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1.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 26(1): 3-7, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542532

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an update on recent research regarding plant-based protein and their nutritional quality for older people. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence that plant-based proteins may be a valuable strategy for older people to prevent the health risks associated with consuming animal products and to promote better protein intake, as plant-based protein sources are rich in fibres and micronutrients. Although plant-based proteins are less anabolic than animal-derived proteins due to lower digestibility and deficiencies in some essential amino acids, several innovations in food processing and nutritional strategies have been developed to improve the quality of plant-based proteins. For example, the use of protein blends or green-processes as fermentation or germination could improve the nutritional qualities of plant-based foods that could be beneficial for older people, especially to prevent sarcopenia or metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. SUMMARY: The use of plant-based protein sources could help older people diversify their protein sources and more easily meet recommended nutritional intake. Recent literature highlights several health benefits associated with increased consumption of vegetable foods. However, their efficiency on postprandial muscle protein synthesis remains to be evaluated and long-term studies are needed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Sarcopenia , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas na Dieta , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Valor Nutritivo , Aminoácidos Essenciais
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 370: 128538, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581231

RESUMO

Alternative protein sources for the reduction/replacement of fish meal in aqua-feeds are in urgent demand. Microalgae are considered sustainable protein sources for aquaculture due to their high-quality proteins with a complete profile of essential amino acids. This study examined the heterotrophic production of proteins from Chlorella sorokiniana SU-9. Culture parameters for maximal biomass and protein production are as follows: glucose - 10 g/L glucose, sodium nitrate - 1.5 g/L, and iron - 46 µM iron in BG-11 medium. Under optimal conditions, biomass content, protein content and protein productivity of SU-9 reached 4.14 ± 0.20 g/L, 403 ± 33 mg/g and 382 ± 36 mg/L/d, respectively. The protein profile of Chlorella sorokiniana SU-9 is comparable to fishmeal and soybean meal. The essential amino acids arginine, lysine and cysteine, along with glutamine and glutamate, were high. The production cost of SU-9 can be significantly reduced under heterotrophic cultivation conditions, making it a potential protein substitute in aquafeed.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Animais , Chlorella/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Biomassa , Processos Heterotróficos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo
4.
Oncotarget ; 13: 1286-1298, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441784

RESUMO

Metabolomics, defined as the comprehensive identification of all small metabolites in a biological sample, has the power to shed light on phenotypic changes associated with various diseases, including cancer. To discover potential metabolomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the metabolomes of tumor and non-tumor tissue in 20 patients with primary HCC using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also analyzed blood samples taken immediately before and 14 days after hepatectomy to identify associated changes in the serum metabolome. Marked changes were detected in the different quantity of 61 metabolites that could discriminate between HCC tumor and paired non-tumor tissue and additionally between HCC primary tumors and colorectal liver metastases. Among the 30 metabolites significantly upregulated in HCC tumors compared with non-tumor tissues, 10 were amino acids, and 7 were essential amino acids (leucine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, lysine, and phenylalanine). Similarly, the serum metabolomes of HCC patients before hepatectomy revealed a significant increase in 16 metabolites, including leucine, valine, and tryptophan. Our results reveal striking differences in the metabolomes of HCC tumor tissue compared with non-tumor tissue, and identify the essential amino acids leucine, valine, and tryptophan as potential metabolic biomarkers for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Triptofano , Leucina , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Valina
5.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 68(Supplement): S17-S19, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437003

RESUMO

Essential nutrient factors, including water- and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, and essential amino acids, play an important role in brain function. We have investigated the roles of these nutrients in learning and memory in mice. Interestingly, we found that dietary deficiency of vitamin B1 or magnesium, inhibition of the vitamin A signaling pathway, and restricted intake of tryptophan impair hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, magnesium deficiency causes neuroinflammation in the hippocampus. Conversely, dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus species enhance hippocampus-dependent memory. These results suggest that the nutrient factors investigated in our studies have strong influences on hippocampus-dependent memory performance.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Vitaminas , Animais , Camundongos , Minerais , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Cognição
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430697

