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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1346-1350, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749480

RESUMO

Adolescence is not only an important stage of growth and development, but also a critical period for the formation of social and psychological cognition. The increasing incidence rate of depression in adolescents has caused serious global burden of disease. Allostatic load is a comprehensive index including multiple physiological system disorders. In the key stage of brain development, allostatic load plays an important role in the occurrence and development of mental diseases. This paper summarized the evaluation methods and prevalence of adolescent allostatic load, reviewed the relationship between allostatic load and adolescent depression, and revealed the possible physiological and neurobiological mechanisms, in order to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of adolescent depression.


Assuntos
Alostase , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 517, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628465

RESUMO

Early exposure to psychosocial adversity is among the most potent predictors of depression. Because depression commonly emerges prior to adulthood, we must consider the fundamental principles of developmental neuroscience when examining how experiences of childhood adversity, including abuse and neglect, can lead to depression. Considering that both the environment and the brain are highly dynamic across the period spanning gestation through adolescence, the purpose of this review is to discuss and integrate stress-based models of depression that center developmental processes. We offer a general framework for understanding how psychosocial adversity in early life disrupts or calibrates the biobehavioral systems implicated in depression. Specifically, we propose that the sources and nature of the environmental input shaping the brain, and the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved, change across development. We contend that the effects of adversity largely depend on the developmental stage of the organism. First, we summarize leading neurobiological models that focus on the effects of adversity on risk for mental disorders, including depression. In particular, we highlight models of allostatic load, acceleration maturation, dimensions of adversity, and sensitive or critical periods. Second, we expound on and review evidence for the formulation that distinct mechanisms of neuroplasticity are implicated depending on the timing of adverse experiences, and that inherent within certain windows of development are constraints on the sources and nature of these experiences. Finally, we consider other important facets of adverse experiences (e.g., environmental unpredictability, perceptions of one's experiences) before discussing promising research directions for the future of the field.


Assuntos
Alostase , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Criança , Depressão , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1701, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awareness of the cumulative stress placed on first responders and tactical operators is required to manage acute fatigue, which can impair occupational performance, and may precipitate negative chronic health outcomes. The aim of this review was to investigate the utility of heart rate variability (HRV) to monitor stress and allostatic load among these populations. METHODS: A systematic search of Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE complete, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Scopus databases was conducted. Eligibility criteria: original peer reviewed research articles, written in English, published between 1985 and 2020, using human participants employed as a first responder or tactical operator, free from any psychological disorder. RESULTS: Of the 360 articles screened, 60 met the inclusion criteria and were included for full text assessment. Articles were classified based on single or repeated stressor exposure and the time of HRV assessment (baseline, during stressor, post stressor). Singular stressful events elicited a reduction in HRV from baseline to during the event. Stressors of greater magnitude reduced HRV for extended durations post stressor. Lower resting HRV was associated with lower situational awareness and impaired decision-making performance in marksmanship and navigation tasks. There were insufficient studies to evaluate the utility of HRV to assess allostatic load in repeated stressor contexts. CONCLUSION: A reduction in HRV occurred in response to acute physical and cognitive occupational stressors. A slower rate of recovery of HRV after the completion of acute occupational stressors appears to occur in response to stressors of greater magnitude. The association between lower HRV and lower decision-making performance poses as a useful tool but further investigations on within subject changes between these factors and their relationship is required. More research is required to investigate the suitability of HRV as a measure of allostatic load in repeated stress exposures for fatigue management in first responder and tactical operators.


Assuntos
Alostase , Socorristas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347798

RESUMO

The contemporaneous association between higher socioeconomic position and better health is well established. Life course research has also demonstrated a lasting effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on adult health and well-being. Yet, little is known about the separate health effects of intergenerational mobility-moving into a different socioeconomic position than one's parents-among early adults in the United States. Most studies on the health implications of mobility rely on cross-sectional datasets, which makes it impossible to differentiate between health selection and social causation effects. In addition, understanding the effects of social mobility on health at a relatively young age has been hampered by the paucity of health measures that reliably predict disease onset. Analysing 4,713 respondents aged 25 to 32 from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health's Waves I and IV, we use diagonal reference models to separately identify the effects of socioeconomic origin and destination, as well as social mobility on allostatic load among individuals in the United States. Using a combined measure of educational and occupational attainment, and accounting for individuals' initial health, we demonstrate that in addition to health gradient among the socially immobile, individuals' socioeconomic origin and destination are equally important for multi-system physiological dysregulation. Short-range upward mobility also has a positive and significant association with health. After mitigating health selection concerns in our observational data, this effect is observed only among those reporting poor health before experiencing social mobility. Our findings move towards the reconciliation of two theoretical perspectives, confirming the positive effect of upward mobility as predicted by the "rags to riches" perspective, while not contradicting potential costs associated with more extensive upward mobility experiences as predicted by the dissociative thesis.


