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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077483

RESUMO

Although alveolar macrophages play a critical role in malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure, inflammatory and oxidative processes continue to occur in the mesothelial cells lining the pleura that may contribute to the carcinogenic process. Malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure occurs over several decades; however, amelioration of DNA damage, inflammation, and cell injury may impede the carcinogenic process. We have shown in an in vitro model of asbestos-induced macrophage activation that synthetic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (LGM2605), given preventively, reduced inflammatory cascades and oxidative/nitrosative cell damage. Therefore, it was hypothesized that LGM2605 could also be effective in reducing asbestos-induced activation and the damage of pleural mesothelial cells. LGM2605 treatment (50 µM) of huma n pleural mesothelial cells was initiated 4 h prior to exposure to asbestos (crocidolite, 20 µg/cm2). Supernatant and cells were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h post asbestos exposure for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage (oxidized guanine), inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα, and HMGB1), and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (8-iso-PGF2α). Asbestos induced a time-dependent ROS increase that was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced (29.4%) by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 pretreatment also reduced levels of asbestos-induced DNA damage by 73.6% ± 1.0%. Although levels of inflammasome-activated cytokines, IL-1ß and IL-18, reached 29.2 pg/mL ± 0.7 pg/mL and 43.9 pg/mL ± 0.8 pg/mL, respectively, LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced cytokine levels comparable to baseline (non-asbestos exposed) values (3.8 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL and 5.4 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, levels of IL-6 and TNFα in asbestos-exposed mesothelial cells were high (289.1 pg/mL ± 2.9 pg/mL and 511.3 pg/mL ± 10.2 pg/mL, respectively), while remaining undetectable with LGM2605 pretreatment. HMGB1 (a key inflammatory mediator and initiator of malignant transformation) release was reduced 75.3% ± 0.4% by LGM2605. Levels of MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α, markers of oxidative cell injury, were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 80.5% ± 0.1% and 76.6% ± 0.3%, respectively. LGM2605, given preventively, reduced ROS generation, DNA damage, and inflammasome-activated cytokine release and key inflammatory mediators implicated in asbestos-induced malignant transformation of normal mesothelial cells.


Assuntos
Amianto , Proteína HMGB1 , Amianto/toxicidade , Butileno Glicóis , Citocinas , Dano ao DNA , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Inflamassomos , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-18 , Interleucina-6 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
2.
Cytokine ; 159: 156016, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asbestos-related diseases are a group of diseases resulting from the inhalation of asbestos fibres and their subsequent deposition in the lung parenchyma, which causes the development of inflammatory and fibrotic processes in the respiratory system. Cases of the disease often occur in the practice of doctors. AIMS: The purpose of the study was to examine the level of circulating-free mitochondrial DNA (cf mtDNA), pro-inflammatory cytokines, immunological status and structural changes in the lung of rats exposed to various doses of asbestos dust. METHODS: Immune monitoring was performed using the peripheral blood samples of 40 male Wistar rats exposed and unexposed to asbestos dust. cf mtDNA copy numbers were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cytokines were determined using a rat Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. RESULTS: A comprehensive assessment of the histopathological study performed under exposure to asbestos at a dose of 25 mg and 50 mg showed the presence of pronounced structural defects in the lung tissue of laboratory rats. The level of cf mtDNA in plasma of rats exposed to asbestos at a dose of 25 mg was reliably higher than that of control rats, and animals exposed to asbestos at a dose of 50 mg. The highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-a were also observed after asbestos dusting at a dose of 25 mg. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the immunological status obtained, the decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood plasma at 50 mg is due to the immunosuppressive effect in the rat immune system at this dose. A positive correlation was found between TNF-a level and copy numbers of cf mtDNA at a dose of 25 mg.


