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1.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E55, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048736

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sodium Reduction in Communities Program aims to reduce dietary sodium intake through policy, systems, and environmental approaches. The objective of our study was to evaluate changes in sodium levels over 5 years (2016-2021) in food served in school lunches as an outcome of a Sodium Reduction in Communities program in Arkansas's largest school district. INTERVENTION APPROACH: We collaborated with Springdale Public Schools (SPS) to reduce dietary sodium intake in school lunches through increased implementation of 1) food service guidelines, 2) procurement practices, 3) food preparation practices, and 4) environmental strategies. These activities were maintained from year 1 through year 5. Implementation priorities were informed each year by evaluation findings from the preceding year. EVALUATION METHODS: We collected lunch service records and information on nutritional content of menu items for the 30 schools under the direction of SPS's Child Nutrition Department. We used a pretest-posttest quantitative evaluation design to analyze annual changes in the sodium content of meals, from baseline through year 5. RESULTS: From baseline through year 1, SPS reduced sodium served per diner, per entrée offered, and per entrée served. These reductions were maintained from baseline through 5 years of follow-up. Mean sodium per 1,000 kcal per diner served was 1,740 mg at baseline and was lower in each of the 5 follow-up years: 1,488 mg (14% decrease) in year 1; 1,495 mg (14% decrease) in year 2; 1,612 mg (7% decrease) in year 3; 1,560 mg (10% decrease) in year 4; and 1,532 mg (12% decrease) in year 5. Energy served per diner remained stable. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: Our study provides evidence for sustained sodium reduction strategies in a large ethnically and socioeconomically diverse school district, pointing to the potential benefit of implementing similar strategies in other school districts. The study also shows how program evaluation can be used to support sustainability.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Sódio na Dieta , Arkansas , Criança , Humanos , Almoço , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Sódio
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 120, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High school canteens are an ideal setting for public health nutrition intervention, and choice architecture strategies that facilitate the purchase of healthier foods and beverages from school canteens are recommended by the World Health Organization. The rapid uptake of online lunch ordering within school canteens provides a unique opportunity to implement choice architecture strategies that support healthier food choices with high fidelity. Despite this, no trial has tested the efficacy of choice architecture strategies within an online lunch ordering system on improving the nutritional quality of high school student lunch purchases. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of embedding choice architecture strategies into an online lunch ordering system on the nutritional quality of the school canteen lunch purchases of high school students (aged 12-19 years). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with nine high schools in one Australian state. Schools were randomized to receive either a 2-month choice architecture intervention (involving menu labelling, prompts, item positioning, and feedback), or usual online ordering. Nutrient quality of online canteen lunch purchases was assessed using routine data collected by the online ordering system. Primary outcomes were the proportion of 'Everyday', 'Occasional', and 'Should not be sold' items purchased, categorized using the state healthy canteen policy. Secondary outcomes were the mean energy, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of purchases and the mean weekly revenue from online lunch orders. Linear mixed models were analyzed to assess outcomes. RESULTS: Analysis of the student cohort (Intervention: 4 schools, 656 students; Control: 5 schools, 675 students) showed significant between group differences over time for the intervention group for the mean percentage of online lunch items per student that were 'Everyday' (+ 5.5%; P < 0.001) and 'Should not be sold' (- 4.4%; P < 0.001). There were no between group differences over time in the mean percentage of online lunch items that were 'Occasional'; the average energy, saturated fat, sugar, or sodium content of lunch orders. There was also no difference in mean weekly revenue from high school student online lunch orders (P = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a low intensity, choice architecture intervention embedded within an online ordering system can increase the purchase of healthier food items for high school students in one Australian state without any adverse impact on canteen revenue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered on Open Science Framework on 23rd October 2020 as osf.io/h8zfr.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Austrália , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Sódio , Estudantes , Açúcares
3.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079723

