Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.542
Filtrar
1.
Vopr Pitan ; 92(1): 45-54, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36883539

RESUMO

Systemic control and monitoring in the sphere of providing sanitary epidemiological welfare of population require routine procedures for determining toxic elements in variable foodstuffs. Their development is a pressing issue. Our research goal was to develop a procedure for determining concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, aluminum and strontium in flour and cereal products by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Material and methods. The most relevant calibration parameters for an Agilent 7900 mass spectrometer with octopole collision/ reaction cell and conditions for sample preparation by microwave digestion have been established; calibration characteristics and a range of determined concentrations have been identified. The limits of detections (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for 6 analyzed elements have been calculated. Results. Our procedure for determining mass concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, aluminum and strontium in flour and cereal products by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma has yielded the following results: when analyzing a sample weighing 0.5 g, we determine cadmium concentration within a range from 0.0008 to 70.0 mg/kg with inaccuracy from 14 to 25%; arsenic concentration within a range from 0.002 to 70 mg/kg with inaccuracy varying from 11 to 26%; mercury concentration from 0.003 to 7.0 mg/kg with inaccuracy from 15 to 25%; lead concentration from 0.01 to 70.0 mg/kg with inaccuracy from 12 to 26%; aluminum concentration from 0.2 to 70.0 mg/kg with inaccuracy from 13 to 20%; strontium concentration from 0.02 to 70 mg/kg with inaccuracy from 12 to 20%. The procedure was tested on samples of rice groats with the focus on the most popular brands. Thus, arsenic was detected in a concentration equal to 0.163 mg/kg in round-grain rice and 0.098 mg/kg in parboiled rice, which does not exceed the permissible level fixed for the element at 0.2 mg/kg. In all the analyzed samples, content of cadmium, lead and mercury did not exceed maximum permissible levels established by the Technical regulation of the Customs Union TR CU 021/2011 for flour and cereal products. These levels are 0.1 mg/kg for cadmium, 0.5 mg/kg for lead and 0.03 mg/kg for mercury. Conclusion. The developed procedure for determining toxic elements in flour, cereals and bakery products by using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma gives an opportunity to determine such elements in quantities lower than permissible levels fixed for them in technical regulations and sanitary rules. The procedure expands the existing methodical instruments for control of food quality in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Oryza , Farinha , Grão Comestível , Alumínio , Cádmio , Chumbo , Espectrometria de Massas
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901849

RESUMO

Aluminum-based adjuvants have been extensively used in vaccines. Despite their widespread use, the mechanism behind the immune stimulation properties of these adjuvants is not fully understood. Needless to say, extending the knowledge of the immune-stimulating properties of aluminum-based adjuvants is of utmost importance in the development of new, safer, and efficient vaccines. To further our knowledge of the mode of action of aluminum-based adjuvants, the prospect of metabolic reprogramming of macrophages upon phagocytosis of aluminum-based adjuvants was investigated. Macrophages were differentiated and polarized in vitro from human peripheral monocytes and incubated with the aluminum-based adjuvant Alhydrogel®. Polarization was verified by the expression of CD markers and cytokine production. In order to recognize adjuvant-derived reprogramming, macrophages were incubated with Alhydrogel® or particles of polystyrene as control, and the cellular lactate content was analyzed using a bioluminescent assay. Quiescent M0 macrophages, as well as alternatively activated M2 macrophages, exhibited increased glycolytic metabolism upon exposure to aluminum-based adjuvants, indicating a metabolic reprogramming of the cells. Phagocytosis of aluminous adjuvants could result in an intracellular depot of aluminum ions, which may induce or support a metabolic reprogramming of the macrophages. The resulting increase in inflammatory macrophages could thus prove to be an important factor in the immune-stimulating properties of aluminum-based adjuvants.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Vacinas , Humanos , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Macrófagos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901947