Assuntos
Alostase , Escolaridade , Classe Social , Mobilidade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045369, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allostatic load (AL) has shown that high burden of AL is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes, but little attention has been paid to China with largest ageing population in the world. OBJECTIVE: This study is to examine the association between AL and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults aged at least 60 years. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: In 2011-2012, an ancillary study, in which a blood test was added, including a total of 2439 participants, was conducted in eight longevity areas in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. PARTICIPANTS: The final analytical sample consisted of 1519 participants (mean±SD age: men 80.5±11.3 years; women 90.2±11.8 years and 53% women). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Cox models were used to examine the association between AL and mortality among men and women, separately. Analyses were also adjusted for potential confounders including age, ethnicity, education and marital status, smoking and exercise. RESULTS: Male with a medium AL burden (score: 2-4) and high AL burden (score: 5-9) had a 33% and 118% higher hazard of death, respectively, than those with a low AL burden (score: 0-1). We did not find significant difference between females with different levels of AL burden. CONCLUSION: Higher AL burden was associated with increased all-cause mortality among Chinese men aged at least 60 years. However, we did not find strong association among women. In conclusion, Intervention programmes targeting modifiable components of the AL burden may help prolong lifespan for older adults, especially men, in China.


Assuntos
Alostase , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Health Psychol ; 40(7): 468-471, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the individual and cumulative impact of childhood and adulthood adversity on allostatic load (AL) burden. METHOD: Retrospective cross-sectional study design involving 4,165 participants from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing (TILDA). AL was operationalized using 12 biomarkers across four physiological systems (cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, and immune). Measures of psychosocial adversity included poverty, abuse, loss, and illness. Negative binomial regression models estimated the relationship of individual adversities and a cumulative count of adversities with AL burden, controlling for age and sex. Multivariable models adjusted additionally for a range of other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Childhood poverty, childhood physical abuse, and having a spouse/partner/child experience a life-threatening illness/accident were associated with 10% (95% CI [1.04, 1,16]), 10% (95% CI [1.01, 1.18]), and 6% (95% CI [1.01, 1.11]) greater AL burden, respectively. Cumulative adversity was associated with 3% (95% CI [1.01, 1.04]) higher AL burden. Adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates rendered the association of childhood poverty (IRR= 1.04, 95% CI [.98, 1.09]; p = .190) and childhood physical abuse (IRR= 1.07, 95% CI [.99, 1.15]; p = .081) with AL burden nonsignificant, while the association of having an ill spouse/partner/child on AL persisted (IRR= 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided limited support for the idea that psychosocial stress leads to higher AL, with just three out of 11 adversities associated with AL. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Alostase , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15575, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341444

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated psychosocial characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of participants at programs for secondary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed, through a comprehensive psychosomatic assessment based on clinimetric principles, to evaluate psychosocial characteristics and lifestyle behaviors in participants at CRC secondary prevention program, and to investigate the associations between these variables and endoscopic outcomes. In this cross-sectional study, the first 150 consecutive asymptomatic participants at the CRC prevention program who resulted positive to fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and were thus referred to colonoscopy, underwent a psychosomatic assessment including psychiatric diagnoses (DSM-5), psychosomatic syndromes (DCPR-R), psychological distress, psychological well-being and lifestyle behaviors. Whereas only 5.3% of the sample showed at least one DSM-5 diagnosis, 51.3% showed at least one DCPR syndrome, such as allostatic overload, alexithymia, Type A behavior, and demoralization. Patients affected by psychosomatic syndromes presented with significantly higher psychological distress, lower psychological well-being and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, such as tobacco smoking and unhealthy diet, in comparison with patients without DCPR syndromes. Among endoscopic outcomes, the presence of adenomas was significantly associated with DCPR irritable mood. In a clinical context of secondary prevention addressing asymptomatic patients with positive FOBT, a comprehensive psychosomatic assessment may provide relevant clinical information for those patients who present certain psychosomatic syndromes associated with high psychological distress, impaired psychological well-being, unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and colorectal precancerous lesions. The results of the present study indicate a road to the practice of "preventive" medicine at CRC screening program.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Técnicas Projetivas , Adenoma/psicologia , Idoso , Alostase , Comportamento , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia
10.
Biochem J ; 478(14): 2889-2898, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319404

