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1.
Eur J Protistol ; 84: 125894, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660520

RESUMO

Elevation gradients have been useful to study distributional patterns of soil organisms since the time of Humboldt but only recently these patterns have been studied for soil microorganisms. Here we report the results on species diversity and composition of soil- and moss-dwelling testate amoeba assemblages along a 1400 m elevation gradient (904-2377 m a.s.l.) on Mount Fuji (Japan) from temperate forest to alpine vegetation. In total, 95 testate amoeba taxa belonging to 29 genera were identified. The core of testate amoeba assemblages was formed by ubiquitous species such as Trinema lineare, Euglypha laevis, Cryptodifflugia oviformis, and Trinema complanatum. However, several taxa with limited geographic distribution were also observed (e.g., Centropyxis latideflandriana, C. stenodeflandriana, Plagiopyxis cf. barrosi, Heleopera rectangularis, and Distomatopyxis couillardi). Species diversity indices (species richness and Shannon's index) were characterised by bell-shaped patterns peaking at âˆ¼ 1700 m in the subalpine mixed conifer-deciduous forest. The species composition of testate amoeba assemblages was best explained by the vegetation types which accounted for 12.3% of the total variation. Overall, these findings indicate that elevation effects on species composition of testate amoeba assemblages are strongly mediated by vegetation.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Briófitas , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Japão , Solo
3.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727049

RESUMO

Entamoeba moshkovskii Tshalaia, 1941 is prevalent in developing countries and it is considered to be primarily a free-living amoeba, which is morphologically indistinguishable, but biochemically and genetically different from the human infecting, pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903. The pathogenic potential of this organism is still under discussion. Entamoeba moshkovskii in human stool samples has been reported in different countries such as the United States, Italy, Australia, Iran, Turkey, Bangladesh, India (Pondicherry), Indonesia, Colombia, Malaysia, Tunisia, Tanzania and Brazil, but no data are available about the occurrence of E. moshkovskii in farm animals. This study provides data on the occurrence of E. moshkovskii in pigs in a total of 294 fresh faecal samples collected from five different regions in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Stool samples were tested by nested PCR using primers targeting SSU rDNA of E. moshkovskii. The amplified PCR products were further confirmed by RFLP technique. Purified nested PCR products were also sequenced and identified via BLAST program run on the NCBI website to confirm species along with their genetic characteristics of the E. moshkovskii isolates. Overall 5.4 % samples were identified as E. moshkovskii positive. Results of this study demonstrate that swine can host E. moshkovskii and should be considered as a potential natural reservoir for E. moshkovskii. However, the occurrence of E. moshkovskii infection in pigs was not statistically associated with their faecal consistency, sex and developmental stage.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba , Entamebíase , Amoeba/genética , Animais , Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/veterinária , Fezes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Suínos
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9841, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701521

RESUMO

To date, genomic analyses in amoebozoans have been mostly limited to model organisms or medically important lineages. Consequently, the vast diversity of Amoebozoa genomes remain unexplored. A draft genome of Cochliopodium minus, an amoeba characterized by extensive cellular and nuclear fusions, is presented. C. minus has been a subject of recent investigation for its unusual sexual behavior. Cochliopodium's sexual activity occurs during vegetative stage making it an ideal model for studying sexual development, which is sorely lacking in the group. Here we generate a C. minus draft genome assembly. From this genome, we detect a substantial number of lateral gene transfer (LGT) instances from bacteria (15%), archaea (0.9%) and viruses (0.7%) the majority of which are detected in our transcriptome data. We identify the complete meiosis toolkit genes in the C. minus genome, as well as the absence of several key genes involved in plasmogamy and karyogamy. Comparative genomics of amoebozoans reveals variation in sexual mechanism exist in the group. Similar to complex eukaryotes, C. minus (some amoebae) possesses Tyrosine kinases and duplicate copies of SPO11. We report a first example of alternative splicing in a key meiosis gene and draw important insights on molecular mechanism of sex in C. minus using genomic and transcriptomic data.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Amebozoários , Amoeba/genética , Amebozoários/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Meiose/genética , Filogenia
5.
J Comput Chem ; 43(19): 1286-1297, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648124