RESUMO

Secretion and efflux of oxalic acid from roots is an important aluminum detoxification mechanism for various plants; however, how this process is completed remains unclear. In this study, the candidate oxalate transporter gene AtOT, encoding 287 amino acids, was cloned and identified from Arabidopsis thaliana. AtOT was upregulated in response to aluminum stress at the transcriptional level, which was closely related to aluminum treatment concentration and time. The root growth of Arabidopsis was inhibited after knocking out AtOT, and this effect was amplified by aluminum stress. Yeast cells expressing AtOT enhanced oxalic acid resistance and aluminum tolerance, which was closely correlated with the secretion of oxalic acid by membrane vesicle transport. Collectively, these results underline an external exclusion mechanism of oxalate involving AtOT to enhance oxalic acid resistance and aluminum tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Alumínio/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Ácido Oxálico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36902071

RESUMO

Tea plants have adapted to grow in tropical acidic soils containing high concentrations of aluminum (Al) and fluoride (F) (as Al/F hyperaccumulators) and use secret organic acids (OAs) to acidify the rhizosphere for acquiring phosphorous and element nutrients. The self-enhanced rhizosphere acidification under Al/F stress and acid rain also render tea plants prone to accumulate more heavy metals and F, which raises significant food safety and health concerns. However, the mechanism behind this is not fully understood. Here, we report that tea plants responded to Al and F stresses by synthesizing and secreting OAs and altering profiles of amino acids, catechins, and caffeine in their roots. These organic compounds could form tea-plant mechanisms to tolerate lower pH and higher Al and F concentrations. Furthermore, high concentrations of Al and F stresses negatively affected the accumulation of tea secondary metabolites in young leaves, and thereby tea nutrient value. The young leaves of tea seedlings under Al and F stresses also tended to increase Al and F accumulation in young leaves but lower essential tea secondary metabolites, which challenged tea quality and safety. Comparisons of transcriptome data combined with metabolite profiling revealed that the corresponding metabolic gene expression supported and explained the metabolism changes in tea roots and young leaves via stresses from high concentrations of Al and F. The study provides new insight into Al- and F-stressed tea plants with regard to responsive metabolism changes and tolerance strategy establishment in tea plants and the impacts of Al/F stresses on metabolite compositions in young leaves used for making teas, which could influence tea nutritional value and food safety.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Camellia sinensis/genética , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Alumínio/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Chá/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 323: 138282, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36868418

RESUMO

The occurrence and development of cognitive impairment, the early stage of AD, may be affected both by factors of environmental (aluminum exposure) and genetic (ApoEε4 gene). But whether there is an interaction between the two factors on cognitive function is still unknown. To explore the interaction between the two factors on cognitive function of in-service workers. A total of 1121 in-service workers in a large aluminum factory were investigated in Shanxi Province. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), the clock-drawing test (CDT), the Digit Span Test (DST, including DSFT and DSBT), the fuld object memory evaluation (FOM), and the verbal fluency task (VFT). The plasma-Al (p-Al) concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as an internal exposure indicator, and the participants were divided into four Al exposure groups according to the quartile of p-Al concentrations, namely Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. ApoE genotype was determined by Ligase Detection Reaction (LDR). The multiplicative model was fitted using non-conditional logistic regression and additive model was fitted using crossover analysis to analyze the interaction between p-Al concentrations and the ApoEε4 gene. Finally, a dose-response relationship between p-Al concentrations and cognitive impairment was observed, with the p-Al concentrations increased, cognitive function performance gradually becomes worse (Ptrend<0.05), and the risk of cognitive impairment gradually increases (Ptrend<0.05), mainly in executive/visuospatial impairment, auditory memory impairment (particularly the working memory impairment). And ApoEε4 gene may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment, while no association between the ApoEε2 gene and cognitive impairment is observed. Additionally, an additive but no multiplicative interaction between p-Al concentrations and ApoEε4 gene is observed, and when the two factors work together, the risk of cognitive impairment further increased, of which 44.2% can be attributed to the interaction effect.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Alumínio/toxicidade , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Genótipo
6.
Molecules ; 28(5)2023 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36903454