Assuntos
Amianto , Interleucina-6 , Animais , Amianto/toxicidade , Citocinas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Poeira , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Pulmão , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(5): e20220064, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving patients referred to a tertiary-care cancer center in Brazil between 2009 and 2020. The diagnostic process was divided into four steps: onset of symptoms, referral to a specialist visit, histopathological diagnosis, and beginning of treatment. The intervals between each phase and the factors for delays were evaluated. Data including clinical status, radiological examinations, staging, treatment modalities, and survival outcomes were collected. RESULTS: During the study period, 66 patients (mean age = 64 years) were diagnosed with MPM and underwent treatment. Only 27 (41%) of the patients had knowledge of prior exposure to asbestos. The median number of months (IQR) between the onset of symptoms and the first specialist visit, between the specialist visit and histopathological characterization, and between definite diagnosis and beginning of treatment was, respectively, 6.5 (2.0-11.4), 1.5 (0.6-2.1), and 1.7 (1.2-3.4). The knowledge of prior asbestos exposure was associated with a shorter time to referral to a specialist (median: 214 vs. 120 days; p = 0.04). A substantial number of nondiagnostic procedures and false-negative biopsy results (the majority of which involved the use of Cope needle biopsy) were found to be decisive factors for the length of waiting time. The mean overall survival was 11.9 months. CONCLUSIONS: The unfamiliarity of health professionals with MPM and the patient's lack of knowledge of prior asbestos exposure were the major factors to cause a long time interval between the onset of symptoms and beginning of treatment. An overall survival shorter than 1 year is likely to have been due to the aforementioned delays.


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Amianto/toxicidade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012262

RESUMO

Malignant mesotheliomas (MM) are hard to treat malignancies with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This cancer is highly misdiagnosed in Sub-Saharan African countries. According to literature, the incidence of MM is likely to increase particularly in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). The burden of asbestos-induced diseases was estimated to be about 231,000 per annum. Lack of awareness and implementation of regulatory frameworks to control exposure to asbestos fibers contributes to the expected increase. Exposure to asbestos fibers can lead to cancer initiation by several mechanisms. Asbestos-induced epigenetic modifications of gene expression machinery and non-coding RNAs promote cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, microbiome-epigenetic interactions control the innate and adaptive immunity causing exacerbation of cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. This review discusses epigenetic mechanisms with more focus on miRNAs and their interaction with the microbiome. The potential use of epigenetic alterations and microbiota as specific biomarkers to aid in the early detection and/or development of therapeutic targets is explored. The advancement of combinatorial therapies to prolong overall patient survival or possible eradication of MM especially if it is detected early is discussed.


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Microbiota , Amianto/efeitos adversos , Epigenômica , Humanos , Imunidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/etiologia
6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 41(1): 255, 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor associated with asbestos exposure. There are few effective treatment options for mesothelioma, and patients have a very poor prognosis. Mesothelioma has the potential to represent an appropriate disease to prevent because of its strong association with asbestos exposure and the long latency from exposure to the disease on-set. METHODS: In the present study, we tested biological activity and toxicity of an artichoke freeze-dried extract (AWPC) as potential complementary preventive/early stage treatment agent for mesothelioma. This phase II clinical study then was conducted in 18 male-patients with evidence of radiographic characteristics related to asbestos exposure such as asbestosis or benign pleural disease as surrogate disease for mesothelioma clinical model. RESULTS: We investigate AWPC biological activity assessing its effect on mesothelin serum level, a glycoprotein with low expression in normal mesothelial cells and high expression in mesothelioma and asbestos related diseases. We also assess the AWPC effect on circulating miRNAs, as novel biomarkers of both cancer risk and response to therapeutic targets. While we found a small and not significant effect of AWPC on mesothelin serum levels, we observed that AWPC intake modulated 11 serum miRNAs related to gene-pathways connected to mesothelioma etiology and development. In terms of toxicity, we also did not observe any severe adverse effects associated to AWPC treatment, only gastro-intestinal symptoms were reported by five study participants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an interesting AWPC effect on miRNAs which targets modulate mesothelioma development. New and much larger clinical studies based on follow-up of workers exposed to asbestos are needed to corroborate the role of AWPC in prevention and early treatment of mesothelioma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02076672 . Registered 03/03/2014.