RESUMO

The chemistry of divalent lanthanides, Ln2+ , is a growing sub-field of heavy element chemistry owing to new synthetic approaches. However, some theoretical aspects of these unusual cations are currently underdeveloped, especially as they relate to their dynamic properties in solution. In this work, we address the hydration of two of the classical Ln2+ cations, Sm2+ and Eu2+ , using atomic multipole optimized energetic for biomolecular applications (AMOEBA) force fields. These cations have not been parameterized to date with AMOEBA, and few studies are available because of their instability with respect to oxidation in aqueous media. Coordination numbers (CN's) of 8.2 and 8.1 respectively for Sm2+ and Eu2+ , and 8.8 for both Sm3+ and Eu3+ have been obtained and are in good agreement with the few available AIMD and X-ray absorption fine structures studies. The decreased CN of Ln2+ compared with Ln3+ arises from progressive water exchange events that indicates the gradual stabilization of 8-coordinate structures with respect to 9-coordinate geometries. Moreover, the effects of the chloride counter anions on the coordination of Ln2+ cations have been studied at different chloride concentrations in this work. Lastly, water exchange times of Ln2+ cations have been calculated to provide a comprehensive understanding of the behavior of Eu2+ and Sm2+ in aqueous chloride media.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Cátions , Cloretos , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Água/química
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 858979, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711659

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) is a species of free-living amoebae (FLAs) that has been widely applied as a model for the study of host-parasite interactions and characterization of environmental symbionts. The sharing of niches between Ac and potential pathogens, such as fungi, favors associations between these organisms. Through predatory behavior, Ac enhances fungal survival, dissemination, and virulence in their intracellular milieu, training these pathogens and granting subsequent success in events of infections to more evolved hosts. In recent studies, our group characterized the amoeboid mannose binding proteins (MBPs) as one of the main fungal recognition pathways. Similarly, mannose-binding lectins play a key role in activating antifungal responses by immune cells. Even in the face of similarities, the distinct impacts and degrees of affinity of fungal recognition for mannose receptors in amoeboid and animal hosts are poorly understood. In this work, we have identified high-affinity ligands for mannosylated fungal cell wall residues expressed on the surface of amoebas and macrophages and determined the relative importance of these pathways in the antifungal responses comparing both phagocytic models. Mannose-purified surface proteins (MPPs) from both phagocytes showed binding to isolated mannose/mannans and mannosylated fungal cell wall targets. Although macrophage MPPs had more intense binding when compared to the amoeba receptors, the inhibition of this pathway affects fungal internalization and survival in both phagocytes. Mass spectrometry identified several MPPs in both models, and in silico alignment showed highly conserved regions between spotted amoeboid receptors (MBP and MBP1) and immune receptors (Mrc1 and Mrc2) and potential molecular mimicry, pointing to a possible convergent evolution of pathogen recognition mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Amoeba , Acanthamoeba castellanii/microbiologia , Amoeba/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Manose/química , Camundongos , Trofozoítos/metabolismo
7.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506451

RESUMO

The Mimivirus is a giant virus that infects amoebae and was long considered to be a bacterium due to its size. The viral particles are composed of a protein capsid of ~500 nm in diameter, which is enclosed in a polysaccharide layer in which ~120­140 nm long fibers are embedded, resulting in an overall diameter of 700 nm. The virus has a genome size of 1.2 Mb DNA, and surprisingly, replicates only in the cytoplasm of the infected cells without entering the nucleus, which is a unique characteristic among DNA viruses. Their existence is undeniable; however, as with any novel discovery, there is still uncertainty concerning their pathogenicity mechanisms in humans and the nature of the Mimivirus virophage resistance element system (MIMIVIRE), a term given to describe the immune network of the Mimivirus, which closely resembles the CRISPR­Cas system. The scope of the present review is to discuss the recent developments derived from structural and functional studies performed on the distinctive characteristics of the Mimivirus, and from studies concerning their putative clinical relevance in humans.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Vírus Gigantes , Mimiviridae , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Capsídeo , Vírus Gigantes/genética , Humanos , Mimiviridae/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8676, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606506

