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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 409: 132212, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: >40% of infants with Alström Syndrome (AS) present with a transient, severe cardiomyopathy in the first months of life, with apparent recovery in survivors. One in five individuals then develop a later-onset cardiomyopathy but wide clinical variability is observed, even within the same family. The rationale for this study is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the cardiovascular phenotype in adults with AS. METHODS: Adults attending the National Centre for AS in England were studied. All patients underwent biochemical, 12- lead electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: 47 adults with AS (64% male; mean age 33 years; 66% white British) were studied. Seven (15%) survived infantile cardiomyopathy and 23 (49%) developed adult-onset cardiomyopathy. Conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease were present in 39 (83%). Abnormalities were present on biomarkers in 16 (34%), ECG 30 (64%), echocardiography 19 (40%) and CMR 31 (66%). Coronary artery imaging was performed in six (13%), with abnormalities in two. Cardiac, renal, and liver markers were more often impaired in older patients, with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction, reduced global longitudinal strain and late enhancement. 6 (13%) had severe pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure 46 mmHg) due to left heart disease on invasive testing. CONCLUSION: Cardiomyopathy is common in adults with AS, complicated in a significant proportion by atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and restrictive cardiomyopathy, confirmed on CMR and invasive testing. With advancing age, cardiovascular complications are compounded by contemporaneous renal and liver disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Fenótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Síndrome de Alstrom/complicações , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Eletrocardiografia , Ecocardiografia , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia
2.
Dis Model Mech ; 17(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756069