RESUMO

Protein isolates were obtained from marine hydrobionts by the method of isoelectric precipitation with a preliminary stage of protein alkaline solubilisation. Northern blue whiting was chosen as the raw material. Various technological modes of the solubilisation stage were used: the temperature of the reaction mixture was 4 or 20 °C, and the duration was 4 or 16 h. The yield of the product was 44-45% with a high content of the main component (protein) equal to about 95%. It has been shown that a decrease in the temperature and duration of the alkaline solubilisation stage provides the production of protein isolates with good technological properties, a low solubility, high swelling and high emulsifying ability, necessary for its use in the production of functional food products, including therapeutic and prophylactic effects. These technological properties are explained by a change in the composition and structure of the protein, the change being an increase in the content of essential amino acids and the proportion of α-helices in the polypeptide chain. The main patterns obtained will be used to obtain protein isolates from marine molluscs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais , Proteínas , Temperatura , Proteínas/química , Solubilidade
7.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432458

RESUMO

We hypothesized that a well-balanced intake of total essential amino acids (EAAs) may be associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. This population-based cross-sectional study included 25,787 participants aged ≥30 years from the 2008-2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was obtained from 24 h recall data. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires, and metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Total essential amino acid score (EAAS) was calculated to determine whether essential amino acid (EAA) intake meets the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, participants with higher EAAS had a significantly lower prevalence of high blood pressure (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.98), and Metabolic syndrome (MetS) (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74-0.996). Spline regression analysis confirmed linearity of the association between total EAAS and MetS. EAA intake and MetS are associated with an inverse dose-response relationship in which metabolic disease may be prevented when the overall EAA intake meets the RNI.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Aminoácidos Essenciais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
8.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235541

RESUMO

This study conducted a comparative analysis of the amino acid compositions of Chinese Huangnuo 9 fresh sweet-waxy corn from three different provinces in China-Inner Mongolia, Jilin, and Heilongjiang Province. Moreover, we established a nutritive evaluation system based on amino acid profiles to evaluate, compare, and rank the fresh sweet-waxy corn planted in different regions. A total of 17 amino acids were quantified, and the amino acid composition of fresh sweet-waxy corn was analyzed and evaluated. The amino acid quality was determined by the amino acid pattern spectrum, chemical evaluations (including CS, AAS, EAAI, BV, U(a,u), NI, F, predict PER, and PDCAAS), flavor evaluation, amino acid matching degree evaluation, and the results of the factor analysis. The results showed that the protein content of fresh corn 1-1 from Inner Mongolia was the highest (40.26 ± 0.35 mg/g), but the factor analysis results, digestion, and absorption efficiency of fresh corn 1-2 were the best. The amino acid profile of fresh corn 1-1 was closest to each evaluation's model spectrum. The results of the diversity evaluations in fresh corn 3-2 were the best, and fresh corn 3-3 had the most essential amino acid content. A total of 17 amino acids in fresh corn were divided into three principal component factor analyses: functional principal components (Leu, Pro, Glu, His, Ile, Ser, Met, Val, Tyr, Thr), regulatory principal components (Lys, Gly, Ala, Asp, Arg, Trp), and protection principal components (Phe). The scores of the three principal components and the comprehensive score in fresh corn 1-2 were all the highest, followed by 3-3 and 1-1. The amino acid nutritional values of fresh corn 1-2 were the highest in 12 samples.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Zea mays , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Tripsina , Ceras
9.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigid dietary controls and pill burden make a very-low protein (0.3-0.4 g/kg body weight per day), vegetarian diet supplemented with ketoanalogues of amino acids (sVLPD) hard to follow in the long-term. This study aimed to evaluate whether a ketoanalogue supplemental low-protein diet (sLPD) (0.6 g/kg body weight per day) could also reduce the risks of dialysis among CKD stage 4 patients. METHODS: Patients aged >20 years with a diagnosis of stage 4 CKD who subsequently received ketosteril treatment, which is the most commonly used ketoanalogue of essential amino acids, between 2003 and 2018 were identified from the Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD). Then, these individuals were divided into two groups according to the continuation of ketosteril for more than three months or not. The primary outcome was ESKD requiring maintenance dialysis. RESULTS: With one-year follow-up, the continuation group (n = 303) exhibited a significantly lower incidence of new-onset end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring maintenance dialysis (6.8% vs. 10.4%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.94) in comparison to the discontinuation group (n = 238). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that initiating sLPDs since CKD stage 4 may additionally reduce the short-term risks of commencing dialysis without increasing CV events, infections, or mortality.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Peso Corporal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232583