RESUMO

While plant-based eating has become increasingly popular, little is known of how this trend has impacted childcare center meals. The purpose of this study was to measure the nutrient content and diet quality of vegetarian alternative lunches and compare these measures to those of standard childcare lunches and nutrient benchmarks representing one-third of the Dietary Reference Intake for 3-year-olds and 4-5-year-olds. Menu data were obtained from seven urban Kansas childcare centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program and regularly providing a vegetarian alternative lunch. The centers provided detailed menu information for 27 days' worth of meals. The most common vegetarian substitution was cheese, which was used to fulfill all or part of the meat/meat alternative requirement in over three-quarters of the vegetarian alternative meals (n = 22). Compared to the standard meals, the vegetarian alternative meals were higher in calories, fat, saturated fat, calcium, and sodium and lower in protein, choline, and diet quality (p = 0.05). Both lunch options met the benchmarks for vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, and protein. Iron content for both (95% CI: standard 1.61-2.17 mg; vegetarian 1.37-2.7 mg) was below the benchmark. Although additional research is needed to better understand how vegetarianism has impacted childcare meals in the U.S., important differences in the nutrient contents were observed between the standard and vegetarian alternative meals. In addition, the results suggest vegetarian alternative meals that rely heavily on cheese may be of lower diet quality.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Adulto , Cálcio , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Kansas , Almoço , Valor Nutritivo , Vegetarianos
4.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079874

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effects of lunch timing based on a fixed feeding window, and the effects of apple preload on postprandial glucose and insulin responses after nutrient-balanced lunch and the subsequent high-fat dinner in healthy participants. Twenty-six participants completed four randomized, crossover experimental trials: (1) early standardized lunch at 12:00 (12S); (2) apple preload to 12S (12A+S); (3) late standardized lunch at 14:00 (14S); and (4) apple preload to 14S (14A+S); wherein twenty participants' blood samples were collected for insulin analysis following the lunch trails. In each experimental trial, each participant equipped with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) was provided with a standardized breakfast and a high-fat dinner to be consumed at 8:00 and 18:00, respectively. The late lunch (14S) resulted in significantly elevated glucose peak, delayed insulin peak time, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased insulin resistance following the lunch; also decreased glycemic response following the subsequent dinner and larger blood glucose fluctuation over the 24-h period compared with the 12S. The 14A+S significantly reduced the glucose peak, the insulin peak time and the glycemic variability following the lunch, also the 24-h glycemic variability compared with the 14S. The insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in the 12A+S, compared with that of the 12S. In conclusion, the present study found that an extra 2-h inter-meal fasting before and after lunch resulted in elevated glycemic response in both macronutrient-balanced meal and high-fat meal in healthy subjects. The negative impact of a late lunch could be partly reversed by the apple preload, without a trade-off of insulin secretion.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina , Almoço , Refeições , Período Pós-Prandial
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955003

RESUMO

School nutrition programs (SNP) provide much needed access to fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods at low or no cost. Yet, the infrastructure of school kitchens and cafeteria vary across schools, potentially contributing to systematic barriers for SNP operation and equity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between school infrastructure and outcomes including meal participation, untraditional lunch periods, and having an open campus. Regression analyses were conducted using administrative data for 1804 schools and school nutrition manager survey data (n = 821) in New York City (NYC). Co-location was significantly associated with open campus status (OR = 2.84, CI: 1.11, 7.26) and high school breakfast participation (ß = -0.056, p = 0.003). Overcrowding was associated with breakfast (elementary: ß = -0.046, p = 0.03; middle: ß = 0.051, p = 0.04; high: ß = 0.042, p = 0.04) and lunch participation (elementary: ß = -0.031, p = 0.01) and untraditional lunchtimes (elementary: OR = 2.47, CI: 1.05, 5.83). Higher enrollment to cafeteria capacity ratios was associated with breakfast (elementary: ß = -0.025, p = 0.02) and lunch (elementary: ß = -0.015, p = 0.001; high: ß = 0.014, p = 0.02) participation and untraditional lunchtimes (middle: OR = 1.66, CI: 1.03, 2.68). Infrastructure characteristics are an important source of variation across NYC schools that may hinder the equity of school nutrition programs across the city.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157796, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931147