RESUMO

The existing study pronounces two newly developed spectrofluorimetric probes for the assay of ambroxol hydrochloride in its authentic and commercial formulations using an aluminum chelating complex and a biogenically mediated and synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) from Lavandula spica flower extract. The first probe is based on the formation of an aluminum charge transfer complex. However, the second probe is based on the effect of the unique optical characteristics of Al2O3NPs in the enhancement of fluorescence detection. The biogenically synthesized Al2O3NPs were confirmed using various spectroscopic and microscopic investigations. The fluorescence detections in the two probes were measured at a λex of 260 and 244 and a λem of 460 and 369 nm for the two suggested probes, respectively. The findings showed that the fluorescence intensity (FI) covered linear concentration ranges of 0.1-200 ng mL-1 and 1.0-100 ng mL-1 with a regression of ˃0.999 for AMH-Al2O3NPs-SDS and AMH-Al(NO3)3-SDS, respectively. The lower detection and quantification limits were evaluated and found to be 0.04 and 0.1 ng mL-1 and 0.7 and 0.1 ng/mL-1 for the abovementioned fluorescence probes, respectively. The two suggested probes were successfully applied for the assay of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMH) with excellent percentage recoveries of 99.65% and 99.85%, respectively. Excipients such as glycerol and benzoic acid used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations, several common cations, and amino acids, as well as sugars, were all found to have no interference with the approach.


Assuntos
Ambroxol , Lavandula , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Alumínio , Alumínio , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Quelantes
7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 39, 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36737783

RESUMO

The adoption of pulmonary vaccines to advantageously provide superior local mucosal protection against aerosolized pathogens has been faced with numerous logistical and practical challenges. One of these persistent challenges is the lack of effective vaccine adjuvants that could be well tolerated through the inhaled route of administration. Despite its widespread use as a vaccine adjuvant, aluminum salts (alum) are not well tolerated in the lung. To address this issue, we evaluated the use of porous aluminum (Al)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles (NPs) as inhalable adjuvants. We evaluate a suite of Al-based MOF NPs alongside alum including DUT-4, DUT-5, MIL-53 (Al), and MIL-101-NH2 (Al). As synthesized, MOF NPs ranged between ~ 200 nm and 1 µm in diameter, with the larger diameter MOFs matching those of commercial alum. In vitro examination of co-stimulatory markers revealed that the Al-based MOF NPs activated antigen presenting cells more effectively than alum. Similar results were found during in vivo immunizations utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, resulting in robust mucosal humoral responses for all Al MOFs tested. In particular, DUT-5 was able to elicit mucosal OVA-specific IgA antibodies that were significantly higher than the other MOFs or alum dosed at the same NP mass. DUT-5 also was uniquely able to generate detectable IgG2a titers, indicative of a cellular immune response and also had superior performance relative to alum at equivalent Al dosed in a reduced dosage vaccination study. All MOF NPs tested were generally well-tolerated in the lung, with only acute levels of cellular infiltrates detected and no Al accumulation; Al content was largely cleared from the lung and other organs at 28 days despite the two-dose regime. Furthermore, all MOF NPs exhibited mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of ~ 1.5-2.5 µm when dispersed from a generic dry powder inhaler, ideal for efficient lung deposition. While further work is needed, these results demonstrate the great potential for use of Al-based MOFs for pulmonary vaccination as novel inhalable adjuvants.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanopartículas , Alumínio , Adjuvantes de Vacinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Pulmão
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36834785

RESUMO

Transition-metal-modified zeolites have recently gained the greatest interest among scientists. Ab initio calculations within the density functional theory were used. The exchange and correlation functional was approximated with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional. Cluster models of ZSM-5 (Al2Si18O53H26) zeolites were used with Fe particles adsorbed above aluminum. The adsorption of three iron adsorbates inside the pores of the ZSM-5 zeolite-Fe, FeO and FeOH-was carried out with different arrangements of aluminum atoms in the zeolite structure. The DOS diagram and the HOMO, SOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals for these systems were analyzed. It has been shown that depending on the adsorbate and the position of aluminum atoms in the pore structure of the zeolite, the systems can be described as insulators or conductors, which significantly affects their activity. The main aim of the research was to understand the behavior of these types of systems in order to select the most efficient one for a catalytic reaction.