Assuntos
Amianto , Cynara scolymus , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Pleurais , Amianto/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelina , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011418

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. In France, Brittany is one of the regions most seriously affected. This increased incidence is usually linked to high rates of alcohol overconsumption and smoking, established risk factors for esophageal cancer, but the region has special occupational exposures. We aim to describe the occupational exposures of patients with esophageal cancer. Between June and October 2020, we conducted a monocentric descriptive study in a French Teaching Hospital and identified 37 eligible patients. We gathered data through a systematic individual interview for each participant and by an analysis of their medical file. We were able to include 36 patients; most were men (n = 27, 75.0%) and smokers (n = 25, 69.4%), 21 (58.3%) presented an adenocarcinoma esophageal cancer, 13 (36.1%) a squamous cell cancer, and 2 other types. On occupational exposure, patients declared respectively high exposure by manipulating asbestos materials for 11 (30.6%) patients, regularly in contact with benzene by handling fuel in 7 cases (19.4%), chlorinated solvents in 4 cases (11.1%), pesticides in 4 cases, and ionizing radiation exposure in 3 patients (8.3%). Our findings support the creation of a large-scale study to explore the impact of occupational exposures, particularly exposure to asbestos and hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Amianto , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Amianto/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
8.
Natl Med J India ; 35(1): 14-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039621

RESUMO

Mesothelioma is a tumour arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, or the tunica vaginalis of testes. Primary pericardial mesothelioma is a rare tumour that can have varied manifestations and survival in patients with malignant pericardial tumours is generally dismal. The role of asbestos in pericardial mesotheliomas is less well established compared to that in pleural or peritoneal mesotheliomas. The prognosis is generally poor with the treatment options available. We present a middle-aged man with large pericardial effusion secondary to primary pericardial mesothelioma with no previous exposure to asbestos.


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias Cardíacas , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicações , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/patologia
9.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(2): 67-73, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the Czech Republic, asbestos has been classified as a known human carcinogen since 1984. The use of asbestos-containing products was limited to scenarios where the use of other materials was not possible. Since 1997, the manufacture of asbestos materials has been forbidden, and in 1999, the import, manufacture and distribution of all types of asbestos fibres was legally banned by Act No. 157/1998 Coll. Although the use of asbestos is forbidden, the risk of exposure still exists given the ongoing demolition and reconstruction of buildings in which asbestos has been used. In addition, a novel risk has arisen through the quarrying of asbestos-containing aggregates and their subsequent use. The aim of this paper was to describe and evaluate asbestos in terms of history, legislation, current risk of occupational exposure and its health consequences in the Czech Republic over the last three decades. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive study used the collected data on occupational exposure and occupational diseases. The counts of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were obtained from the Registry of Work Categorization; the numbers and structure of occupational diseases caused by asbestos were taken from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases. Data on the total number of mesothelioma cases recorded in the Czech National Cancer Registry was provided by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic. RESULTS: A total of 13,112 subjects were registered as occupationally exposed to asbestos during the period 2001-2020. A total of 687 cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases were reported in the period 1991-2020 in the Czech Republic, comprising 178 cases of asbestosis, 250 cases of pleural hyalinosis, 168 cases of pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, 90 cases of lung cancer, and one case of laryngeal cancer. The data from the Czech National Cancer Registry, available for a shorter period (1991-2018), reveal 1,389 cases of mesothelioma, of which only ~11% were recognised as occupational, despite the fact that the occupational causality of mesotheliomas is estimated to be up to 90% of mesotheliomas. Moreover, the latency of mesotheliomas since the last occupational exposure reached up to 50 years and this trend is still slightly increasing, unlike asbestosis, where a high cumulative dose of inhaled asbestos is needed. The real proportion of occupational lung cancers may obviously be even higher, especially in smokers, where occupational causes including asbestos are not suspected by most physicians. CONCLUSION: Czech data on asbestos-related occupational diseases, especially cancers, are grossly underestimated, which is most apparent through the low proportion of mesotheliomas diagnosed as occupational. Asbestos materials in older buildings remained in situ and may represent a danger during reconstruction works. The current source of exposure appears to be quarrying of asbestos-containing aggregate and its subsequent use. Awareness of the professional community is therefore crucial, not only for the possibility of compensating those affected, but also for the early detection of the diseases through the dispensary of exposed persons.