RESUMO

It is at an early development stage the best opportunity for a society to learn the concepts of sustainable production and consumption. Schools can serve as effective and efficient ways for this purpose. This work quantifies the Nitrogen Footprint (NF) of twelve school menus developed following the Spanish dietary guidelines. The analysis considers six fall school menus and six spring school menus for 7 to 12 years old children. Fall menus present higher NF than spring menus, being on average 23 g N and 19 g N, respectively. This is mainly due to the presence of beef dishes in fall menus, which significantly increase the production NF. Menus including non-meat protein sources, such as legumes, exhibit the lowest N pollution. Menus with beef dishes remain the most intensive menus for fall and spring in terms of N pollution and energy intake, being 0.04 g N/kcal. The highest contributing stage to the total NF is the production (92.6 %), followed by consumption (5.8 %), while the distribution and cooking stages present lower contributions. In order to improve the overall NF, some reduction strategies are: (1) substitution of beef with other animal meat sources, (2) substitution of beef with non-meat sources, (3) improvement of wastewater treatment efficiency, and (4) recycling non-edible food. Substituting beef with non-meat sources achieves the highest reduction (76 %) compared to the total NF of the school menus. It is recommendable to include environmental aspects related to N emissions within the school guidelines in order to provide practical information to policymakers and guide-users.


Assuntos
Almoço , Nitrogênio , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Nutrition ; 102: 111693, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the nutritional quality and adequacy of school meals served to school-age children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 55 food samples were collected from 11 food types served for breakfast and lunch at 15 selected school kitchens. Each meal was weighed using a digital scale. The initial sample weights were recorded and dried in an oven at a temperature of 60°C to constant weight. The nutrient content and dietary energy of the meals were calculated using a conversion factor with reference to the national food composition table. RESULTS: School meals supplied 883 calories of average energy, representing 48% and 34% of the daily recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for early adolescents (ages 7-12 y) or late adolescents (ages 13-17 y), respectively. Late-adolescent boys acquired the least RNI (31%). The meals contributed protein (44%-66%; 31%-47%), carbohydrate (50%-68%; 35%-48%), fat (15%-26%; 10%-20%), and fiber (44%-110%; 31%-78%) for early and late adolescents, respectively. Micronutrients, such as ß-carotene (36%-51%; 26%-37%), thiamine (47%-78%; 33%-54%), riboflavin (35%-55%; 26%-38%), niacin (16%-27%; 12%-19%), phosphorous (27%-41%; 20%-29%), calcium (64%-103%; 46%-73%), and iron (188%; 133%) were served for early and late adolescents, respectively. The caloric and nutritional contributions were generally less than two-thirds of the daily RNIs required from school meals, except that of fiber, thiamine, and calcium (for early adolescents), and iron. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their benefit to alleviate hunger in schools, school meals contributed suboptimal energy and nutrients to deprived school-age children and adolescents. Inclusion of animal products, fruits, and vegetables may improve energy and nutritional values.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Cálcio , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Etiópia , Humanos , Ferro , Almoço , Micronutrientes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tiamina
8.
J Health Econ ; 84: 102646, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792362

RESUMO

We find access to universal free school meals through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) had a meaningful impact on grocery spending for households with children, with monthly food purchases declining by about $11, or 5 percent. For households in zip codes with higher exposure, the decline is as high as $39 per month, or 19 percent. The composition of food purchases also changes after CEP, with low income households experiencing a 3 percent improvement in dietary quality. Finally, CEP exposure is associated with an almost 5 percent decline in households classified as food insecure. Our results on the heterogeneous effects of CEP exposure by prior free/reduced price lunch eligibility reveal benefits in terms of both spending, dietary composition, and food insecurity for previously eligible low-income families, suggesting that the stigma of free school meals may be declining after universal access.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Comportamento do Consumidor , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Almoço , Refeições , Pobreza
9.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807804