Assuntos
Ferro , Zeolitas , Zeolitas/química , Alumínio , Metais
9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 240: 112668, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36774718

RESUMO

This study investigated the environment-friendly production and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) doped with sodium (Na) and aluminum (Al) metals to decrease the photocatalytic activity of ZnO for use in sunscreen. The metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) materials were prepared by the microwave method using extracts of Averrhoa carambola, also known as star fruit, as a reducing agent. The effects of metal-ion doping on the crystal structure, morphology, and optical characteristics of ZnO were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The sun protection factor (SPF) of the sunscreen formulations containing undoped ZnO, Na-doped ZnO (Na/ZnO), and Al-doped ZnO (Al/ZnO) NPs were found to be 10.10, 25.10, and 43.08, respectively. Therefore, Na/ZnO and Al/ZnO showed increased SPF. Additionally, the prepared nanomaterials and sunscreens were effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and showed antioxidant activities. The methylene blue (MB) degradation was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the undoped ZnO, Na/ZnO, and Al/ZnO NPs, which were found to be 66%, 46%, and 38%, respectively. Therefore, due to the structural defects of ZnO NPs, their photocatalytic activity was decreased with Na- and Al- doping. Additionally, Al/ZnO is an ideal candidate as an ingredient in sunscreens.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Óxido de Zinco/química , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Alumínio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Óxidos/farmacologia , Sódio , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Difração de Raios X
10.
Cells ; 12(3)2023 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36766784

RESUMO

Acid soils are characterized by deficiencies in essential nutrient elements, oftentimes phosphorus (P), along with toxicities of metal elements, such as aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), and cadmium (Cd), each of which significantly limits crop production. In recent years, impressive progress has been made in revealing mechanisms underlying tolerance to high concentrations of Al, Mn, and Cd. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient element that can alleviate exposure to potentially toxic levels of Al, Mn, and Cd. In this review, recent advances in elucidating the genes responsible for the uptake, translocation, and redistribution of Al, Mn, and Cd in plants are first summarized, as are descriptions of the mechanisms conferring resistance to these toxicities. Then, literature highlights information on interactions of P nutrition with Al, Mn, and Cd toxicities, particularly possible mechanisms driving P alleviation of these toxicities, along with potential applications for crop improvement on acid soils. The roles of plant phosphate (Pi) signaling and associated gene regulatory networks relevant for coping with Al, Mn, and Cd toxicities, are also discussed. To develop varieties adapted to acid soils, future work needs to further decipher involved signaling pathways and key regulatory elements, including roles fulfilled by intracellular Pi signaling. The development of new strategies for remediation of acid soils should integrate the mechanisms of these interactions between limiting factors in acid soils.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Produtos Agrícolas , Manganês/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade
11.
J Environ Manage ; 332: 117326, 2023 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764213

RESUMO

The modified clay (MC) method is a common emergency treatment technology for red tides, and the selection of surface modifiers is the key to the MC technology. A cationic polymeric modifier, the copolymer of dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride and acrylamide (P (DMDAAC-co-AM), PDA) was optimized via a visible-light-induced polymerization technique. The PDA-modified clay (PDAMC) was prepared with strong salt tolerance and achieved efficiencies of 86% at the concentration of 50 mg L-1, and the dose was 90% lower than that of aluminum polychloride-modified clay (PACMC). While polyacrylamide and commercial PDA can achieve efficiencies of only 25 and 67%, respectively, but high doses were required. This is because PDA changed the surface charges of clay particles from negative to positive, which promotes the formation of the polymer-chains bridging network to overcome the difficulties of curling in seawater. According to the analysis of flocculation parameters and spatial conformation of PDAMC, the high salinity tolerance of the PDAMC was attributed to the synergistic processes of charge neutralization and the three-dimensional network bridging. Therefore, this study has developed a highly effective flocculant material used in seawater and provided an important reference for the management of red tide organisms.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Argila , Floculação , Alumínio
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 448: 130888, 2023 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36746085