Assuntos
Amianto , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Amianto/toxicidade , Asbestose/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Environ Int ; 167: 107409, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908390

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures around conception (father) or during pregnancy (mother) have been hypothesized as potential predisposing factors for childhood leukaemia. We investigated parental exposure to several known occupational carcinogens and childhood leukaemia risk. We conducted a pooled analysis using case-control data from four European countries (3362 childhood leukemia cases and 6268 controls). Parental occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), diesel engine exhaust (DEE), chromium, nickel, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assessed by a general population job-exposure matrix. We estimated odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models for all childhood leukaemia combined, by leukaemia type (ALL and AML) and by ALL subtype (B-lineage and T-lineage). We found an association between high paternal occupational exposure to crystalline silica and childhood ALL (OR 2.20, CI 1.60-3.01) with increasing trend from no exposure to high exposure (P = <0.001), and also for AML (OR 2.03, CI 1.04-3.97; P for trend = 0.008). ORs were similar for B- and T-lineage ALL. For ALL, ORs were also slightly elevated with wide confidence intervals for high paternal occupational exposure to chromium (OR 1.23, CI 0.77-1.96), and DEE (OR 1.21, CI 0.82-1.77). No associations were observed for paternal exposures to nickel, PAH and asbestos. For maternal occupational exposure we found several slightly elevated odds ratios but mostly with very wide confidence intervals due to low numbers of exposed mothers. This is a first study suggesting an association between fathers' occupational exposure to crystalline silica and an increased risk of childhood leukaemia in their offspring. As this association was driven by certain occupations (field crop farmers and miners) where other potentially relevant exposures like pesticides and radon may also occur, more research is needed to confirm our findings of an association with crystalline silica, and if so, mechanistic studies to understand the pathways.


Assuntos
Amianto , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Amianto/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos
11.
Target Oncol ; 17(4): 407-431, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906513

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, which has primarily been attributed to the exposure to asbestos fibers (83% of cases); yet, despite a ban of using asbestos in many countries, the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma failed to decline worldwide. While little progress has been made in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis, bevacizumab at first, then followed by double immunotherapy (nivolumab plus ipilumumab), were all shown to improve survival in large phase III randomized trials. The morphological analysis of the histological subtyping remains the primary indicator for therapeutic decision making at an advanced disease stage, while a platinum-based chemotherapy regimen combined with pemetrexed, either with or without bevacizumab, is still the main treatment option. Consequently, malignant pleural mesothelioma still represents a significant health concern owing to poor median survival (12-18 months). Given this context, both diagnosis and therapy improvements require better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma's carcinogenesis and progression. Hence, the Hippo pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma initiation and progression has recently received increasing attention, as the aberrant expression of its core components may be closely related to patient prognosis. The purpose of this review was to provide a critical analysis of our current knowledge on these topics, the main focus being on the available evidence concerning the role of each Hippo pathway's member as a promising biomarker, enabling detection of the disease at earlier stages and thus improving prognosis.


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia
12.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 52(4): 317-324, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852497

RESUMO

Historically, mesothelioma, which is almost exclusively a cancer of the pleura or peritoneum, has been referred to as a sentinel disease for asbestos exposure meaning that the disease is an epidemiologic marker for asbestos. This description of mesothelioma often has been misinterpreted to mean that the only risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos. In addition to a few risk factors other than asbestos, in the US, background mesotheliomas, i.e. mesothelioma cases that are a consequence of spontaneous tumor formation, are the most prevalent number of cases after asbestos-associated cases.1 My analysis of SEER data for 1973 through 2005 published in 2009 projected that around 2040 virtually all mesothelioma cases in the US will be background cases. The update here, which is based on the most current SEER data, 1975 through 2018, and the same methods used in 2009 shows that the pattern of mesothelioma incidence is unchanged. Further, in general agreement with the analysis published in 2009, after 2040 virtually all mesothelioma cases, currently estimated to be approximately 1600 per year, will be background cases.