RESUMO

Age-induced osteoporosis is a global problem. Essential amino acids (EAAs) work as an energy source and a molecular pathway modulator in bone, but their functions have not been systematically reviewed in aging bone. This study aimed to discuss the contribution of EAAs on aging bone from in vitro, in vivo, and human investigations. In aged people with osteoporosis, serum EAAs were detected changing up and down, without a well-established conclusion. The supply of EAAs in aged people either rescued or did not affect bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume. In most signaling studies, EAAs were proven to increase bone mass. Lysine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan, and isoleucine can increase osteoblast proliferation, activation, and differentiation, and decrease osteoclast activity. Oxidized L-tryptophan promotes bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) differentiating into osteoblasts. However, the oxidation product of tryptophan called kynurenine increases osteoclast activity, and enhances the differentiation of adipocytes from BMSCs. Taken together, in terms of bone minerals and volume, more views consider EAAs to have a positive effect on aging bone, but the function of EAAs in bone metabolism has not been fully demonstrated and more studies are needed in this area in the future.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Triptofano , Idoso , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
11.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111833, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192965

RESUMO

Wheatgrass juice is a low-acid functional drink extracted from white wheat seedlings. It is cherished by consumers due to its potent health benefits. The present study was conducted to develop and analyze wheatgrass juice from colored wheat lines to meet consumers increasing demand for a novel functional drink. The conventional lyophilized wheatgrass juice powder (WJLP) was found to contain significant chlorophyll content (0.3%), soluble phenolic content (0.6%), protein content (20%), moderate essential amino acid index (EAAI; 86%), high K (RDA; 11.6%) and antioxidant activity. Whereas, black WJLP had 564.2% higher anthocyanins, 30.5% higher chlorophyll, 87.5% higher soluble phenolic content, 10.2% higher proteins, 31.5% higher EAAI, and 112.5% higher antioxidant activity compared to white WJLP. Overall, the biochemical parameters of WJLP were increased in the order of white < blue < purple < black. The findings indicate that a proper cultivar selection can improve the nutritional value of wheatgrass juice.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Triticum , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Clorofila , Promoção da Saúde , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Pós , Triticum/química
12.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111863, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192985

RESUMO

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a multi-functional crop cultivated for fiber, seeds, or phytochemical extraction. Once a major industrial crop in several agro-environments, its cultivation strongly declined in developed countries since World War II. Exploiting hemp vegetative tissue as innovative food has remained largely unexplored. The current work examined the potential production of hemp microgreens. Six cultivars were assessed for yield and composition of organic acids, amino acids, polyphenols and phytocannabinoids, through IC, FLD-HPLC and UHPLC-HRMS, respectively. Bioactive composition was strongly related to the hemp variety. 'Silvana' demonstrated the highest total content of amino acids and essential amino acids, high concentrations of cannflavin A and B, and moderate levels of cannabidiol and cannabigerol. 'Finola' distinguished by the highest concentration of cannflavins and total polyphenols, and the lowest levels of Δ9-THC. Regardless of varietal differences, hemp microgreens proved widely safe in terms of Δ9-THC content.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Canabinoides , Cannabis , Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Canabidiol/química , Canabinoides/química , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol , Alimento Funcional , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Polifenóis
13.
Poult Sci ; 101(12): 102171, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240635

