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1.
Cancer ; 128(20): 3630-3640, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although adherence to the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention associates with lower risk of obesity-related cancer (ORC) incidence and mortality, evidence in Black and Latina women is limited. This association was examined in Black and Latina participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: Semi-Markov multistate model examined the association between ACS guideline adherence and ORC incidence and mortality in the presence of competing events, combined and separately, for 9301 Black and 4221 Latina postmenopausal women. Additionally, ACS guideline adherence was examined in a subset of less common ORCs and potential effect modification by neighborhood socioeconomic status and smoking. RESULTS: Over a median of 11.1, 12.5, and 3.7 years of follow-up for incidence, nonconditional mortality, and conditional mortality, respectively, 1191 ORCs (Black/Latina women: 841/269), 1970 all-cause deaths (Black/Latina women: 1576/394), and 341 ORC-related deaths (Black/Latina women: 259/82) were observed. Higher ACS guideline adherence was associated with lower ORC incidence for both Black (cause-specific hazard ratio [CSHR]highvs.low : 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94) and Latina (CSHRhighvs.low : 0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93) women; but not conditional all-cause mortality (Black hazard ratio [HR]highvs.low : 0.86; 95% CI, 0.53-1.39; Latina HRhighvs.low : 0.81; 95% CI, 0.32-2.06). Higher adherence was associated with lower incidence of less common ORC (Ptrend  = .025), but conditional mortality events were limited. Adherence and ORC-specific deaths were not associated and there was no evidence of effect modification. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the ACS guidelines was associated with lower risk of ORCs and less common ORCs but was not for conditional ORC-related mortality. LAY SUMMARY: Evidence on the association between the American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention and cancer remains scarce for women of color. Adherence to the guidelines and risk of developing one of 13 obesity-related cancers among Black and Latina women in the Women's Health Initiative was examined. Women who followed the lifestyle guidelines had 28% to 42% lower risk of obesity-related cancer. These findings support public health interventions to reduce growing racial/ethnic disparities in obesity-related cancers.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
2.
Int J Cancer ; 151(11): 1902-1912, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802472

RESUMO

Incidence of obesity-related cancers (ORCs) is rising among US Hispanic/Latino adults, which may be partly due to inadequate engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Prior research on cancer prevention guideline adherence and cancer risk has not considered competing events that may lead to misinterpreting the magnitude of risk between guideline adherence and cancer incidence. Among Hispanic/Latino adults (N = 9204) in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the association between adherence to the 2012 American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines (high, moderate, low) on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention and risk of any first observed ORC using Fine and Gray methods for competing risk analysis. Over a median of 10.5 years of follow-up, there were 619 first ORCs. The cumulative risk of ORC over a 15-year period was not significantly different across ACS guideline adherence categories (high cumulative incidence function [CIF]: 2.2%-5.8%; moderate CIF: 2.2%-6.6%; low CIF: 2.3%-6.7%, PGray's log rank  = .690). In competing risk analysis, high (compared to low) adherence to the ACS guidelines was associated with reduced probability of ORC (subdistribution hazard [SHR]: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.996, P = .047), with evidence of a linear trend for increasing adherence (Ptrend  = .039). Our findings were consistent with hypothesized inverse associations between ACS guideline adherence and ORC incidence accounting for competing risks. These findings suggest a need for continued public health efforts focused on promoting engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors to reduce ORC incidence among US Hispanic/Latino adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Dieta , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 194(3): 673-682, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The American Cancer Society (ACS) published an updated Guideline for Cancer Prevention (ACS Guideline) in 2020. Research suggests that adherence to the 2012 ACS Guideline might lower breast cancer risk, but there is limited evidence that this applies to women at increased familial and genetic risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Using the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), a cohort enriched for increased familial and genetic risk of breast cancer, we examined adherence to three 2020 ACS Guideline recommendations (weight management (body mass index), physical activity, and alcohol consumption) with breast cancer risk in 9615 women. We used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) overall and stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant status, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) breast cancer. RESULTS: We observed 618 incident invasive or in situ breast cancers over a median 12.9 years. Compared with being adherent to none (n = 55 cancers), being adherent to any ACS recommendation (n = 563 cancers) was associated with a 27% lower breast cancer risk (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97). This was evident for women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), women without BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95), postmenopausal women (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89), and for risk of ER+ breast cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.98). DISCUSSION: Adherence to the 2020 ACS Guideline recommendations for BMI, physical activity, and alcohol consumption could reduce breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women and women at increased familial risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , American Cancer Society , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(5): 409-436, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736631