Assuntos
Amianto , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Amianto/toxicidade , Humanos , Incidência , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prevalência
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157275, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905955

RESUMO

The results of a quantitative analysis of asbestos content in the ground with varying degrees of concentration of this mineral as a result of natural phenomena such as rock weathering, contamination by the manufacture of asbestos and cement products, and the many years of use of "eternit roofs" are presented. Preliminary thermal treatment, soil grinding and sieving were used for the determinations, followed by electrostatic separation in order to obtain the concentration of asbestos in a smaller volume. It was used for microscopic preparations for the identification and planimetry of asbestos. A polarizing optical microscope was used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The levels of re-emission of asbestos dust into the air as a result of the exploitation of contaminated soil were estimated. Polluted land in industrially areas, at a distance of up to 1200 m, contains 0.0003 % to 0.02 % asbestos. The content of 0.01 % asbestos does not require remediation in the absence of soil use. It may cause <500 fibres/m3. Removing the facade of asbestos-cement panels from the building at a distance of up to 10 m resulted in concentration <0.007 % of free asbestos in the ground, and for used roofs <0.001 % from above the distance of 3 m. This means that land in the vicinity of buildings with facade or roofing made of a-c products can be safely exploited. The direct discharge of rainwater from the gutter into the ground, however, contaminates it well above this value and those places should be treated as hazardous waste due to the presence of asbestos fibres in unbound form, containing <9,8 %. Ultimately, the size of the threat depends on many factors and can be comparable with the pollution of industrial production.


Assuntos
Amianto , Solo , Amianto/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/análise
14.
J Environ Manage ; 319: 115716, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863303

RESUMO

Asbestos has been used by automobile, construction, manufacturing, power, and chemical industries for many years due to its particular properties, i.e. high tensile strength, non-flammable, thermal and electrical resistance and stability, and chemical resistance. However, such a mineral causes harmful effects to human health, including different types of cancer (e.g., mesothelioma). As a result, the use of asbestos has been banned since the 1980s in many countries. Nonetheless, asbestos is still part of the daily life of the population as asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) are still present in many buildings constructed and renovated before the 1990s. This work aims to present a current literature review about asbestos. The literature review was composed mainly of research articles published in international journals from the medical and engineering disciplines to provide an overview of asbestos use effects reported in interdisciplinary areas. The literature review comprised asbestos characteristics and its relationship to the risks of human exposure, countries where asbestos use is permitted or banned, reducing asbestos in the built environment, and environmental impact due to use and disposal of asbestos. The main findings were that ACMs are still responsible for severe human diseases, particularly in areas where there is a lack of coordinated asbestos management plans, reduced awareness about asbestos health risks, or even a delay in the implementation of asbestos-ban. Such issues may be more prevailing in developing countries. The current research in many countries contemplates several methodologies and techniques to process ACMs into inert and recyclable materials. The identification and coordinated management of ACM hazardous waste is a significant challenge to be faced by countries, and its inadequate disposal causes severe risk of exposure to asbestos fibres. Based on this work, it was concluded that banning asbestos is indicated in all countries in the world.