RESUMO

Limited research exists on the effectiveness of product placement in secondary schools. We explored the impact of re-positioning sweet-baked goods, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and water on pupil's lunchtime purchases in two secondary schools in North-East England. We employed a stepped-wedge design with two clusters and four time periods. The intervention(s) involved re-positioning selected food and drinks to increase and decrease accessibility of 'healthier' and 'less healthy' items, respectively. Unidentifiable smartcard data measured the change in number of pupil's purchasing the above items. McNemar tests were undertaken on paired nominal data in Stata(v15). In School A, pupils purchasing fruit pots from control to intervention increased (n = 0 cf. n = 81; OR 0, 95% CI 0 to 0.04); post-intervention, this was not maintained. In School B, from control to intervention pupil's purchasing sweet-baked goods decreased (n = 183 cf. n = 147; OR 1.2, 95% CI 1 to 1.6). This continued post-intervention (n = 161 cf. n = 122; OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) and was similar for SSBs (n = 180 cf. n = 79; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.0). We found no evidence of other changes. There is some evidence that product placement may positively affect pupil's food and drink purchases. However, there are additional aspects to consider, such as, product availability, engaging canteen staff and the individual school context.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Almoço , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889918

RESUMO

British children have the highest levels of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in Europe. Schools are posited as a positive setting for impacting dietary intake, but the level of UPFs consumed in schools is currently unknown. This study determined the UPF content of school food in the UK. We conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis of primary (4-11 years, n = 1895) and secondary schoolchildren (11-18 years, n = 1408) from the UK's National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-2017). Multivariable quantile regression models determined the association between meal-type (school meal or packed lunch) and lunchtime UPF intake (NOVA food classification system). We showed that on average, UPF intake was high in both primary (72.6% total lunch Kcal) and secondary schoolchildren (77.8% total lunch Kcal). Higher UPF intakes were observed in packed lunch consumers, secondary schoolchildren, and those in lower income households. This study highlights the need for a renewed focus on school food. Better guidance and policies that consider levels of industrial processing in food served in schools are needed to ensure the dual benefit of encouraging school meal uptake and equitably improving children's diets.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Reino Unido
11.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889945

RESUMO

It has been suggested that school meals could have an impact on students' learning environments; however, existing research in this field is scarce and inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' and school administrators' experiences with the introduction of a free school meal and whether this influenced the learning environment. The study was conducted in upper primary and lower secondary schools in a small municipality in Norway. In this qualitative study, 17 informants participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using NVivo. Thematic analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation (STC). The main findings are that in the informants' experience, a free school meal led to reduced absenteeism during lunchtime and positive social interactions among students, social equalization, and a more peaceful atmosphere during lunchtime. In conclusion, the introduction of a free school meal had a positive impact on the students' educational health and the learning environment, and contributed to social equalization as all the students shared the same healthy school meal.


Assuntos
Refeições , Instituições Acadêmicas , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Almoço , Estudantes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897456

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe street food and takeaway food purchasing patterns in Sarajevo and Banja Luka, throughout the day and by city location. A cross-sectional evaluation of street food and takeaway food customers was conducted in 2017. All eligible vending sites (n = 348) in the vicinity of selected markets and bus stops were included. Data on the food items purchased, and time and geographic location of the purchases were collected. A total of 755 customers purchased 929 food items. Takeaway venues showed higher customer influx (5.0 vs. 2.0 customers observed per 10 min of observation, p < 0.001) and buying rates (6.7 vs. 2.0 items bought per 10 min of observation, p < 0.001; 1.5 vs. 1.0 items bought per customer, p < 0.001) than street food sites. These rates were higher in city peripheries for street food venues, and in city centres for takeaway establishments. The purchase of industrial food products prevailed throughout the day in street food venues, whereas most takeaway purchases comprised homemade foods, with or without industrial beverages. The proportion of customers buying foods and beverages together was higher in takeaway venues (15.3% vs. 6.0%, p < 0.001), especially during lunchtime and in city centres. In street food vending sites, sweet and savoury snacks seemed to be preferred in the afternoon, whereas in takeaway food establishments, savoury pastries and main dishes were mostly purchased at breakfast or lunch, and bread during the morning. Soft drinks and industrial juices were frequently purchased in both types of vending site and at all hours of the day, particularly in the afternoon. Our findings provide an overview of street food and takeaway food buying habits and consumer demands in these cities, reflecting local food culture and dietary behaviours. The identification of the meal contexts and city sub-regions in which specific purchasing practices emerge point to potential priority targets. These insights can be useful when designing interventions adapted to the specificities of these food environments and the food habits of customers.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Estudos Transversais , Almoço
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682307