RESUMO

Food waste and feed-food competition can be reduced by replacing traditional feed ingredients such as cereals, with former food products (FFPs) in livestock diets. These foodstuffs, initially intended for human consumption, are recovered, mechanically unpacked, and then ground. Despite this simple and inexpensive treatment, packaging contaminants (remnants) are often unavoidable in the final product. To maximize the exploitation of FFPs and to minimize the associated risks, packaging remnants need to be quantified and characterized. This study tested the efficacy of the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled with an optical microscope (µFT-IR) in identifying packaging remnants in 17 FFP samples collected in different geographical areas. After a visual sorting procedure, presumed packaging remnants were analyzed by µFT-IR. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the FFPs in terms of the total number of foreign particles found (plastics, cellulose and aluminum remnants, ranging from 4 to 19 particles per 20 g fresh matter), and also regarding the number of cellulose and aluminum particles. These data clearly demonstrate the need for sensitive instruments that can characterize the potential contaminants in the FFPs. This would then help to reduce the overestimation of undesirable contaminants typical of simple visual sorting, which is currently the most common method.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Alumínio , Plásticos , Celulose
13.
Plant Signal Behav ; 18(1): 2178085, 2023 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36780917

RESUMO

In acid soil, aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the main factors limiting agricultural output. As is known to all, the cell wall is the first line of defense against metals that serves as a significant target of Al toxicity and also is crucial for Al detoxification. However, nothing is known about how this process is transcriptionally regulated. Here, we describe recent findings to understand the role of two kinds of transcription factors in regulating the cell wall composition and modification in response to Al stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. ANAC017 encodes a NAM, ATAF1/2, and cup-shaped cotyledon 2 (NAC) transcription factor, loss function of ANAC017 enhanced Al tolerance with the decreased Al content and xyloglucan content in the cell wall. Next, we characterized one xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH), XTH31, which is previously reported to participate in Al stress, acted downstream of ANAC017 to regulate Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. In addition, we also identified MYB103, an R2R3-type transcription factor. MYB103 disruption caused Al sensitivity, and myb103 mutants' xyloglucan had a high O-acetylation level. Additionally, it was discovered that TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE27 (TBL27), which is in charge of xyloglucan's O-acetylation, functions downstream of MYB103 through the direct binding of the MYB103 to the promoter of the TBL27 to influence Arabidopsis's sensitivity to Al. In summary, our research showed that two distinct molecular modules modulate Arabidopsis cell wall composition and modification to positively influence Al resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768833

RESUMO

Agglomeration of distributed particles is the main problem in polymer composites reinforced with such particles. It leads to a decrease in mechanical performance and its poor reproducibility. Thus, development of methods to address the agglomeration of particles is relevant. Evaluation of the size and concentration of agglomerates is required to select a method to address agglomeration. The paper analyzes aluminum oxide particles agglomeration in particles-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites. Quantitative parameters of polystyrene-coated aluminum oxide particles agglomerates are obtained for the first time in this article. Unlike uncoated aluminum oxide particles, when coated aluminum oxide particles are used, agglomerates concentration in polymer composites decreases approx. 10 times. It demonstrates that modification of submicron particles by a polymer coating decreases the number of agglomerates in the polymer composite. The use of transmittance and opacity values to estimate particles agglomerates is reasonable in this article. It is shown that the difference in optical performance of specimens reinforced with coated and the original particles is related to the number and average size of agglomerates in the specimens. For example, when the concentration exceeds 0.2%, transmittance values for the specimens reinforced with coated particles are greater than the ones for the specimens reinforced with the original particles.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Polimetil Metacrilato , Óxido de Alumínio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Polímeros
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768869