RESUMO

The sum total of life course exposures creates an exposome that has a significant impact on age-related health. Understanding the interplay between exposome factors and the (epi) genome, offers pertinent insights into the ageing process and its relationship with the accumulation of allostatic load. We propose to exploit this to develop a biomimetic approach that will provide insight into how evolution through natural selection in other species has solved many age related human health issues. In particular, we will emphasise the need to reconnect a more mechanistic approach to medical science with a broader natural sciences approach, using biomimetics to mitigate the global burden of age related ill health. In particular, we will discuss how such an approach indicates leverage of the activities of the Nrf 2 gene to enhance health span via reintroduction of the classical 'Food as Medicine' concept, including modulation of the microbiome and the creation of more salutogenic and biophilic environments. Additionally, we will discuss how this approach integrates with novel and developing senotherapies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Alostase/fisiologia , Expossoma , Saúde/normas , Envelhecimento/genética , Alostase/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Meio Social
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299672

RESUMO

The stress pathway posits that those in disadvantaged circumstances are exposed to a higher degree of stressful experiences over time resulting in an accumulated biological burden which subsequently relates to poorer health. Trajectories of disadvantage, in the form of neighbourhood deprivation and structural social capital, are evaluated in their relation to allostatic load representing the cumulative "wear and tear" of chronic stress. This paper uses data from the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society in a latent class growth analysis. We identify groups of exposure trajectories over time using these classes to predict allostatic load at the final wave. The results show that persistent exposure to higher deprivation is related to worse allostatic load. High structural social capital over time relates to lower allostatic load, in line with a stress buffering effect, though this relationship is not robust to controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics. By demonstrating a gradient in allostatic load by histories of deprivation, this analysis supports a biological embedding of disadvantage through chronic exposure to stressful environments as an explanation for social health inequalities.


Assuntos
Alostase , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 283: 114170, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216886

RESUMO

Approximately one quarter of UK adults are currently diagnosed with two or more chronic conditions, often referred to as multimorbidity. Chronic stress has been implicated in the development of many diseases common to multimorbidity. Policymakers and clinicians have acknowledged the need for more preventative approaches to deal with the rise of multimorbidity and "early ageing". However divergence may occur between an individual's self-rated health and objectively measured health that may preclude preventative action. The use of biomarkers which look 'under the skin' provide crucial information on an individual's underlying health to facilitate lifestyle change or healthcare utilisation. The UK's Understanding Society dataset, was used to examine whether baseline variation in biomarkers measuring stress-related "wear and tear" - Allostatic Load (AL) - predict changes in future self-rated health (SRH) while adjusting for baseline SRH, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, and healthcare inputs. An interaction between baseline AL and baseline SRH was included to test for differential rates of SRH change. We examined SRH using the SF6D instrument, measuring health-related-quality of life (HRQoL), as well as its physical and mental health components separately. We found that HRQoL and physical health decline faster for those with higher baseline AL (indicating greater "wear and tear") however the same pattern was not observed for mental health. These findings provide novel insights for clinicians and policymakers on the usefulness of AL in capturing health trajectories of which individual's may not be aware and its importance in targeting resilience enhancing measures earlier in the lifecourse to delay physical health decline.


Assuntos
Alostase , Adulto , Depreciação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206881

RESUMO

This study explores the combined effect of lead (Pb) exposure and an index of chronic physiological stress on cardiovascular disease mortality using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2008 linked to 1999-2014 National Death Index data. Chronic physiological stress was measured using the allostatic load (AL) index, which was formed by analyzing markers from the cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic systems, with Pb levels, assessed using blood lead levels (BLL). The dataset was analyzed with statistical techniques to explore (a) the relationship between Pb exposure and AL, and (b) the combined role of Pb and AL on cardiovascular disease mortality. Results indicated that AL was more elevated in those with BLLs above the 50th percentile in the US population and that those with elevated AL were more likely to have high BLL. Finally, the interaction of AL and BLL significantly increased the likelihood of cardiovascular disease mortality. These findings highlight the need for considering the totality of exposures experienced by populations to build holistic programs to prevent Pb exposure and reduce stressors to promote optimal health outcomes and reduce cardiovascular mortality risk.