RESUMO

The school food environment plays an important role in shaping students' dietary choices, which often influence future dietary behaviours. We surveyed primary and secondary schools in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, to measure the comprehensiveness and strength of food policies, describe the culture of food provision, and identify barriers to improving school food environments. Fifty-one schools were included in the final analysis, with 58.8% having a food policy, most of which used a generic template. Schools with food policies and those participating in the free and healthy lunch programme were more likely to have a strong culture around healthy eating. Common barriers to healthy eating were food outlets near school and resistance from students. Secondary schools reported facing more barriers to implementing healthy eating cultures, were more likely to use food as classroom rewards and to sell food to students, most of which was unhealthy. Hawke's Bay schools participating in food provision programmes are successfully improving their food environments through improved culture and delivery of healthy food; however, more action is needed to strengthen the wording and guidance in food policies and reduce the provision of unhealthy food in schools before effective change can be achieved.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Almoço , Nova Zelândia , Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(9): 844-852, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in the amount of plate waste (PW) and food preferences among food categories containing vegetables and fruit and which of the student-centered reasons may influence PW. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study (from December, 2017 to June, 2018); the aggregate selective plate waste method; the taste-and-rate method (food preferences); the multiple-choice survey (student-centered reasons for the PW occurrence). SETTING: Fourteen primary schools (Zagreb). PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 7-10 years; 17,163 meals (PW); 11,960 meals (PW and food preferences for meals containing vegetables and fruit); 6,507 meals (student-centered factors). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plate waste, preferences, and student-centered reasons for PW occurrence. ANALYSIS: Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using a 1-way analysis of variance for nonnormal distribution with post hoc Dunnett's test and chi-square test of homogeneity, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was performed to examine the correlation between the amount of PW and served food. All statistical analyses were constructed with robust standard errors clustered at the school level. RESULTS: Among the different types of vegetables and fruit meals, students wasted lower amounts of fruit (10.3%; P = 0.005). Plate waste was positively correlated with the amount of served food (r = 0.93; P < 0.001) containing vegetables and fruit. Students preferred fruit and starchy food with vegetables. Among personal factors for not finishing meals, the most frequent reason was they did not like the taste of the food. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Findings highlight the importance of food preferences and other student-centered reasons in explaining PW by primary school students.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Serviços de Alimentação , Estudos Transversais , Frutas , Humanos , Almoço , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Verduras
15.
Appetite ; 178: 106005, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537658