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), a species of amoeba-infecting giant viruses, has recently emerged as human respiratory pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Mimivirus in respiratory samples, collected from tuberculosis (TB)-suspected patients. The study was performed on 10,166 clinical respiratory samples from April 2013 to December 2017. Mimivirus was detected using a suicide nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods. Of 10,166 TB-suspected patients, 4 (0.04%) were positive for Mimivirus, including Mimivirus-53, Mimivirus-186, Mimivirus-1291, and Mimivirus-1922. Three out of four patients, hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU), were mechanically ventilated. All patients had an underlying disease, and the virus was detected in both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. In conclusion, Mimivirus was isolated from TB-suspected patients in a comprehensive study. The present results, similar to previous reports, showed that Mimiviruses could be related to pneumonia. Further studies in different parts of the world are needed to additional investigate the clinical importance of Mimivirus infection.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Vírus Gigantes , Mimiviridae , Tuberculose , Vírus de DNA , Humanos , Mimiviridae/genética , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
9.
Curr Protoc ; 2(5): e455, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612516

RESUMO

This article describes a practical method for prospecting and isolating giant viruses based on direct inoculation of environmental samples into amoeba cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The giant viruses that infect amoebas have already been isolated from various environmental samples in several countries worldwide, including in extreme environments. Here we describe the methodologic procedures regarding the prospecting of giant viruses in A. castellanii, including the preparation of environmental samples, the culture of amoebas, and the observation of cytopathic effects that can indicate the presence and potential isolation of giant viruses. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Sample collection Support Protocol: Propagation of Acanthamoeba castellanii Basic Protocol 2: Prospecting of giant viruses in environmental samples by cytopathic effect analysis.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Amoeba , Vírus Gigantes
10.
Curr Biol ; 32(9): R418-R420, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537392

RESUMO

Multicellular fruiting body formation through aggregation of individual cells has been known in Fonticla alba since the original description of the organism. A new study reveals the existence of a second transient collective cellular behavior separate from fruiting body formation.


Assuntos
Amoeba
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156301, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636544

RESUMO

Free Living Amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous microorganisms reported from harsh environmental conditions. Oil refinery facilities consume vast volumes of water during their processes, generating a large amount of wastewater. The present study aimed to evaluate the wastewater treatment process in an oil refinery wastewater treatment facility (ORWWTF) for the presence of FLA. Water samples were collected from an oil refinery wastewater (ORWW) for nine months. After recording physical-chemical features, samples were cultivated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA). The discriminative fragments of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene were amplified and sequenced to characterize the isolated FLA. Phylogenetic tree, and network analysis were employed to evaluate genetic relationships. The thermo- and osmotolerant tests were performed on the isolated FLA. Twenty-five (32.9%) samples were positive for FLA cultivation. Acanthamoeba spp., Vahlkampfiids, and Vermamoeba spp. were detected, of which Acanthamoeba species were predominant. There was no statistical correlation between pH, NH3, PO4, H2S, and TDS with the presence of FLA. A statistical correlation between the presence of FLA and the type of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was significant (P-value = 0.011). All Acanthamoeba spp. isolates belonged to the genotypes T4 (17/21; 80.95%) and T11 (4/21; 19.05%). Vahlkampfiids were Naegleria spp., (7/10; 70%), Tetramitus aberdonicus (1/10; 10%), Learamoeba spp., (1/10; 10%), and Vahlkampfia spp., (1/10; 10%). All three Vermamoeba spp. were V. vermiformis. The ORWW contains toxic materials, and a few microorganisms can stay active in these environments. This is the first study which isolates FLA from such super harsh conditions. For the first time, T. aberdonicus, and Learamoeba spp., were isolated from oily wastewater. Our findings signify the concern due to the distribution of potentially pathogenic FLA to downstream lands via treated wastewater that may be released after treatment processing.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amoeba , Purificação da Água , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Filogenia , Águas Residuárias , Água
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2121241119, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639693