Assuntos
Amianto , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Comércio , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 928937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784215

RESUMO

Objectives: Occupational exposure to carcinogens is associated with trachea, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer. The objective of this study was to provide global and regional estimates of the burden of TBL cancer associated with occupational carcinogens (OCs) between 1990 and 2019. Methods: Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rates (ASDR) of TBL cancer related to exposure to OCs at the global and regional levels were extracted for 1990-2019 from the Global Burden of Disease 2019. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends in the ASMR and ASDR of TBL cancer burden related to OCs, and the annual percent change and the average annual percent change (AAPC) were recorded. Results: The mortality from TBL cancer related to exposure to OCs increased globally. The ASMR and ASDR decreased in both sexes and in men between 1990 and 2019. The AAPC of ASMR and ASDR decreased in men between 1990 and 2019, but increased in women. Asbestos accounted for the highest death number and beryllium accounted for the lowest; diesel engine exhaust caused the largest percentage change in death number (145.3%), in ASDR (14.9%), and in all ages DALY rates (57.6%). Asbestos accounted for the largest death number in high social development index (SDI) countries, whereas low-middle SDI countries had the largest percent change (321.4%). Asbestos was associated with decreased ASDR in high SDI countries and increased ASDR in low-middle SDI countries, and similar changes were observed for other OCs. Conclusions: The overall mortality and DALYs of TBL cancer burden related to OCs showed a decreasing trend between 1990 and 2019, whereas death number increased. Asbestos accounted for the highest death number. TBL cancer burden related to OCs decreased to different degrees in high, low, low-middle, and middle SDI countries, which showed variable levels of TBL cancer burden related to exposure to OCs (except asbestos).


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exposição Ocupacional , Amianto/efeitos adversos , Brônquios , Carcinógenos , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Traqueia
16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(8): 1042-1049, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an asbestos-related disease with poor survival. The prognostic role of histologic subtype is well established. Some studies (without a biological hypothesis) suggested that higher asbestos lung burden is associated with reduced survival. METHODS: We selected subjects from two series of necropsies: residents in Brescia province (North-West Italy) and workers (or persons living with them) employed in the Monfalcone shipyards (North-East Italy). Asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in lung samples were counted using a scanning electron and an optical microscope, respectively. Separately in the two series, we analyzed median survival time and fitted multivariable Cox regression models (adjusted for sex, period and age at diagnosis, and histopatholocical diagnosis) to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for three levels of asbestos fiber counts (reference: <1 million fibers/g of dry lung tissue). RESULTS: We analyzed 185 necropsies, 83 in Brescia and 102 in Monfalcone. Despite a much higher lung burden in Monfalcone patients, median survival was slightly shorter in Brescia (8.3 mo) than in Monfalcone (10.2 mo). In Brescia, medium (1.0-9.9) and high (10+) fiber burden HRs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.54-1.53) and 1.23 (95% CI: 0.41-3.70), respectively. In Monfalcone, the corresponding HRs were 1.18 (95% CI: 0.59-2.35) and 1.63 (95% CI: 0.77-3.45), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: No relationship between asbestos lung burden and survival was found. Histologic subtype was the strongest prognostic determinant.


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755315

RESUMO

To date the true global incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) and the underlying risk factors remain to be fully defined, in particular, the role of occupational and environmental factors. Currently, the putative role of asbestos exposure as a risk factor for iCCA is gaining increased attention in the international scientific community and agencies. In this commentary we review and integrate available epidemiological and mechanistic evidences that support a potential role of asbestos exposure in iCCA etiology.