RESUMO

The objective of this exploratory study was to examine whether the number of foods offered has an impact on plate waste and meal satisfaction in adolescents' school canteens. The plate waste of 247 French students was estimated during two school lunches, the only variation being the number of starters offered (3 versus 6). Plate waste was assessed by the weight of food left on the tray. Students had to complete a short questionnaire regarding their general satisfaction with the meal. The results indicated that limiting the number of starters provided from 6 to 3 choices led to a decrease of Plate waste (-28.1 g) (p < .0001), and a modest increase in Meal satisfaction (p = .02). They suggest that limiting the number of food choices in school canteens reduces plate waste, while not diminishing satisfaction with the meal.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Adolescente , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Almoço , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
16.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 54, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prompting employees to swap their usual lunches for lower-energy alternatives may help align energy intake with public health recommendations. We tested the effect of offering lower-energy swaps with and without physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) information on the energy of lunches pre-ordered in an online hypothetical workplace canteen. METHODS: UK employed adults (n = 2,150) were invited to hypothetically pre-order their lunch from the canteen through a custom-made online platform. They were randomised 1:1:1 to: (i) control: no swaps offered; (ii) lower-energy swaps offered; or (iii) lower-energy swaps offered with PACE information. The primary outcome was the total energy ordered using analysis of covariance and controlling for the energy content of the initial items ordered. Secondary outcomes were swap acceptance rate and intervention acceptability. RESULTS: Participants were 54% female, had a mean age of 36.8 (SD = 11.6) and a BMI of 26.3 (SD = 5.6). Compared with an average 819 kcal energy ordered in the control, both the swaps and swaps + PACE interventions significantly reduced average energy ordered by 47 kcal (95% CI: -82 to -13, p = 0.003) and 66 kcal (95% CI: -100 to -31, p < 0.001), respectively. Compared with offering swaps only, the swaps + PACE intervention led to significantly higher swap acceptance (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.09, p < 0.001) but did not significantly reduce energy ordered (-19 kcal, 95% CI: -53 to 16, p = 0.591). About 65% and 16% of intervention participants found the swap interventions acceptable and unacceptable, respectively, with the swaps + PACE intervention being considered more acceptable than swaps only (OR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.09 to 1.60, p < 0.004). CONCLUSION: Offering lower-energy swaps with or without PACE information reduced the energy of pre-ordered lunches experimentally. Both interventions hold promise for reducing the energy of purchased foods and drinks. Trial Registration As Predicted reference number: 56358, 22/01/21, https://aspredicted.org/pw2qr.pdf.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Local de Trabalho
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic created barriers to participation in school meals. As a result, many students may have missed out on school meals. The objectives of this study are (1) to compare the number of school meals served by New York State public schools during the first spring and summer of the COVID-19 pandemic to the number served before the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) to determine relationships between the number of meals served and the levels of school district need and urbanicity. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of administrative data. The percentage change in the number of school breakfasts and lunches served was calculated for each month and by school district need level and urbanicity level. RESULTS: The number of school meals served decreased during the first spring of the pandemic compared to the spring of the previous school year (-43% in April, -51% in May), while the number of school meals served increased during the first summer of the pandemic compared to the summer of the previous school year (+92% in July, +288% in August). CONCLUSIONS: Waivers may provide flexibility to increase participation in school meals, especially during the summer.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Alimentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Almoço , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias
19.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565933

RESUMO

This study compared the caloric and nutrient values of packed lunch contents and consumption in the Balanced School Day (BSD) (two 20 min eating periods) versus the Traditional Schedule (TS) (one 20 min lunch). Foods consumed during school were assessed by direct food observation in 321 grade 3 and 4 students, aged 7-10 years, at 9 BSD and 10 TS elementary schools in Ontario. Packed lunch contents in the BSD were significantly higher than the TS in energy (3128.14 ± 1100.36 vs. 2658.98 ± 951.34 kJ, p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, carbohydrates, total sugar, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), calcium, iron, and sodium were significantly higher in the BSD versus TS packed lunches. Correspondingly, students in the BSD consumed significantly more energy, carbohydrates, total sugar, and SFA compared to the TS. Overall, lunches brought by students in the BSD schedule provided more energy across all macronutrients, with only a few micronutrients showing increased amounts, suggesting two 20 min eating opportunities could contribute to excess caloric intake during school, potentially contributing to the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Canada. Furthermore, packed lunches in both schedules had excess amounts of nutrients of concern and much work is needed to ensure that children in Canada receive nutritious lunches at school.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Criança , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Ontário , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Açúcares
20.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined foods packed and consumed by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and calculated the percentage of packed school lunches meeting National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards. Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption was further examined by investigating its association with the number and type of foods packed. METHODS: Participants included 59 private school students observed for five school meals. Servings of foods and beverages packed and consumed and the percentages of correspondence between food packed and consumed were calculated. Next, the percentages of lunches meeting NSLP guidelines were calculated. Finally, mealtime means were calculated for the number of foods packed, FVs packed, and FVs consumed. RESULTS: There was a high correspondence between foods packed and consumed. Fresh fruits and sugar-added drinks were most often packed and consumed. The percentage of meals meeting NSLP guidelines was higher than previous non-ASD samples. More FV consumption was associated with more FVs packed and fewer total foods packed. FV consumption was highest with 4 < 5 foods packed, including 2+ FVs. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should compare foods packed and consumed by children with and without ASD. The FV consumption findings suggest parents may increase children's FV consumption by packing approximately four total foods with two FVs.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Serviços de Alimentação , Criança , Frutas , Humanos , Almoço , Instituições Acadêmicas , Verduras
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