RESUMO

Alström syndrome (AS), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic ALMS1 mutations, features major early morbidity and mortality due to cardiac complications. The latter are biphasic, including infantile dilated cardiomyopathy and distinct adult-onset cardiomyopathy, and poorly understood. We assessed cardiac function of Alms1 knockout (KO) mice by echocardiography. Cardiac function was unaltered in Alms1 global KO mice of both sexes at postnatal day 15 (P15) and 8 weeks. At 23 weeks, female - but not male - KO mice showed increased left atrial area and decreased isovolumic relaxation time, consistent with early restrictive cardiomyopathy, as well as reduced ejection fraction. No histological or transcriptional changes were seen in myocardium of 23-week-old female Alms1 global KO mice. Female mice with Pdgfra-Cre-driven Alms1 deletion in cardiac fibroblasts and in a small proportion of cardiomyocytes did not recapitulate the phenotype of global KO at 23 weeks. In conclusion, only female Alms1-deficient adult mice show echocardiographic evidence of cardiac dysfunction, consistent with the cardiomyopathy of AS. The explanation for sexual dimorphism remains unclear but might involve metabolic or endocrine differences between sexes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Cardiomiopatias , Ecocardiografia , Camundongos Knockout , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Alstrom/complicações , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 596-600, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic etiology for a patient with Alström syndrome (ALMS) presenting as dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: A 41-year-old male patient who had presented at the Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital on October 20, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical and laboratory examinations were carried out. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was employed for genetic testing, and candidate variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and pathogenicity analysis. RESULTS: The patient had a 14-year medical history characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy, complete atrioventricular block, visual impairment, sensorineural hearing loss, truncal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, renal dysfunction, and paranoid delusions. Genetic testing revealed that he has harbored compound heterozygous variants of the ALMS1 gene, namely c.6823C>T (p.Arg2275Ter) and c.9442_9445dup (p.Ser3149LysfsTer2). Sanger sequencing confirmed that they were inherited from his father and mother, respectively. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), both variants were predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1_VeryStrong+PM2_Supporting+PM3+PP3, PVS1_VeryStrong+PM2_Supporting+PM3). Literature review indicated that the complete atrioventricular block in the patient was a phenotype unreported previously. CONCLUSION: The c.6823C>T (p.Arg2275Ter) and c.9442_9445dup (p.Ser3149LysfsTer2) compound heterozygous variants of the ALMS1 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis in this patient. Above findings have expanded the phenotypic spectrum of ALMS and provided insights for clinicians dealing with similar cases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Adulto , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento do Exoma , Mutação , Povo Asiático/genética , População do Leste Asiático
4.
Mol Metab ; 84: 101933, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alström Syndrome (AS), caused by biallelic ALMS1 mutations, includes obesity with disproportionately severe insulin resistant diabetes, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Prior studies suggest that hyperphagia is accounted for by loss of ALMS1 function in hypothalamic neurones, whereas disproportionate metabolic complications may be due to impaired adipose tissue expandability. We tested this by comparing the metabolic effects of global and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-specific Alms1 knockout. METHODS: Global Alms1 knockout (KO) mice were generated by crossing floxed Alms1 and CAG-Cre mice. A Pdgfrα-Cre driver was used to abrogate Alms1 function selectively in MSCs and their descendants, including preadipocytes. We combined metabolic phenotyping of global and Pdgfrα+ Alms1-KO mice on a 45% fat diet with measurements of body composition and food intake, and histological analysis of metabolic tissues. RESULTS: Assessed on 45% fat diet to promote adipose expansion, global Alms1 KO caused hyperphagia, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and fatty liver. Pdgfrα-cre driven KO of Alms1 (MSC KO) recapitulated insulin resistance, fatty liver, and dyslipidaemia in both sexes. Other phenotypes were sexually dimorphic: increased fat mass was only present in female Alms1 MSC KO mice. Hyperphagia was not evident in male Alms1 MSC KO mice, but was found in MSC KO females, despite no neuronal Pdgfrα expression. CONCLUSIONS: Mesenchymal deletion of Alms1 recapitulates metabolic features of AS, including fatty liver. This confirms a key role for Alms1 in the adipose lineage, where its loss is sufficient to cause systemic metabolic effects and damage to remote organs. Hyperphagia in females may depend on Alms1 deficiency in oligodendrocyte precursor cells rather than neurones. AS should be regarded as a forme fruste of lipodystrophy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos Knockout , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Síndrome de Alstrom/metabolismo , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Composição Corporal
5.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 90(3): 101402, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report two new variants of ALMS1 gene and to discuss the audiological evolution and clinical phenotype in two pairs of siblings with Alström syndrome. REPORT: This paper is a multi-disciplinary diagnostic evaluation, with genetic and audiological analysis that aims to report two new variants of the ALMS1 gene and to discuss the audiological evolution and clinical phenotype in a case series of patients with familial Alström syndrome. Therefore, we describe 4 cases presenting a complete audiometric profile of two pairs of unrelated siblings, to provide a better understanding of this very rare disease. Additionally, the present study identified two heterozygous mutations in the ALMS1 gene. CONCLUSION: This Clinical Capsule Report highlights the importance of audiological monitoring throughout the development of patients with Alström syndrome. The two variants found were not previously reported in the literature, which expands the spectrum of ALMS1 variants in Alström syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Lactente , Adulto
6.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 40(4): e3788, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546151

RESUMO

AIMS: Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare recessive disorder characterised by diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and visual and hearing impairments. Mutations in the ALMS1 gene have been identified as the causative agents of AS. This study aimed to explore the relationship between rare ALMS1 variants and clinical features in Chinese patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (age at diagnosis ≤40 years; EOD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALMS1 gene sequencing was performed in 611 Chinese individuals with EOD, 36 with postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and 47 with pre-diabetes and fasting IR. In-silico prediction algorithm and the American College of Medical Genetics Guidelines (ACMG) were used to evaluate the deleteriousness and pathogenicity of the variants. RESULTS: Sixty-two rare ALMS1 variants (frequency <0.005) were identified in 82 patients with EOD. Nineteen variants were predicted to be deleterious (pD). Patients with EOD carrying pD variants had higher fasting C-peptide, postprandial C-peptide, and HOMA2-IR levels than those without variants. The frequency of ALMS1 pD variants in the subgroup with more insulin-resistant EOD was higher than that in other EOD subgroups. Two patients with EOD, obesity, and IR who carried one heterozygous pathogenic/likely pathogenic rare variant of ALMS1 according to ACMG were identified. Moreover, rare heterozygous pD variants of ALMS1 were found in participants from cohorts of postprandial hyperinsulinemia as well as in pre-diabetes with fasting IR. CONCLUSIONS: ALMS1 rare pD variants are enriched in the populations with significant IR, which is a major hallmark of diabetes pathogenesis. Accordingly, our exploratory study provides insights and hypotheses for further studies of gene function.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperinsulinismo , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Adulto , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Peptídeo C , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Obesidade , Mutação , China/epidemiologia
7.
J AAPOS ; 28(2): 103853, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378129

