesticide in control of H. cunea populations.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Mariposas , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Anisóis , Larva
8.
J Food Sci ; 87(7): 2869-2878, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638333

RESUMO

Trans-anethole (AN), which exhibits strong insect-repellent activity against Plodia interpunctella larvae, was applied on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film as an active packaging coating layer. All developed films at different concentrations (25%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) exhibited significant insect repellent activities. However, these films did not significantly differ from the control film in terms of color and transparency. In addition, the developed polypropylene (PP) and PET laminated films containing 25% AN (PP/AN25/PET) exhibited strong and continuous insect-repellent activity for up to 42 days. Finally, the developed film showed 2.86-fold stronger repellent activity than that of the control film when applied to the almond flake cereals packaging. These results suggest that PP/AN25/PET could be used as a potent insect-repelling packaging film in a realistic grain-packaging system. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A PP/trans-anethole/PET film that exhibited good insect-repellent activity for 42 days was newly developed in this study. As it showed strong insect repellency, especially in almond flake cereals packaging, it is expected to have high potential as an insect-repelling grain-packaging film.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos , Prunus dulcis , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Grão Comestível , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Insetos , Polietileno , Polietilenotereftalatos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9902905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607305

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder affecting 1-2% of world population, and one-third of patients are refractory to pharmacological treatment. This fact has stimulated research for new antiepileptic drugs and natural products have been an important source. trans-Anethole (TAN) is a phenylpropanoid, component of some essential oils, extracted from plants, and its effects have been little studied. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the TAN effect in classic seizure models and evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) profile of animals treated with this substance. For this, Swiss male mice (Mus musculus) were used, and the lethal dose was evaluated and subsequently submitted to the test maximal electroshock (MES), the pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ) induced seizure test, and the EEG profile. Initially, the LD50 for TAN was estimated in 1000 mg/kg (i.p.) dose and there was no sign of acute toxicity or death. In the MES test, TAN 300, i.p. (12.00 ± 2.9 s) and 400 mg/kg, i.p. (9.00 ± 4.4 s) doses was able to decrease tonic seizures duration induced by electric discharge (0.5 mA, 150 pulses/s, for 0.5 s). In the PTZ test (75 mg/kg, i.p.), TAN 400 mg/kg, i.p. increased the latency to myoclonic jerks (80.0 (56.0-134.0)), the latency totonic-clonic seizures (900.0 (861.0-900.0) and decrease seizure duration (0.0 (0.0-10.0)). No deaths were found in this groups compared to vehicle. EEG analysis showed an amplitude decrease of waves (ratio of baseline) in TAN 300 (1.82 ± 0.23) and 400 mg/kg (1.06 ± 0.16) groups. In this way, TAN at 400 mg/kg was able to inhibit and/or attenuate seizures by increasing the time for the onset of spasms and convulsions, as reducing the duration of seizures. The EEG profile corroborate with this results showing a reduction in the amplitude of waves compared to the PTZ group. Thus, TAN showed an anticonvulsant effect in all experimental models performed, behavioral and electroencephalographic.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrochoque , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pentilenotetrazol/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108872, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617845

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of trans-anethole (TA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) injury and the potential mechanisms. The cells were pretreated with TA (0 and 1 mM) for 24 h, prior to stimulation by LPS (1 mg/mL) for 24 h. Compared with the control group (CON), LPS stimulus resulted in decreased cell viability, intestinal barrier injury, increased cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. These effects triggered by LPS were reversed by TA. In order to reveal the main genes and pathways involved among the groups, transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the differential expression genes (DEGs) among the treatment groups. There were a total of 493 DEGs (275 upregulated and 218 downregulated) that were identified between the LPS and CON group. Meanwhile, a total of 361 DEGs (103 regulated and 258 downregulated) were identified in the LPS+TA group compared with the LPS group. The results showed that the DEGs were mostly enriched in immune related pathways, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, interleukin-17 (IL-17) signaling pathway, NF-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, antigen processing and presentation, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Based on the results of RNA-sequencing, further investigation of the signaling pathway involved revealed that TA could inhibit the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in LPS-induced IEC-6 cells. In conclusion, this finding demonstrated a functional role of TA in intestinal epithelial cells injury and indicated that TA may be a potential strategy for treatment of inflammatory intestinal diseases.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Células Epiteliais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Cell Transplant ; 31: 9636897221079336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416722