Assuntos
Alostase , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
14.
Psychosom Med ; 83(7): 805-812, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A growing body of research suggests that skin tone may be a health risk indicator for Hispanics. Black and darker-skinned Hispanics have worse mental and physical outcomes than White and lighter-skinned Hispanics. Discrimination exposure has been implicated as a risk factor that may explain the association between skin tone and health. However, there is scant research examining the interrelationship between skin tone, discrimination, and health, particularly among Puerto Ricans. We examine the interrelationships between two measures of skin tone, two measures of discrimination, and allostatic load (AL) among Puerto Rican adults. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from wave 3 of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 882), we examined the indirect association (IA) of skin tone on physiological dysregulated systems, also known as AL, through major discrimination and everyday discrimination. We tested these associations using two distinct measures of skin tone: interviewer-ascribed skin tone and spectrophotometer-measured skin tone. RESULTS: Interviewer-ascribed skin tone was indirectly associated with AL through major discrimination (IA = 0.03, 95% confidence interval = 0.004 to 0.06). However, there was no evidence of an IA of interviewer-ascribed skin tone on AL through everyday discrimination (IA = -0.01, 95% confidence interval = -0.03 to 0.01). In addition, there was no evidence that spectrophotometer-measured skin tone was indirectly associated with AL through major discrimination or everyday discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The sociocultural significance of skin tone may affect how Puerto Ricans are perceived and treated by others, which can, in turn, have physiological health consequences. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and examine the interrelationship between skin tone, discrimination, and other health outcomes.


Assuntos
Alostase , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico , Pigmentação da Pele
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252518, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138891

RESUMO

Education is associated with later health, and notably with an indicator of physiological health measuring the cost of adapting to stressful conditions, named allostatic load. Education is itself the result of a number of upstream variables. We examined the origins of educational attainment through the lens of interactions between families and school i.e. parents' interest in their child's education as perceived by teachers. This study aims to examine whether parental interest during a child's educational trajectory is associated with subsequent allostatic load, and whether education or other pathways mediate this relationship. We used data from 9 377 women and men born in 1958 in Great Britain and included in the National Child Development Study to conduct secondary data analyses. Parental interest was measured from questionnaire responses by teachers collected at age 7, 11 and 16. Allostatic load was defined using 14 biomarkers assayed in blood from a biosample collected at 44 years of age. Linear regression analyses were carried out on a sample of 8 113 participants with complete data for allostatic load, missing data were imputed. Participants whose parents were considered to be uninterested in their education by their teacher had a higher allostatic load on average in midlife in both men (ß = 0,41 [0,29; 0,54]) and women (ß = 0,69 [0,54; 0,83]). We examined the role of the educational and other pathways including psychosocial, material/financial, and behavioral variables, as potential mediators in the relationship between parental interest and allostatic load. The direct link between parental interest and allostatic load was completely mediated in men, but only partially mediated in women. This work provides evidence that parents' interest in their child's education as perceived by teachers is associated with subsequent physiological health in mid-life and may highlight a form of cultural dissonance between family and educational spheres.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(8): 1165-1170, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030488

RESUMO

Background: Allostatic load is the physiological deterioration that accumulates as the body responds to stress, resulting in disparities in chronic disease. Although perceptions of stress vary, marginalization and social disadvantage are associated with elevated allostatic load. Allostatic load is understudied in the multiply marginalized populations of sexual minority Black women. Methods: We used data from six waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2010, 2015-2016) to identify heterosexual (n = 78), lesbian (n = 21), and bisexual (n = 57) Black women. We quantified allostatic load using nine biomarkers, and compared mean allostatic load across the three groups, adjusting for age, educational attainment, income, and country of birth to account for possible confounding. Results: We found no significant differences in allostatic load among heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual Black women. Conclusions: These findings suggest that sexual orientation may not contribute to within-group differences in allostatic load among Black women, a group previously noted to have elevated allostatic load.


Assuntos
Alostase , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estresse Psicológico
17.
Psychiatriki ; 32(2): 148-156, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052795

RESUMO

According to the biopsychosocial model, disease is the dysfunctional resultant of various fields of human function (biological, psychological, behavioral, socioeconomic). This article deals with the psycho-biological field of Psychosomatic research, namely, the effect of stress on the body. The human organism, in the prospect of evolution, has developed biological mechanisms for maintaining its homeostasis (οµοιόσταση), in its interchange with the stressor stimuli. This process is called allostasis. The response to mild - short-term stress induces activation of the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis, the sympathetic system and the immune system; a process that proves beneficial to the body. On the contrary, exposure to traumatic or chronic stress, with subsequent overactivation of the body's allostatic mechanisms, wears out its homeostatic ability and initiates pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for the development of physical and mental illness. The above procedure is called allostatic load or, in its most severe form, allostatic overload. More specifically, the experience of traumatic stress, either in childhood or in adulthood, induces dysregulation of neuroendocrine pathways in the Central Neural System (CNS), as well as immune dysfunction, and is associated with more frequent development of psychiatric and medical pathology, in a dose-dependent way. On the other hand, exposure to chronic repetitive stress induces neurobiological lesions at the level of the CNS, which undermine the body's very ability to respond to stress. At the same time, chronic stress has been associated with increased morbidity from major medical disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, through a variety of pathophysiological pathways. Finally, chronic stress causes dysfunction of the body's immuno-protective mechanisms, while at a cellular level, it induces oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. However, regardless of the quantity and quality of the stressor stimuli, it has also emerged that the individual's personal characteristics judge the vulnerability to stress, too. Psychiatrists must insist on the scientific documentation of the biopsychosocial model, so that they can raise awareness amongst the medical community, aiming at a holistic care of the patients.