RESUMO

The number of cancer survivors continues to increase in the United States due to the growth and aging of the population as well as advances in early detection and treatment. To assist the public health community in better serving these individuals, the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute collaborate triennially to estimate cancer prevalence in the United States using incidence and survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries, vital statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, and population projections from the US Census Bureau. Current treatment patterns based on information in the National Cancer Database are presented for the most prevalent cancer types by race, and cancer-related and treatment-related side-effects are also briefly described. More than 18 million Americans (8.3 million males and 9.7 million females) with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2022. The 3 most prevalent cancers are prostate (3,523,230), melanoma of the skin (760,640), and colon and rectum (726,450) among males and breast (4,055,770), uterine corpus (891,560), and thyroid (823,800) among females. More than one-half (53%) of survivors were diagnosed within the past 10 years, and two-thirds (67%) were aged 65 years or older. One of the largest racial disparities in treatment is for rectal cancer, for which 41% of Black patients with stage I disease receive proctectomy or proctocolectomy compared to 66% of White patients. Surgical receipt is also substantially lower among Black patients with non-small cell lung cancer, 49% for stages I-II and 16% for stage III versus 55% and 22% for White patients, respectively. These treatment disparities are exacerbated by the fact that Black patients continue to be less likely to be diagnosed with stage I disease than White patients for most cancers, with some of the largest disparities for female breast (53% vs 68%) and endometrial (59% vs 73%). Although there are a growing number of tools that can assist patients, caregivers, and clinicians in navigating the various phases of cancer survivorship, further evidence-based strategies and equitable access to available resources are needed to mitigate disparities for communities of color and optimize care for people with a history of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2022;72:409-436.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Sobrevivência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Cancer ; 128 Suppl 13: 2673-2677, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699608

RESUMO

Over the past 30 years, the American Cancer Society (ACS) has played a key role in shaping the field of patient navigation as a means to address cancer disparities. Through collaborations with organizations like the National Navigation Roundtable and the ACS Cancer Action Network, the ACS is uniquely positioned to help develop sustainable navigation models that directly address disparities in access to quality cancer care. As health systems continue to adapt and change in response to various factors, including an aging population and rapid advances in screening and treatment, it is important to evaluate existing navigation-delivery models and promote those that are sustainable while maximizing reach and impact and providing the greatest return on investment (ROI). In this report, the term ROI is used to describe the potential financial gain resulting from the navigation service (ROI = net gains/total program cost). Calculating net gains requires assigning a monetary value to key outcomes and subtracting this amount from the total program cost. ROI is a measure often used by health care executives to show the savings or financial benefit from a program or service. Other measures of financial impact exist that may be of greater or lesser value to program leadership, including cost effectiveness (if financial information for outcomes is not available) and cost-benefit analysis. Here, the current and future commitment of the ACS to advancing the field of patient navigation is outlined as an organizational priority and a key building block in their health equity strategy. By working with partners like the National Navigation Roundtable, the ACS can help guide efforts to evaluate these approaches, with the goal of identifying the most effective and potentially sustainable models of delivery while also increasing equitable access to care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Navegação de Pacientes , Idoso , American Cancer Society , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(3): 230-262, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294043

RESUMO

The overall 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers combined is now 68%, and there are over 16.9 million survivors in the United States. Evidence from laboratory and observational studies suggests that factors such as diet, physical activity, and obesity may affect risk for recurrence and overall survival after a cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this American Cancer Society guideline is to provide evidence-based, cancer-specific recommendations for anthropometric parameters, physical activity, diet, and alcohol intake for reducing recurrence and cancer-specific and overall mortality. The audiences for this guideline are health care providers caring for cancer survivors as well as cancer survivors and their families. The guideline is intended to serve as a resource for informing American Cancer Society programs, health policy, and the media. Sources of evidence that form the basis of this guideline are systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses, pooled analyses of cohort studies, and large randomized clinical trials published since 2012. Recommendations for nutrition and physical activity during cancer treatment, informed by current practice, large cancer care organizations, and reviews of other expert bodies, are also presented. To provide additional context for the guidelines, the authors also include information on the relationship between health-related behaviors and comorbidities, long-term sequelae and patient-reported outcomes, and health disparities, with attention to enabling survivors' ability to adhere to recommendations. Approaches to meet survivors' needs are addressed as well as clinical care coordination and resources for nutrition and physical activity counseling after a cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(3): 202-229, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143040