RESUMO

We report the case of an otherwise healthy 6-year-old girl presenting with poor visual acuity, photophobia, and abnormal eye and head movements who was initially diagnosed with spasmus nutans. A remote history of presumed viral cardiomyopathy and further electroretinography testing raised suspicion for Alström syndrome. She was diagnosed with a novel ALMS1 variant.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Nistagmo Patológico , Espasmos Infantis , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Nistagmo Patológico/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Alstrom/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Eletrorretinografia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular
8.
Curr Obes Rep ; 13(2): 313-337, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277088

RESUMO

Syndromic obesity refers to obesity occurring with additional clinical findings, such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and congenital malformations. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present a narrative review regarding the genetic etiology, clinical description, and molecular diagnosis of syndromic obesity, which is a rare condition with high phenotypic variability and genetic heterogeneity. The following syndromes are presented in this review: Prader-Willi, Bardet-Biedl, Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Alström, Smith-Magenis, Cohen, Temple, 1p36 deletion, 16p11.2 microdeletion, Kleefstra, SIM1-related, Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann, WAGRO, Carpenter, MORM, and MYT1L-related syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: There are three main groups of mechanisms for syndromic obesity: imprinting, transcriptional activity regulation, and cellular cilia function. For molecular diagnostic, methods of genome-wide investigation should be prioritized over sequencing of panels of syndromic obesity genes. In addition, we present novel syndromic conditions that need further delineation, but evidences suggest they have a higher frequency of obesity. The etiology of syndromic obesity tends to be linked to disrupted neurodevelopment (central) and is associated with a diversity of genes and biological pathways. In the genetic investigation of individuals with syndromic obesity, the possibility that the etiology of the syndromic condition is independent of obesity should be considered. The accurate genetic diagnosis impacts medical management, treatment, and prognosis, and allows proper genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética
9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 12(1): e2314, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome (AS) represents an exceptionally rare genetic disorder characterized by a constellation of features including cardiomyopathy, progressive hearing and vision impairment, as well as obesity. This study seeks to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of this syndrome within the Saudi Arabian population. METHODS: Employing an extended family cohort, we conducted an exhaustive molecular genetic assessment to delineate the presence of Alström syndrome. Additionally, we conducted an extensive review of existing literature from Saudi population to contextualize our findings within the broader understanding of the disorder in our country. RESULTS: Within our studied extended family, we identified two individuals harboring the homozygous pathogenic mutation (c.2729C>G) in the ALMS1 gene [NM_015120.4:c.2729C>G (p.Ser910*)]. Notably, carrier status was observed in the parents, whereas some siblings exhibited typical alleles while others were carriers of the mutation. Intriguingly, a review of the literature unveiled six distinct reports documenting a total of 20 Alström syndrome patients within the Saudi Arabian population, each presenting with distinct novel mutations. CONCLUSIONS: In cases featuring cardiomyopathy, obesity, and progressive hearing and vision loss, Alström syndrome merits inclusion within the differential diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, molecular genetic assessment of the ALMS1 gene is imperative, offering definitive clarity amidst the complex clinical presentation. This investigation reinforces the importance of genetic scrutiny for precise diagnosis and highlights the unique genetic landscape of Alström syndrome within the Saudi Arabian population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Cardiomiopatias , Humanos , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Família Estendida , Arábia Saudita , Obesidade , Mutação
10.
Geroscience ; 46(2): 1989-1999, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37782438