Assuntos
Amianto , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Amianto/toxicidade , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/etiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 236, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even almost 30 years after the ban on the use of asbestos in Germany, the effects of asbestos are still highly relevant in everyday clinical practice in occupational medicine. The aim of this study was to further investigate the significance of essential parameters of both pulmonary function diagnostics and imaging techniques (low-dose HR-TCT) for the prevention and early detection of asbestos-related morphological and functional lung changes. METHODS: Data from spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusion capacity, as well as CT images of the thorax, were retrospectively studied from 72 patients examined between 2017 and 2019 at the Institute for Occupational and Maritime Medicine (ZfAM), Hamburg, Germany. The subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the presence of comorbidities (concomitant cardiac diseases, obstructive ventilatory disorder, pulmonary function pattern consistent with emphysema, and no other pulmonary or cardiac diseases). These subgroups were analysed in addition to the overall collective. The CT images were evaluated according to the International Classification of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) with radiological expertise. In addition, some asbestos-related parameters were newly quantified, and corresponding scores were defined based on ICOERD. Statistical analysis included the use of correlations and fourfold tables with calculation of Spearman's rho (ρ), Cohen's κ, and accuracy. RESULTS: Vital capacity (VC) is slightly reduced in the total collective compared to the normal population (mean 92% of predicted value), while diffusion capacity for CO (DLCO) shows predominantly pathological values, mean 70% of the respective predicted value. The CO transfer coefficient (DLCO/VA), which refers to alveolar volume (VA), also shows slightly decreased values (mean 87% pred.). Seventy-nine percent of patients (n = 57) had signs of pulmonary fibrosis on CT scans, and pleural plaques appeared in 58 of 72 patients (81%). Of the newly quantified additional parameters, particularly frequently described findings are subpleural curvilinear lines (SC, n = 39) and parenchymal bands (PB, n = 29). VC correlates well with the expression of pleural plaques (ρ = - 0.273, P < 0.05), and DLCO measures show a better correlation with fibrosis score (ρ = - 0.315, P < 0.01). A third, newly developed score, which includes the extent of pleural plaques and additional subpleural parameters instead of fibrosis parameters, shows significant correlations for both VC and DLCO (ρ = - 0.283, - 0.274, resp.; both P < 0.05). DISCUSSION: The importance of spirometry (VC) and diffusion capacity measurement (DLCO) as essential diagnostic procedures for the early detection of asbestos-related changes ‒ also including patients with relevant concomitant cardiac or pulmonary diseases ‒ was confirmed. Significant and better correlations between lung function changes (VC and DLCO) and abnormal CT findings are seen when parenchymal bands (PB), subpleural curvilinear lines (SC), and rounded atelectasis (RA) are quantitatively included into the evaluation, in addition to assessing the extent of pleural plaques alone. Therefore, when assessing CT images according to ICOERD, these parameters should also be quantified.


Assuntos
Amianto , Asbestose , Cardiopatias , Doenças Pleurais , Fibrose Pulmonar , Amianto/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital
19.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 60, 2022 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM) estimates mesothelioma incidence and addresses its etiology by assessing cases' exposures but cannot provide relative risk estimates. OBJECTIVES: i) To estimate pleural mesothelioma relative risk by industry and occupation and by ReNaM categories of asbestos exposure; and ii) to provide quantitative estimates of the exposure-response relationship. METHODS: A population-based mesothelioma case-control study was conducted in 2012-2014 in five Italian regions. Cases and age and gender frequency-matched controls were interviewed using a standard ReNaM questionnaire. Experts coded work histories according to international standard classifications of industries/occupations and assigned asbestos exposure according to ReNaM categories. Job codes were further linked to SYN-JEM, a quantitative job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE, f/mL-years) was computed by summing individual exposures over lifetime work history. Unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusted by gender, centre and age were fitted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among men we observed increased risks of mesothelioma in many industries and associated occupations, including: asbestos-cement (OR = 3.43), manufacture of railroad equipment (OR = 8.07), shipbuilding and repairing (OR = 2.34), iron and steel mills (OR = 2.15), and construction (OR = 1.94). ORs by ReNaM exposure categories were as follows: definite/probable occupational exposure (OR = 15.8, men; OR = 8.80, women), possible occupational (OR = 2.82, men; OR = 3.70, women), sharing home with an exposed worker (OR = 2.55, men; OR = 10.3, women), residential (OR = 2.14, men; OR = 3.24, women). Based on SYN-JEM, mesothelioma risk increased by almost 30% per f/mL-year (OR = 1.28, CI 1.16-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Out study involved five regions with historically different types and levels of industrial development, encompassing one third of the Italian population and half of Italian mesothelioma cases. As expected, we found increased pleural mesothelioma risk in the asbestos industry and in trades with large consumption of asbestos materials. Clear associations were found using both qualitative (ReNaM classifications) and quantitative estimates (using SYN-JEM) of past asbestos exposure, with clear evidence of an exposure-response relationship.


Assuntos
Amianto , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia
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