RESUMO

African American/Black individuals have a disproportionate cancer burden, including the highest mortality and the lowest survival of any racial/ethnic group for most cancers. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for Black people in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence (herein through 2018), mortality (through 2019), survival, screening, and risk factors using population-based data from the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2022, there will be approximately 224,080 new cancer cases and 73,680 cancer deaths among Black people in the United States. During the most recent 5-year period, Black men had a 6% higher incidence rate but 19% higher mortality than White men overall, including an approximately 2-fold higher risk of death from myeloma, stomach cancer, and prostate cancer. The overall cancer mortality disparity is narrowing between Black and White men because of a steeper drop in Black men for lung and prostate cancers. However, the decline in prostate cancer mortality in Black men slowed from 5% annually during 2010 through 2014 to 1.3% during 2015 through 2019, likely reflecting the 5% annual increase in advanced-stage diagnoses since 2012. Black women have an 8% lower incidence rate than White women but a 12% higher mortality; further, mortality rates are 2-fold higher for endometrial cancer and 41% higher for breast cancer despite similar or lower incidence rates. The wide breast cancer disparity reflects both later stage diagnosis (57% localized stage vs 67% in White women) and lower 5-year survival overall (82% vs 92%, respectively) and for every stage of disease (eg, 20% vs 30%, respectively, for distant stage). Breast cancer surpassed lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among Black women in 2019. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce stark cancer inequalities in the Black community.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Afro-Americanos , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(1): 7-33, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020204

RESUMO

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence and outcomes. Incidence data (through 2018) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2019) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2022, 1,918,030 new cancer cases and 609,360 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States, including approximately 350 deaths per day from lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Incidence during 2014 through 2018 continued a slow increase for female breast cancer (by 0.5% annually) and remained stable for prostate cancer, despite a 4% to 6% annual increase for advanced disease since 2011. Consequently, the proportion of prostate cancer diagnosed at a distant stage increased from 3.9% to 8.2% over the past decade. In contrast, lung cancer incidence continued to decline steeply for advanced disease while rates for localized-stage increased suddenly by 4.5% annually, contributing to gains both in the proportion of localized-stage diagnoses (from 17% in 2004 to 28% in 2018) and 3-year relative survival (from 21% to 31%). Mortality patterns reflect incidence trends, with declines accelerating for lung cancer, slowing for breast cancer, and stabilizing for prostate cancer. In summary, progress has stagnated for breast and prostate cancers but strengthened for lung cancer, coinciding with changes in medical practice related to cancer screening and/or treatment. More targeted cancer control interventions and investment in improved early detection and treatment would facilitate reductions in cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , American Cancer Society , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(2): 112-143, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878180