RESUMO

Alström syndrome (AS) is an ultra-rare disorder characterised by early-onset multi-organ dysfunction, such as insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and renal and cardiovascular disease. The objective is to explore whether AS is a disease of accelerated ageing and whether changes over time on echocardiography could reflect accelerated cardiac ageing. Cross-sectional measurement of Phenoage and retrospective analysis of serial echocardiography were performed between March 2012 and November 2022. The setting is a single national tertiary service jointly run by health service and patient charity. Forty-five adult patients aged over 16 years were included, 64% were male and 67% of White ethnicity. The median Phenoage was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 35-72) in the 34 patients for whom this was calculable, which was significantly higher than the median chronological age of 29 years (IQR: 22-39, p<0.001). Phenoage was higher than chronological age in 85% (N=29) of patients, with a median difference of +18 years (IQR: +4, +34). On echocardiography, significant decreases were observed over time in left ventricular (LV) size at end-diastole (average of 0.046 cm per year, p<0.001) and end-systole (1.1% per year, p=0.025), with significant increase in posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (0.009 cm per year, p=0.008). LV systolic function measured by global longitudinal strain reduced (0.34 percentage points per year, p=0.020) and E/e'lat increased (2.5% per year, p=0.019). Most AS patients display a higher Phenoage compared to chronological age. Cardiac changes in AS patients were also reflective of accelerated ageing, with a reduction in LV size and increased wall thickening. AS may be a paradigm disease for premature ageing.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Alstrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Envelhecimento
11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26(3): 989-996, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151964

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the real-world efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in monogenic obesity in patients with Alström syndrome (ALMS). METHODS: We screened 72 UK adult patients with ALMS and offered treatment to 34 patients meeting one of the following criteria: body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or higher, insulin resistance, suboptimal glycaemic control on antihyperglycaemic medications or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients, with a mean age of 31 ± 11 years and a male to-female ratio of 2:1, completed 6 months of treatment with GLP-1 RAs either in the form of semaglutide or exenatide. On average, treatment with GLP-1 RAs reduced body weight by 5.4 ± 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.6-7) kg and HbA1c by 12 ± 3.3 (95% CI 8.7-15.3) mmol/mol, equating to 6% weight loss (P < .01) and 1.1% absolute reduction in HbA1c (P < .01). Significant improvements were also observed in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase. The improvement of metabolic variables in our cohort of monogenic syndromic obesity was comparable with data for polygenic obesity, irrespective of weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Data from our centre highlight the non-inferiority of GLP-1 RAs in monogenic syndromic obesity to the available GLP-1 RA-use data in polygenic obesity, therefore, these agents can be considered as a treatment option in patients with ALMS, as well as other forms of monogenic obesity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Síndrome de Alstrom/complicações , Síndrome de Alstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peçonhas/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Redução de Peso , Colesterol , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas
12.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 23(1): 100701, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38122899