Assuntos
Alostase , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico
18.
J Psychosom Res ; 146: 110434, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the paper is to critically review the current state of the literature on the association between discrimination and allostatic load (AL) in adults and determine whether this association differs by sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: An extensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Embase to identify studies that investigated the association between discrimination and AL. The search was limited to the English language, articles that were peer-reviewed and articles that were published within the last 10 years. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies met the eligibility criteria for this review, 8 of which were cross-sectional and 3 of which were longitudinal. There was heterogeneity in the type of discrimination measured, the composition of AL summary score, and the analytic approach utilized to examine the relationship of interest. Nine studies found a significant, positive association between discrimination and AL. The types of discrimination found to be positively associated with AL included lifetime discrimination, childhood racial discrimination, everyday discrimination, and everyday weight discrimination. One study found that this association differed by educational attainment. CONCLUSION: There is evidence that discrimination is associated with AL. Longitudinal studies with diverse samples are needed to further explore this association and how it differs based on sociodemographic characteristics.


Assuntos
Alostase , Racismo , Adulto , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
Environ Res ; 197: 111075, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of chronic exposures to particulate and traffic-related air pollution on allostatic load (AL) score, a marker of cumulative biological risk, among youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were drawn from five clinical sites of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study (n = 2338). Baseline questionnaires, anthropometric measures, and a fasting blood test were taken at a clinic visit between 2001 and 2005. AL was operationalized using 10 biomarkers reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk. Annual residential exposures to PM2.5 and proximity to heavily-trafficked major roadways were estimated for each participant. Poisson regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were conducted for each exposure. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between exposures to PM2.5 or proximity to traffic and AL score, however analyses were suggestive of effect modification by race for residential distance to heavily-trafficked major roadways (p = 0.02). In stratified analyses, residing <100, 100-<200 and 200-<400 m compared to 400 m or more from heavily-trafficked major roadways was associated with 11%, 26% and 14% increases in AL score, respectively (95% CIs: -4, 29; 9, 45; -1, 30) for non-white participants compared to 6%, -2%, and -2% changes (95% CIs: -2, 15; -10, 7; -8, 6) for white participants. CONCLUSIONS: Among this population of youth with type 1 diabetes, we did not observe consistent relationships between chronic exposures to particulate and traffic-related air pollution and changes in AL score, however associations for traffic-related pollution exposures may differ by race/ethnicity and warrant further examination.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Alostase , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
20.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 34(4): 462-470, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839292

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between household food security and variation in age at menarche, as well as the connections between food insecurity, nutritional status, and allostatic load, among girls aged 12-15 years from the 2009-2014 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Data analysis included mean comparisons of age at menarche among household food security groups (high, marginal, low, and very low) as well as categorical variables known to associate with age at menarche (ethnicity, poverty status, body mass index [BMI], allostatic load, and milk consumption). χ2 Analyses were used to test the associations between household food security and additional categorical variables. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to test the relationship between variation in age at menarche and household food security, ethnicity, BMI, and allostatic load categories while controlling for age. RESULTS: Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Mexican American girls had earlier mean ages at menarche, higher mean BMIs, and disproportionately experienced household food insecurity when compared to non-Hispanic White-identifying girls. In the univariate analyses, marginal household food security, Hispanic/Mexican American and Black ethnicities, overweight and obese BMI categories, and marginal-high allostatic load were each associated with lower age at menarche compared to reference categories. These associations were maintained in the multivariate analysis, although only Hispanic/Mexican American ethnicity predicted earlier menarche when compared to that of non-Hispanic White girls. CONCLUSIONS: Marginal household food security, particularly for girls who identified as non-White, predicted earlier age at menarche independent of nutritional status and allostatic load. At the same time, having more energetic resources (ie, higher BMI) also significantly predicted earlier menarche.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Segurança Alimentar , Menarca/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Alostase/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pobreza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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