RESUMO

Endoprostheses are prone to tribological wear and biological processes that lead to the release of particles, including aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs). Those particles can diffuse into circulation. However, the toxic effects of NPs on platelets have not been comprehensively analyzed. The aim of our work was to investigate the impact of Al NPs on human platelet function using a novel quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) methodology. Moreover, a suite of assays, including light transmission aggregometry, flow cytometry, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were utilized. All Al NPs caused a significant increase in dissipation (D) and frequency (F), indicating platelet aggregation even at the lowest tested concentration (0.5 µg/mL), except for the largest (80 nm) Al NPs. A size-dependent effect on platelet aggregation was observed for the 5-20 nm NPs and the 30-50 nm NPs, with the larger Al NPs causing smaller increases in D and F; however, this was not observed for the 20-30 nm NPs. In conclusion, our study showed that small (5-50 nm) Al NPs caused platelet aggregation, and larger (80 nm) caused a bridging-penetrating effect in entering platelets, resulting in the formation of heterologous platelet-Al NPs structures. Therefore, physicians should consider monitoring NP serum levels and platelet activation indices in patients with orthopedic implants.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Alumínio/toxicidade , Alumínio/análise , Plaquetas , Agregação Plaquetária , Nanopartículas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
16.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e15, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inactivated vaccines are limited in preventing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to safety problems. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are an excellent candidate for a novel vaccine for preventing FMD, given that VLPs have similar immunogenicity as natural viruses and are replication- and infection-incompetent. OBJECTIVES: The 3C protease and P1 polyprotein of type O FMD virus (FDMV) was expressed in yeast Hansenula polymorpha to generate self-resembling VLPs, and the potential of recombinant VLPs as an FMD vaccine was evaluated. METHODS: BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant purified VLPs using CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and aluminum hydroxide gel as an adjuvant. Cytokines and lymphocytes from serum and spleen were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: The VLPs of FMD were purified successfully from yeast protein with a diameter of approximately 25 nm. The immunization of mice showed that animals produced high levels of FMDV antibodies and a higher level of antibodies for a longer time. In addition, higher levels of interferon-γ and CD4+ T cells were observed in mice immunized with VLPs. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of VLPs of FMD in H. polymorpha provides a novel strategy for the generation of the FMDV vaccine.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Camundongos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Alumínio , Anticorpos Antivirais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36840367

RESUMO

In recent times, ground water contamination by toxic elements is of great concern and it is to be addressed for consumption of human, animal, and plant growth. In this context, we have synthesized an adsorbent by modifying commercially available activated carbon with aluminum and tested for de-fluoridation studies. The activity results suggested that the optimized adsorbent is highly efficient in removing the fluoride from ground water. Adsorption maxima are obtained over a wide pH range from 4 to 9, with a contact time of 15 minutes at a dosage of 4 g/L. The results also revealed that the synthesized adsorbent is suitable for application in ground water without any pH adjustment and has exhibited 85%-95% tolerance for common anions in the range of 100-500 mg/L. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm models as well as kinetics of adsorption were applied for the system. An adsorption capacity of 20.4 mg/g and fast kinetics observed are most favorable for defluoridation. Reuse of adsorbent over repeated cycles was investigated. Residual amount of aluminum in treated water is found to be negligible. The removal of toxic elements like Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, and Se under the optimized experimental conditions has also been investigated. Al-AC found to be a highly promising material for removal of fluoride and toxic metals from drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Fluoretos/química , Alumínio/química , Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Cinética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
18.
Am J Ind Med ; 66(4): 307-319, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36748848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Former workers at a Southern aluminum smelting facility raised concerns that the most hazardous jobs were assigned to Black workers, but the role of workplace segregation had not been quantified or examined in the company town. Prior studies discuss race and gender disparities in working conditions, but few have documented them in the aluminum industry. METHODS: We obtained workers' company records for 1985-2007 and characterized four job metrics: prestige (sociologic rankings), worker-defined danger (worker assessments), annual wage (1985 dollars), and estimated total particulate matter (TPM) exposure (job exposure matrix). Characteristics of job at hire and trajectories were compared by race and sex using linear binomial models. RESULTS: Non-White males had the highest percentage of workers in low prestige and high danger jobs at hire and up to 20 years after. After 20 years tenure, 100% of White workers were in higher prestige and lower danger jobs. Most female workers, regardless of race, entered and remained in low-wage jobs, while 50% of all male workers maintained their initial higher-wage jobs. Non-White females had the highest prevalence of workers in low-wage jobs at hire and after 20 years-increasing from 63% (95% CI: 59-67) to 100% (95% CI: 78-100). All female workers were less likely to be in high TPM exposure jobs. Non-White males were most likely to be hired into high TPM exposure jobs, and this exposure prevalence increased as time accrued, while staying constant for other race-sex groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of job segregation by race and sex in this cohort of aluminum smelting workers. Documentation of disparities in occupational hazards is important for informing health interventions and research.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ocupações , Indústrias , Local de Trabalho , Material Particulado , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
19.
Mol Pharm ; 20(3): 1613-1623, 2023 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36795759