RESUMO

In this report, the authors provide comprehensive and up-to-date US data on disparities in cancer occurrence, major risk factors, and access to and utilization of preventive measures and screening by sociodemographic characteristics. They also review programs and resources that have reduced cancer disparities and provide policy recommendations to further mitigate these inequalities. The overall cancer death rate is 19% higher among Black males than among White males. Black females also have a 12% higher overall cancer death rate than their White counterparts despite having an 8% lower incidence rate. There are also substantial variations in death rates for specific cancer types and in stage at diagnosis, survival, exposure to risk factors, and receipt of preventive measures and screening by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. For example, kidney cancer death rates by sex among American Indian/Alaska Native people are ≥64% higher than the corresponding rates in each of the other racial/ethnic groups, and the 5-year relative survival for all cancers combined is 14% lower among residents of poorer counties than among residents of more affluent counties. Broad and equitable implementation of evidence-based interventions, such as increasing health insurance coverage through Medicaid expansion or other initiatives, could substantially reduce cancer disparities. However, progress will require not only equitable local, state, and federal policies but also broad interdisciplinary engagement to elevate and address fundamental social inequities and longstanding systemic racism.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(9): 1620-1626, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the NCI collaborate every 5-8 years to update the methods for estimating numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the current year in the United States and in every state and the District of Columbia. In this article, we reevaluate the statistical method for estimating unavailable historical incident cases which are needed for projecting the current year counts. METHODS: We compared the current county-level model developed in 2012 (M0) with three new models, including a state-level mixed effect model (M1) and two state-level hierarchical Bayes models with varying random effects (M2 and M3). We used 1996-2014 incidence data for 16 sex-specific cancer sites to fit the models. An average absolute relative deviation (AARD) comparing the observed with the model-specific predicted counts was calculated for each site. Models were also cross-validated for six selected sex-specific cancer sites. RESULTS: For the cross-validation, the AARD ranged from 2.8% to 33.0% for M0, 3.3% to 31.1% for M1, 6.6% to 30.5% for M2, and 10.4% to 393.2% for M3. M1 encountered the least technical issues in terms of model convergence and running time. CONCLUSIONS: The state-level mixed effect model (M1) was overall superior in accuracy and computational efficiency and will be the new model for the ACS current year projection project. IMPACT: In addition to predicting the unavailable state-level historical incidence counts for cancer surveillance, the updated algorithms have broad applicability for disease mapping and other activities of public health planning, advocacy, and research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 25(3): 187-191, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138787

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The American Cancer Society (ACS) released updated cervical cancer screening guidelines in 2020 that endorse a shift in practice to primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening in people with a cervix, beginning at ages of 25-65 years. When access to US Food and Drug Administration-approved primary HPV testing is not available, the ACS offers cotesting or cytology as acceptable alternative strategies but suggests that these testing modalities may be excluded from future iterations of the guidelines. The ASCCP recognizes the benefits and risks of primary HPV cervical cancer screening while acknowledging the barriers to widespread adoption, including implementation issues, the impact of limited HPV vaccination in the United States, and inclusion of populations who may not be well represented on primary HPV screening trials, such as underrepresented minorities. The ASCCP endorses the 2018 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement and supports the ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Most importantly, the ASCCP endorses any cervical cancer screening for secondary prevention of cervical cancer and recommends interventions that improve screening for those who are underscreened or unscreened.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
17.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 71(1): 7-33, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433946

RESUMO

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence. Incidence data (through 2017) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2018) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2021, 1,898,160 new cancer cases and 608,570 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. After increasing for most of the 20th century, the cancer death rate has fallen continuously from its peak in 1991 through 2018, for a total decline of 31%, because of reductions in smoking and improvements in early detection and treatment. This translates to 3.2 million fewer cancer deaths than would have occurred if peak rates had persisted. Long-term declines in mortality for the 4 leading cancers have halted for prostate cancer and slowed for breast and colorectal cancers, but accelerated for lung cancer, which accounted for almost one-half of the total mortality decline from 2014 to 2018. The pace of the annual decline in lung cancer mortality doubled from 3.1% during 2009 through 2013 to 5.5% during 2014 through 2018 in men, from 1.8% to 4.4% in women, and from 2.4% to 5% overall. This trend coincides with steady declines in incidence (2.2%-2.3%) but rapid gains in survival specifically for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For example, NSCLC 2-year relative survival increased from 34% for persons diagnosed during 2009 through 2010 to 42% during 2015 through 2016, including absolute increases of 5% to 6% for every stage of diagnosis; survival for small cell lung cancer remained at 14% to 15%. Improved treatment accelerated progress against lung cancer and drove a record drop in overall cancer mortality, despite slowing momentum for other common cancers.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , American Cancer Society , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1973-1975.e1, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871285

RESUMO

Recent data have shown increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among those younger than 50 years of age.1,2 In response, the American Cancer Society (ACS) introduced new guidelines in May 2018 that recommend initiation of CRC screening in average-risk adults at age 45, which is 5 years earlier than existing recommendations from the US Preventive Services Task Force and US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer.3-5 Most screening colonoscopies are ordered directly by primary care providers (PCPs) via "direct" or "open.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Adulto , American Cancer Society , Pré-Escolar , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos
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