RESUMO

Alström syndrome (ALMS) is a very rare autosomal-recessive disorder, causing a broad range of clinical defects most notably retinal degeneration, type 2 diabetes, and truncal obesity. The ALMS1 gene encodes a complex and huge ∼0.5 MDa protein, which has hampered analysis in the past. The ALMS1 protein is localized to the centrioles and the basal body of cilia and is involved in signaling processes, for example, TGF-ß signaling. However, the exact molecular function of ALMS1 at the basal body remains elusive and controversial. We recently demonstrated that protein complex analysis utilizing endogenously tagged cells provides an excellent tool to investigate protein interactions of ciliary proteins. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenously tagged ALMS1 cells were used for affinity-based protein complex analysis. Centrosomal and microtubule-associated proteins were identified, which are potential regulators of ALMS1 function, such as the centrosomal protein 70 kDa (CEP70). Candidate proteins were further investigated in ALMS1-deficient hTERT-RPE1 cells. Loss of ALMS1 led to shortened cilia with no change in structural protein localization, for example, acetylated and É£-tubulin, Centrin-3, or the novel interactor CEP70. Conversely, reduction of CEP70 resulted in decreased ALMS1 at the ciliary basal body. Complex analysis of CEP70 revealed domain-specific ALMS1 interaction involving the TPR-containing C-terminal (TRP-CT) fragment of CEP70. In addition to ALMS1, several ciliary proteins, including CEP135, were found to specifically bind to the TPR-CT domain. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD046401. Protein interactors identified in this study provide candidate lists that help to understand ALMS1 and CEP70 function in cilia-related protein modification, cell death, and disease-related mechanisms.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Obesidade , Tubulina (Proteína)
13.
Biol Direct ; 18(1): 84, 2023 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome (ALMS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is associated with mutations in ALMS1 gene. The main clinical manifestations of ALMS are retinal dystrophy, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dilated cardiomyopathy and multi-organ fibrosis, characteristic in kidneys and liver. Depletion of the protein encoded by ALMS1 has been associated with the alteration of different processes regulated via the primary cilium, such as the NOTCH or TGF-ß signalling pathways. However, the cellular impact of these deregulated pathways in the absence of ALMS1 remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we integrated RNA-seq and proteomic analysis to determine the gene expression profile of hTERT-BJ-5ta ALMS1 knockout fibroblasts after TGF-ß stimulation. In addition, we studied alterations in cross-signalling between the TGF-ß pathway and the AKT pathway in this cell line. RESULTS: We found that ALMS1 depletion affects the TGF-ß pathway and its cross-signalling with other pathways such as PI3K/AKT, EGFR1 or p53. In addition, alterations associated with ALMS1 depletion clustered around the processes of extracellular matrix regulation and lipid metabolism in both the transcriptome and proteome. By studying the enriched pathways of common genes differentially expressed in the transcriptome and proteome, collagen fibril organisation, ß-oxidation of fatty acids and eicosanoid metabolism emerged as key processes altered by the absence of ALMS1. Finally, an overactivation of the AKT pathway was determined in the absence of ALMS1 that could be explained by a decrease in PTEN gene expression. CONCLUSION: ALMS1 deficiency disrupts cross-signalling between the TGF-ß pathway and other dependent pathways in hTERT-BJ-5ta cells. Furthermore, altered cross-signalling impacts the regulation of extracellular matrix-related processes and fatty acid metabolism, and leads to over-activation of the AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 31(11): 2786-2798, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37712194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare multisystem disorder of which early onset childhood obesity is a cardinal feature. Like humans with AS, animal models with Alms1 loss-of-function mutations develop obesity, supporting the notion that ALMS1 is required for the regulatory control of energy balance across species. This study aimed to determine which component(s) of energy balance are reliant on ALMS1. METHODS: Comprehensive energy balance phenotyping was performed on Alms1tvrm102 mice at both 8 and 18 weeks of age. RESULTS: It was found that adiposity gains occurred early and rapidly in Alms1tvrm102 male mice but much later in females. Rapid increases in body fat in males were due to a marked reduction in energy expenditure (EE) during early life and not due to any genotype-specific increases in energy intake under chow conditions. Energy intake did increase in a genotype-specific manner when mice were provided a high-fat diet, exacerbating the effects of reduced EE on obesity progression. The EE deficit observed in male Alms1tvrm102 mice did not persist as mice aged. CONCLUSIONS: Either loss of ALMS1 causes a developmental delay in the mechanisms controlling early life EE or activation of compensatory mechanisms occurs after obesity is established in AS. Future studies will determine how ALMS1 modulates EE and how sex moderates this process.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Obesidade Infantil , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Idoso , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tecido Adiposo
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(9)2023 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37761924