RESUMO

The present study was designed to re-evaluate the ideal amino acid ratios of total sulphur amino acids (TSAA), Thr, Val, Ile, Trp, and Arg relative to Lys during peak and post-peak production phases in laying hens by using seven independent amino acid assays in similar experimental setting. A total of 348 twenty wk old Isa Brown laying hens were allocated to individual battery cages. Each dietary treatment included 6 replicates with 2 single cages (2 birds) as one replicate. All diets were formulated based on maize, soybean meal, and canola meal to have identical crude protein (120 g/kg) concentrations and energy density (11.9 MJ/kg) but with 5 levels of dietary concentrations of tested amino acids. Hens were offered experimental diets from 27 to 33 wk of age in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) and from 42 to 48 wk of age in experiment 2 (Exp. 2). Daily egg production and weekly egg weights were recorded, and feed intakes were calculated for each experimental period to determine egg production rate, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Linear and quadratic broken line models were used to estimate amino acid requirements on egg production rate, egg mass and FCR. Overall, quadratic broken line models estimated higher amino acid requirements for egg mass, egg production rate and FCR than linear broken line models by 23, 25, and 20%, respectively. The predicted daily Lys intake recommendation was 720 mg/bird/day with linear broken line model and 897 mg/bird/day with quadratic broken line model and the recommended ideal amino acid ratios relative to Lys are 85 for TSAA, 69 for Thr, 83 for Val, 87 for Ile, 22 for Trp, and 82 for Arg based on linear broken line model and 87 for TSAA, 67 for Thr, 83 for Val, 86 for Ile, 22 for Trp, and 78 for Arg based on quadratic broken line model estimations.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Óvulo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária
14.
Ter Arkh ; 94(6): 756-762, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been established that the use of a low-protein diet (LPD) in combination with ketoanalogues (KA) of essential amino acids can contribute to cardio- and nephroprotection in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, it has been shown that replacing part of the animal protein with soy protein (SP) in the diet contributed to more pronounced nephro- and cardioprotection in CKD, however, the data, available in the literature, are mainly represented by experimental studies. AIM: To compare the effects of 2 types of diets on the main parameters of nephro- and cardioprotection in patients with CKD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study which included 85 patients with 3B4 stages of CKD, compliant to LPD (0.6 g of protein/kg body weight) + KA (1 tablet/5 kg body weight). 43 patients (Group 1) received LPD with replacing animal protein with soy (60% soy protein + 40% another vegetable proteins) + KA, and 42 patients (control group, Group 2) received LPD (60% animal protein + 40% vegetable protein) + KA, within 12 months. RESULTS: The dietary substitution of animal protein with SP to a greater extent delayed the decrease in glomerular filtration rate (-5.9% vs -13.3%; p=0.048), the increase in left ventricular hypertrophy (+4.7% vs +12.3%; p=0.042), as well as the increase in central systolic blood pressure (+2.6% vs +13.0%; p=0.021), augmentation index (+7.6% vs +23.3%; p=0.010), slowed down the decrease in lean body mass in men (+0.9% vs -11.2%; p=0.017) and women (-1.8% vs -10.3%; p=0.024), increase in phosphorus (-10.3% vs +13.0%; p=0.029), cholesterol (-10.7% vs -3.4%; p=0.047) and urea (+6.3% vs +19.6%; p=0.035) serum levels. CONCLUSION: The use of LPD with substitution of animal protein with soy protein + KA provides a more pronounced effect on nephro- and cardioprotection as well as maintenance of nutritional status, than conventional LPD + KA in patients with 3B4 stages of CKD.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Feminino , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Fósforo , Ureia , Peso Corporal
15.
Poult Sci ; 101(11): 102149, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209604

RESUMO

Previous research in our lab showed that 10% glucose, 10% fructose, and 10% sucrose can induce lipid deposition in goose fatty liver formation process more efficiently. However, whether the overfeeding diet supplement with sugar can affect the meat quality is unclear. The aim of this research was to estimate the meat quality of geese overfed with overfeeding diet adding with different types of sugar. The results indicated there were no significant differences in the diameter of muscle fiber, the muscle fiber density, pH0, pH24, the meat color, the cooking loss, the drip loss, the shear force and the dry matter in breast muscle and thigh muscle between corn flour groups and three sugars groups (P > 0.05). The crude fat content of breast muscle in fructose group was significantly higher than that in sucrose group (P < 0.05); the inosinic acid content of leg muscle in fructose group was significantly higher than that in the sucrose group (P < 0.05); the ratios of essential amino acids to total amino acids (EAA/TAA) in the breast muscle of maize flour group, fructose group, sucrose group and glucose group were 42%, 35%, 32% or 34%;57%, 64%, 64%, and 62%, respectively; the ratios of essential amino acids to total amino acids in leg muscle of maize flour group, fructose group, sucrose group and glucose group were 31%, 33%, 35%, and 34%, respectively. The contents of C16:1 and C18:1 n-9c in breast muscle in fructose group were significantly higher than that in sucrose group (P < 0.05). Compared with maize flour group, the contents of C18:0 and C20:0 were lower in leg muscle of sugar group (P < 0.05). Compared with the maize flour group, the activities of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in breast muscle were higher than those of sucrose group (P < 0.05), the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels in breast muscle was higher than that of fructose group and sucrose group (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there was no difference in meat quality between maize flour and sugar group. In conclusion, the overfeeding with maize flour supplement with 10% sugar had no evident influence on the meat quality.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Açúcares , Animais , Galinhas , Carne/análise , Gansos/fisiologia , Frutose , Glucose , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Sacarose
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(10)2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291630