RESUMO

Hypoxic injury to the brain is very intricate under the control of biochemical reactions induced by various factors and mechanisms. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have already been revealed to affect pathological processes in the nervous system of different degrees. This research aimed to investigate the mechanisms implicated in hypoxic brain injury. ß-Asarone mitigated the decrease of cell viability, superoxide dismutase activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as the increase of cell apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase release, malondialdehyde content, and reactive oxidative species production by cobalt chloride. LncRNA ribonuclease P RNA component H1 (RPPH1) was discovered to be highly expressed in hypoxia-induced PC12 cells, and ß-Asarone addition led to a decline in RPPH1 expression. RPPH1 overexpression reversed the effect of ß-Asarone on hypoxia-induced injury in PC12 cells. Furthermore, we proved that RPPH1 could sponge miR-542-3p. Subsequently, death effector domain containing 2 (DEDD2) was proven as the downstream gene of RPPH1/miR-542-3p axis. Eventually, the whole regulation mechanism of RPPH1/miR-542-3p/DEDD2 axis was testified through rescue assays. The impacts of ß-Asarone on hypoxia-induced PC12 cells could be countervailed by RPPH1 augment, which was also discovered to be neutralized in response to miR-542-3p overexpression or DEDD2 depletion. These findings offered a novel perspective for understanding neuroprotection.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Apoptose , Hipóxia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Células PC12 , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Ratos
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 360: 109947, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploring new drugs for the management of myocardial infarction (MI) is crucial, as MI is a major contributor to mortality worldwide. Anethole, a naturally occurring essential oil component, has numerous medicinal, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic purposes. This study explored the potential action of anethole to protect myocytes against MI injure. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: normal; anethole; and isoproterenol (ISO) groups in addition to two groups of ISO + anethole (125 and 250 mg/kg). All anethole groups were administered the oil component for 30 days, and all ISO groups were challenged with ISO on the 28th and 29th days. Parameters measured included infracted area, ECG, cardiac markers, the expression of Keap 1, nuclear Nrf2, and heme oxygenase-1, as well as the expression of TLR4 and MYD88 together with subsequent downstream oxidative stress, inflammatory, and apoptotic markers. RESULTS: Anethole reduced infarct region, degenerated cardiac indicators levels, amended ECG alterations, and diminished myocardial necrosis. Anethole reduced Keap-1, activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, increased mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities, declined the TLR4/MYD88 pathway, and ameliorated myocardial inflammation and cell death markers. CONCLUSION: Anethole may retain a cardio-protective potential by controlling myocardial oxidative stress (through Nrf2 pathway) and diminishing inflammation and apoptosis via the TLR4/MYD88 pathway.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163914

RESUMO

Illicium verum Hook f. (star anise) is considered an important species in Traditional Chinese Medicine and is also used in contemporary medicine in East Asian countries. It occurs in natural habitats in southeastern parts of China and Vietnam, and is cultivated in various regions in China. The raw materials-Anisi stellati fructus and Anisi stellati aetheroleum obtained from this species exhibit expectorant and spasmolytic activities. The European Pharmacopoeia (4th edition) indicates that these raw materials have been used in allopathy since 2002. The biological activities of the above-mentioned raw materials are determined by the presence of valuable secondary metabolites such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and flavonoids. Recent pharmacological studies on fruit extracts and the essential oil of this species have confirmed their antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and thus their medicinal and cosmetic value. The aim of this review was to examine the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological studies that focused on possible cosmetic applications. In addition to fruit extracts and essential oil, the current consensus on the safety of trans-anethole, which is the main compound of essential oil used in cosmetology, is underlined here.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Illicium , Óleos Voláteis , Anisóis/farmacologia , Illicium/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
14.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 79: 105290, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861381