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Alström syndrome (ALMS) are rare multisystem diseases with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and genetic heterogeneity, characterized by visual impairment, hearing impairment, cardiomyopathy, childhood obesity, and insulin resistance. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the indicators of nervous system changes occurring in patients with ALMS and BBS using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods compared to a group of healthy subjects. The OCT results showed significantly lower macular thickness in the patient group compared to the control group (p = 0.002). The MRS study observed differences in metabolite levels between the study and control groups in brain areas such as the cerebellum, thalamus, and white matter. After summing the concentrations from all areas, statistically significant results were obtained for N-acetylaspartate, total N-acetylaspartate, and total creatine. Concentrations of these metabolites were reduced in ALMS/BBS patients by 38% (p = 0.0004), 35% (p = 0.0008), and 28% (p = 0.0005), respectively. Our results may help to understand the pathophysiology of these rare diseases and identify strategies for new therapies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Criança , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo
16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1124-1127, 2023 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37643959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a Chinese pedigree affected with Alström syndrome. METHODS: A pedigree with 5 members affected with Alström syndrome who had visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University in February 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the pedigree were collected, and peripheral venous blood samples were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Genetic testing was carried out for the eldest daughter and third son through whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: The eldest daughter (14 years old) and the third son (11 years old) both had congenital nystagmus, amblyopia, growth retardation and type 2 diabetes. WES revealed that both had harbored homozygous c.3538A>T (p.Lys1180*) variant of the ALMS1 gene. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the father, mother, and second daughter were all heterozygous carriers. Based on the Guidelines for Genetic Variation and the Technical Standards for Interpretation and Reporting of Primary Copy Number Variations, the variant was predicted as pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_Supporting+PP4). CONCLUSION: The homozygous c.3538A>T (p.Lys1180*) variant of the ALSM1 gene probably underlay the Alström syndrome in this pedigree, which has provided a reference for the clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , População do Leste Asiático , Linhagem , Masculino , Feminino
17.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 325(4): F418-F425, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560774

RESUMO

Inactivating mutations in the ALMS1 gene in humans cause Alström syndrome, characterized by the early onset of obesity, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction. However, the role of ALMS1 in renal function and hemodynamics is unclear. We previously found that ALMS1 is expressed in thick ascending limbs, where it binds and decreases Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter activity. We hypothesized that ALMS1 is expressed in macula densa cells and that its deletion enhances tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in rats. To test this, homozygous ALMS1 knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type Dahl salt-sensitive rats were studied. TGF sensitivity was higher in ALMS1 KO rats as measured by in vivo renal micropuncture. Using confocal microscopy, we confirmed immunolabeling of ALMS1 in macula densa cells (nitric oxide synthase 1 positive), supporting a role for ALMS1 in TGF regulation. Baseline glomerular capillary pressure was higher in ALMS1 KO rats, as was mean arterial pressure. Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure was lower in ALMS1 KO rats, which is linked to increased Na+ reabsorption and hypertension. GFR was reduced in ALMS1 KO rats. Seven-week-old ALMS1 KO rats were not proteinuric, but proteinuria was present in 18- to 22-wk-old ALMS1 KO rats. The glomerulosclerosis index was higher in 18-wk-old ALMS1 KO rats. In conclusion, ALMS1 is involved in the control of glomerular hemodynamics in part by enhancing TGF sensitivity, and this may contribute to decreased GFR. Increased TGF sensitivity, enhanced glomerular capillary pressure, and hypertension may lead to glomerular damage in ALMS1 KO rats. These are the first data supporting the role of ALMS1 in TGF and glomerular hemodynamics.NEW & NOTEWORTHY ALMS1 is a novel protein involved in regulating tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) sensitivity, glomerular capillary pressure, and blood pressure, and its dysfunction may reduce renal function and cause glomerular damage.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica
19.
J Int Med Res ; 51(7): 3000605231184100, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37439038

RESUMO

Alstrom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from an ALMS1 gene mutation. Here, we present the clinical data of a case of an infant diagnosed with Alstrom syndrome through whole-exome sequencing. A 2-month-old male infant was admitted to Sichuan Provincial Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital on 30 May 2019 after "coughing for half a day and dyspnea for 2 hours". He was diagnosed with severe pneumonia, acute congestive heart failure, Grade III cardiac function, acute respiratory failure, and myocarditis. After treatment, he was discharged with a prescription for oral medication. After a 4-month follow-up, the patient's left ventricle exhibited spherical enlargement and a decrease in left ventricular function. The infant's whole-exome sequencing results revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the ALMS1 gene: c.2179dup (p. Y727Lfs*12), a frameshift mutation, that was heterozygous and originated from the mother, while c.11140C>T (p. Q3714*) was a heterozygous nonsense mutation that originated from the father. Both mutations are classified as "category 1-pathogenic mutations" according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) assessment. A novel ALMS1 mutation was identified in this case report, highlighting the importance of genetic testing for the early diagnosis of Alstrom syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Saúde da Criança , Tosse , Dispneia
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