RESUMO

Chinese yam polysaccharides (CYPs) have received wide attention for their immunomodulatory activity. Our previous studies had discovered that the Chinese yam polysaccharide PLGA-stabilized Pickering emulsion (CYP-PPAS) can serve as an efficient adjuvant to trigger powerful humoral and cellular immunity. Recently, positively charged nano-adjuvants are easily taken up by antigen-presenting cells, potentially resulting in lysosomal escape, the promotion of antigen cross-presentation, and the induction of CD8 T-cell response. However, reports on the practical application of cationic Pickering emulsions as adjuvants are very limited. Considering the economic damage and public-health risks caused by the H9N2 influenza virus, it is urgent to develop an effective adjuvant for boosting humoral and cellular immunity against influenza virus infection. Here, we applied polyethyleneimine-modified Chinese yam polysaccharide PLGA nanoparticles as particle stabilizers and squalene as the oil core to fabricate a positively charged nanoparticle-stabilized Pickering emulsion adjuvant system (PEI-CYP-PPAS). The cationic Pickering emulsion of PEI-CYP-PPAS was utilized as an adjuvant for the H9N2 Avian influenza vaccine, and the adjuvant activity was compared with the Pickering emulsion of CYP-PPAS and the commercial adjuvant (aluminum adjuvant). The PEI-CYP-PPAS, with a size of about 1164.66 nm and a ζ potential of 33.23 mV, could increase the H9N2 antigen loading efficiency by 83.99%. After vaccination with Pickering emulsions based on H9N2 vaccines, PEI-CYP-PPAS generated higher HI titers and stronger IgG antibodies than CYP-PPAS and Alum and increased the immune organ index of the spleen and bursa of Fabricius without immune organ injury. Moreover, treatment with PEI-CYP-PPAS/H9N2 induced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation, a high lymphocyte proliferation index, and increased cytokine expression of IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-γ. Thus, compared with the CYP-PPAS and aluminum adjuvant, the cationic nanoparticle-stabilized vaccine delivery system of PEI-CYP-PPAS was an effective adjuvant for H9N2 vaccination to elicit powerful humoral and cellular immune responses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Nanopartículas , Animais , Galinhas , Alumínio/farmacologia , Emulsões/farmacologia , Antígenos , Imunidade Celular , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
20.
Water Res ; 232: 119677, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36738559

RESUMO

Drinking water treatment residual (DWTR) derived from flocculation and sedimentation of raw water using aluminum coagulants is a valuable environmental remediation byproduct capable of inactivating phosphorus (P). However, no generalizable model exists in the literature to describe reduction of releasable (mobile) P in lake sediment as a result of DWTR addition. The reduction of mobile P (sum of labile P and reductant soluble P) was investigated in over 100 sub-samples using five sediment samples from two lakes and three DWTRs from different water treatment plants. A consistent relationship was determined across a range of mobile P contents (0.23 g/m2/cm to 0.92 g/m2/cm, or 15.8 to 186.1 µg/g DW) and DWTRs. The relationship was best described as a function of the mobile P content of the sediment and the oxalate-extractable aluminum content of the DWTR. An empirical model was developed to predict the immediate reduction in mobile P following the addition of DWTR containing aluminum. This model was validated using two additional lake sediments and one additional DWTR (R² = 0.995). Thus, the immediate inactivation of P in lake sediment following DWTR addition can be predicted with this model, which can be used with internal P loading or other water quality goals to determine an appropriate DWTR dose. Further recommendations were made about dosing DWTRs for lake restoration, allowing practitioners to use DWTR to inactivate P in lake sediment without conducting individual sorption experiments.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Lagos , Alumínio , Fósforo , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eutrofização
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...