RESUMO

Yarrowia lipolytica yeast is well known to be able to synthesize citric acid (CA) in large amounts. This study deals with CA biosynthesis, the production of biomass, as well as the accumulation and composition of proteins and lipids in Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in media with glucose at different concentrations of ammonium sulfate (from 2 to 10 g/L). It was found that these concentrations of nitrogen source are limiting for the growth of Y. lipolytica and that nitrogen deficiency is the main cause of CA excretion. At the high concentration of (NH4)2SO4 (10 g/L), the accumulation of cell biomass, biomass yield (YX/S), and protein concentration was higher than in the medium with 2 g/L ammonium sulfate by 4.3 times, 143%, and 5.1 times, respectively. CA was accumulated in meaningful quantities only in media containing 3-10 g/L (NH4)2SO4 with the maximum concentration of CA (99.9 g/L) at 4 g/L ammonium sulfate. Also of interest is the technological mode with 6 g/L (NH4)2SO4, which is characterized by high productivity (1.11 g/L × h). It should be noted that biomass contains large amounts of essential amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids and can be used in food biotechnologies and agriculture.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Ácido Cítrico , Sulfato de Amônio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296673

RESUMO

Aging is a very complex process that is accompanied by a degenerative impairment in many of the major functions of the human body over time. This inevitable process is influenced by hereditary factors, lifestyle, and environmental influences such as xenobiotic pollution, infectious agents, UV radiation, diet-borne toxins, and so on. Many external and internal signs and symptoms are related with the aging process and senescence, including skin dryness and wrinkles, atherosclerosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, etc. Oxidative stress, a consequence of the imbalance between pro- and antioxidants, is one of the main provoking factors causing aging-related damages and concerns, due to the generation of highly reactive byproducts such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the metabolism, which result in cellular damage and apoptosis. Antioxidants can prevent these processes and extend healthy longevity due to the ability to inhibit the formation of free radicals or interrupt their propagation, thereby lowering the level of oxidative stress. This review focuses on supporting the antioxidant system of the organism by balancing the diet through the consumption of the necessary amount of natural ingredients, including vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), essential amino acids, probiotics, plants' fibers, nutritional supplements, polyphenols, some phytoextracts, and drinking water.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Água Potável , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Xenobióticos , Estresse Oxidativo , Envelhecimento , Vitaminas , Radicais Livres , Minerais/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Oxigênio , Nitrogênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 104-111, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults are threatened by the risk of muscle atrophy and excess accumulation of adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to determine whether an essential amino acid enriched meal replacement would reduce excess fat and foster skeletal muscle retention, potentially improving physical function in this cohort. METHODS: Using a double blind, randomized controlled trial, we compared the influence of an experimental meal replacement enriched with essential amino acids (EMR) to a commercially available, widely used meal replacement (Optifast®) provided once/day (q.d.) for four weeks on body composition, skeletal muscle and physical function in obese older participants. Twenty-eight individuals completed either EMR (n = 13) or Optifast® (n = 15) supplementation protocols. Measurements of body composition, thigh skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), blood panels, intrahepatic lipid, and physical function were completed pre- and post-supplementation. RESULTS: Body fat mass, visceral fat mass and volume, and intrahepatic lipid were reduced with EMR but not with Optifast®. Thigh muscle CSA increased (Δ 2.4 ± 3.0 cm2) with EMR but not Optifast® (Δ -1.8 ± 6.0 cm2). There was a significant increase in the distance covered during the 6-min walk test with EMR (Δ 23 ± 27 m) but no change in Optifast® (Δ 11 ± 37 m). CONCLUSIONS: Beneficial alterations in fat and muscle support the use of EMR-based meal replacements in obese older adults. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry under Reference Number ISRCTN15814848.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais , Composição Corporal , Idoso , Humanos , Lipídeos , Refeições , Obesidade
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4855584, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262973