RESUMO

Potential consequences of combined exposure to the selected food-borne alkenylbenzenes safrole and estragole or their proximate carcinogenic 1'-hydroxy metabolites were evaluated in vitro and in silico. HepG2 cells were exposed to 1'-hydroxyestragole and 1'-hydroxysafrole individually or in equipotent combination subsequently detecting cytotoxicity and DNA adduct formation. Results indicate that concentration addition adequately describes the cytotoxic effects and no statistically significant differences were shown in the level of formation of the major DNA adducts. Furthermore, physiologically based kinetic modeling revealed that at normal dietary intake the concentration of the parent compounds and their 1'-hydroxymetabolites remain substantially below the Km values for the respective bioactivation and detoxification reactions providing further support for the fact that the simultaneous presence of the two carcinogens or of their proximate carcinogenic 1'-hydroxy metabolites may not affect their DNA adduct formation. Overall, these results point at the absence of interactions upon combined exposure to selected food-borne alkenylbenzenes at realistic dietary levels of intake.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos/toxicidade , Anisóis/toxicidade , Safrol/análogos & derivados , Safrol/toxicidade , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/farmacocinética , Anisóis/farmacocinética , Carcinógenos/farmacocinética , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Adutos de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Safrol/farmacocinética
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(4): 6317-6333, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453252

RESUMO

The current study was designed to assess the in vivo hepatoprotective properties of trans-Anethole, which is a principal aromatic component of star anise. The hepatoprotective effects of trans-Anethole were evaluated at three doses [40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)] against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in male Wistar rats for 4 weeks. Forty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into seven groups; the control (group I) received only distilled water. Rats of group II received CCl4 (1 ml/kg b.wt.) in a 1:1 ratio of CCl4 and olive oil via intraperitoneal doses, while rats of group III received silymarin (50 mg/kg b.wt.), followed by CCl4 intraperitoneal doses, 3 days in a week. Rats of group IV received trans-anethole (160 mg/kg b.wt.) for 28 days as a negative control. Trans-anethole at the doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg b.wt. was administered to groups V, VI, and VII, respectively, for 28 days, followed by CCl4 (i.p). Results showed that CCl4 treatment (group II) elevated the levels of different serum markers like aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by 4.74 fold, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 3.47 fold, aspartate alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 3.55 fold, direct bilirubin by 3.48 fold, and total bilirubin by 2.38 fold in contrast to control. Furthermore, it was found that the decreased levels of liver antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly modulated by the pre-administration of rats with different doses (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg b.wt.) of trans-anethole. Furthermore, pre-treatment of trans-anethole reduced the level of phase I enzymes and elevated the level of phase II detoxifying enzymes. Histopathological investigations showed that the treatment with trans-anethole was effective in ameliorating CCl4-induced liver injury and restored the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, trans-anethole restored p53 and cyclin D levels in liver tissue relative to group II. Western blot analysis revealed that the trans-anethole treatment downregulated the expression of Bax and caspase-3 while upregulated the expression of Bcl-xL. Collectively, the findings of the study showed the strong efficacy of trans-anethole in ameliorating the hepatic damage caused by CCl4 through the modulation of antioxidants and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 74(4): 513-518, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904269

RESUMO

In our previous study based on a whole-blood model of sepsis infected with trans-anethole (TA)-treated Staphylococcus aureus, we have found that innate immune response was more effective in comparison to non-treated cells. Due to the previous observation, in the current preliminary study, a primary adaptive immune response was analysed. This study was conducted to evaluate the expression of selected cytokine (IL1B, IL2, IL6, IL10, TNF, TGFB1, IFNG) and Toll-like receptor (TLR2) genes in lymphocytes isolated from whole human blood infected with S. aureus Newman strain treated with TA. The lymphocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from blood samples infected with S. aureus, as well as from non-infected samples. Gene expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The lymphocytes isolated from the blood infected with TA-treated staphylococcal cells demonstrated significantly greater IL10, IL1B, IL6, TNF and TLR2 expression. Hence, it is possible that the previously observed changes in the surface structure of TA-treated S. aureus Newman strain may significantly increase the relative expression of IL10, IL1B, IL6, TNF and TLR2 genes in lymphocytes; however, further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Anisóis , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos/química , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114814, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775034

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperglycemia (HG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) often promote superoxide accumulation, which may increase oxidative stress. Reducing superoxide production in hyperglycemia and the inflammatory condition is an emerging way to reduce protein and lipid oxidation and diabetes complication. AIM OF STUDY: To examine the effect of Agastache foeniculum essential oil (AFEO) and oil fraction (AFoil) on HG- and LPS-stimulated oxidative stress, the pathogenicity of AFEO and AFoil on oxidative stress was assessed. METHODS: The stimulatory effects of AFEO and AFoil on the activity and expression of NADH oxide (NOX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) in the stimulated macrophage cell line, J774.A1, was studied. The interaction patterns of AFEO and AFoil components with NOX, SOD, CAT, NRF2, and NF-kB proteins were also deduced using molecular docking. RESULTS: Estragole was the main ingredient in AFEO (97%). Linolenic acid (32.10%), estragole (16.22%), palmitic acid (12.62%), linoleic acid (12.04%), and oleic acid (8.73%) were the major chemical components of the AFoil. NOX activation was stimulated in macrophage cells by HG and LPS. At 20 µg/mL, AFEO and AFoil decreased NOX activity while increased SOD and CAT activities in stimulated macrophages. AFoil with estragole and omega-3 fatty acids was better than AFEO with estragole in anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative activity. According to molecular docking research, estragole, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid bind to different hydrophobic pockets of NOX, SOD, CAT, NFR2, and NF-kB using hydrogen bonds, van der Waals bonds, pi-alkyl, and pi-anion interactions, with different binding energies. CONCLUSION: AFEO and AFoil showed antioxidant and anti-diabetic activity. The mechanisms in lowering oxidative stress markers depended on down-regulating superoxide-producing enzymes and up-regulating superoxide-removing enzymes at gene and protein levels. The AFoil emulsion can be used to reduce the detrimental impacts of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/química , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Conformação Proteica , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/química , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/farmacologia
19.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 56-64, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905418

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Human vascular smooth muscle cell (hVSMC) accumulation and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) dysfunction are associated with the pathogenesis of AS. This study explores whether myristicin plays a protective role in AS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hVSMCs and HUVECs were stimulated with 100 µg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to establish a cellular model of AS. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell apoptosis were evaluated using MTT, LDH and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Cell migration and inflammatory cytokine release were assessed using Transwell assay and ELISA. RESULTS: Myristicin (5, 10, 25, and 50 µM) had no obvious effect on cell viability or the activity of LDH in hVSMCs, while 100 and 200 µM myristicin markedly suppressed hVSMCs viability and increased LDH release. Myristicin had no obvious effect on cell viability or the activity of LDH in HUVECs. Myristicin inhibited viability and increased apoptosis in ox-LDL-treated hVSMCs, but was associated with increased proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in HUVECs stimulated by ox-LDL. Additionally, myristicin markedly suppressed ox-LDL-induced hVSMCs migration and the release of inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, IL-6, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, in HUVECs. Results also demonstrated that the promoting effects of ox-LDL on the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signalling pathway in both hVSMCs and HUVECs were abolished by treatment with myristicin. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Myristicin regulated proliferation and apoptosis by regulating the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway in ox-LDL-stimulated hVSMCs and HUVECs. Thus, myristicin may be used as a new potential drug for AS treatment.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dioxolanos/farmacologia , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Dioxolanos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/administração & dosagem , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
20.
J Insect Sci ; 22(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958664

RESUMO

Plant essential oils, with high bioactivity and biodegradability, provide promising alternatives to synthetic pesticides for pest control. Trans-anethole is the major component of essential oil from star anise, Illicium verum Hook. The compound has a strong contact toxicity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which is a major insect pest of many vegetables and crops. However, little information is known about how M. persicae responds to trans-anethole at the molecular level. We conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of M. persicae in response to a LD50 dose of trans-anethole. A total of 559 differentially expressed genes were detected in the treated individuals, with 318 genes up-regulated, and 241 genes down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these genes were classified into different biological processes and pathways. We also found that genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, DnaJ, and cuticle proteins were dramatically up-regulated in response to trans-anethole. To study the function of these genes, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) analysis. Knockdown of an ABC transporter gene (ABCG4) and a DnaJ gene (DnaJC1) resulted in a significantly increased mortality rate in M. persicae following trans-anethole exposure, indicating the involvement of these two genes in the toxicity response to trans-anethole. The findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of M. persicae in coping with plant essential oils.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Anisóis , Afídeos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Óleos Voláteis , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anisóis/farmacologia , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Afídeos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
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