RESUMO

Vegetable waste (spinach, potato, and cauliflower) is a rich and natural source of nutrients, potentially good for supplying minerals, essential amino acids, and antioxidants to the birds. Relatively, its cost very low, easily to accessible, easily process & pose little risk of illness. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of vegetable waste (VW) as feed supplement on growth performance and hematology of broiler chicks. For this purpose, a total of 200 (4 days old) vaccinated chicks were acquired from a commercial hatchery Multan which was acclimated for three weeks (21 days) on basal starter feed after that 25-day-old chicks with uniform body weight were allocated according to a CRD (completely randomized design) into four dietary treatments with three replicates of each contained 15 chicks in 12 pens. In dietary treatments, chicks were feed with basal feed (BF) and supplemented feed with vegetable waste (VW) of spinach, potato, and cauliflower. For this purpose, the dietary treatments included control treatment (T 1) (100% BF+0% VW) and other dietary treatments (T 2) (75% BF+25% VW), (T 3) (50% BF+50% VW), and (T 4) (25% BF+75% VW). The body weight, feed intake, food conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality were checked on weekly and daily basis. For hematology analysis, after the 1st experimental week (25-day-old chicks) and the last 5th experimental week (56-day-old chicks), the samples of blood were gathered from the wing's veins of two birds from each treatment in random way. At the end of five weeks (35 days), birds with uniform average body weight were selected per treatment with three replicates (2 bird/replicate) and then were manually slaughtered according to the Halal method to analyze the weight of internal body organs of broilers by physical and statistical analysis (ANOVA). There was no significant effect (P > 0.05) on feed intake and FCR among all the dietary treatments. But in average, body weight and BWG were higher in treatment (T 2) (P < 0.01) than all other dietary treatments (T 3) and (T 4) and control treatment (T 1). The blood constituents in this study showed that broilers in control treatment (T 1) and other dietary treatments (T 2), (T 3), and (T 4) fed on different doses were significantly (P < 0.01) different from each other. The week 5 (W 5) shows higher values of blood constituents (P < 0.01) than week 1 (W 1). The carcass yield of the chicks fed on different doses showed that they were significantly different (P < 0.01) among the dietary treatments. The VW inclusion 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% had positive effect on blood constituents and carcass yield of the broiler chicks; they were significantly (P < 0.01) different among the treatments.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Hematologia , Animais , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Minerais/metabolismo , Verduras , Aumento de Peso
20.
J Food Sci ; 87(11): 5107-5117, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250512

RESUMO

The biochemical composition of the muscle in Arctic graylings at three age stages was evaluated and compared. For conventional biochemical composition, there was no significant difference in the crude protein content among the three age stages, but the crude fat content in the 1 year old was significantly lower than that of the others (P < 0.05). For amino acids composition, there was no significant difference in the content of essential amino acids and delicious amino acids among the three age stages, but the essential amino acid index of the 2 year old was the highest (72.205), indicating that its essential amino acid composition was more suitable for human needs. For fatty acids composition, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (2.759 mg/g) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.422 mg/g) of the 3 year old was significantly higher than that of the others (P < 0.05), and it also had relatively lowest atherogenicity index (0.419) and thrombogenicity index (0.179) and the highest hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratio (2.404), indicating that its fatty acid composition was healthier and more beneficial to the prevention of human cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. For minerals composition, the contents of iron, zinc, and copper increased with age, while the contents of selenium and manganese decreased with age, with the highest selenium content in the 1 year old (1.522 mg/kg). The chromium, arsenic, lead, and cadmium contents were all lower than the Chinese national standard. In conclusion, the nutritional composition of Arctic graylings variated with age and consumers could select suitable Arctic graylings based on their nutritional needs. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work analyzed the nutritional components in the muscle of Arctic graylings at different ages, which can provide an effective reference for consumers when purchasing Arctic graylings.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Selênio , Animais , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Valor Nutritivo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos Essenciais
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