RESUMO

SignificancePrimary endosymbiosis allowed the evolution of complex life on Earth. In this process, a prokaryote was engulfed and retained in the cytoplasm of another microbe, where it developed into a new organelle (mitochondria and plastids). During organelle evolution, genes from the endosymbiont are transferred to the host nuclear genome, where they must become active despite differences in the genetic nature of the "partner" organisms. Here, we show that in the amoeba Paulinella micropora, which harbors a nascent photosynthetic organelle, the "copy-paste" mechanism of retrotransposition allowed domestication of endosymbiont-derived genes in the host nuclear genome. This duplication mechanism is widespread in eukaryotes and may be a major facilitator for host-endosymbiont integration and the evolution of organelles.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Evolução Biológica , Rhizaria , Simbiose , Amoeba/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Simbiose/genética
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155785, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537513

RESUMO

In the time of the global climate crisis, it is vital to protect and restore peatlands to maintain their functioning as carbon sinks. Otherwise, their transformations may trigger a shift to a carbon source state and further contribute to global warming. In this study, we focused on eutrophication, which resulted in the transition from rich fen to poor fen conditions on the Kazanie fen (central Greater Poland, western Poland Central Europe). The prior aim was to decipher how i) climate, ii) human, and iii) autogenic processes influenced the pathway of peatland changes in the last ca. 250 years. We applied a high-resolution palaeoecological analysis, based mainly on testate amoebae (TA) and plant macroremains. Our results imply that before ca. 1950 CE, dry shifts on the fen were generally climate-induced. Later, autogenic processes, human pressure and climate warming synergistically affected the fen, contributing to its transition to poor fen within ca. 30 years. Its establishment not only caused changes in vegetation but also altered TA taxonomic content and resulted in a lower diversity of TA. According to our research Microchlamyspatella is an incredibly sensitive testate amoeba that after ca. 200 years of presence, disappeared within 2 years due to changes in water and nutrient conditions. As a whole, our study provides a long-term background that is desired in modern conservation studies and might be used to define future restoration targets. It also confirms the already described negative consequences connected with unsustainable exploitation of nature.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Áreas Alagadas , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Polônia
14.
Elife ; 112022 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639083

RESUMO

Migration of cells in the developing brain is integral for the establishment of neural circuits and function of the central nervous system. While migration modes during which neurons employ predetermined directional guidance of either preexisting neuronal processes or underlying cells have been well explored, less is known about how cells featuring multipolar morphology migrate in the dense environment of the developing brain. To address this, we here investigated multipolar migration of horizontal cells in the zebrafish retina. We found that these cells feature several hallmarks of amoeboid-like migration that enable them to tailor their movements to the spatial constraints of the crowded retina. These hallmarks include cell and nuclear shape changes, as well as persistent rearward polarization of stable F-actin. Interference with the organization of the developing retina by changing nuclear properties or overall tissue architecture hampers efficient horizontal cell migration and layer formation showing that cell-tissue interplay is crucial for this process. In view of the high proportion of multipolar migration phenomena observed in brain development, the here uncovered amoeboid-like migration mode might be conserved in other areas of the developing nervous system.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Retina
15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(6): e0237321, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604214

RESUMO

Infection with pathogenic free-living amoebae, including Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris, can lead to life-threatening illnesses, primarily because of catastrophic central nervous system involvement. Efficacious treatment options for these infections are lacking, and the mortality rate due to infection is high. Previously, we evaluated the N. fowleri glucokinase (NfGlck) as a potential target for therapeutic intervention, as glucose metabolism is critical for in vitro viability. Here, we extended these studies to the glucokinases from two other pathogenic free-living amoebae, including Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcGlck) and B. mandrillaris (BmGlck). While these enzymes are similar (49.3% identical at the amino acid level), they have distinct kinetic properties that distinguish them from each other. For ATP, AcGlck and BmGlck have apparent Km values of 472.5 and 41.0 µM, while Homo sapiens Glck (HsGlck) has a value of 310 µM. Both parasite enzymes also have a higher apparent affinity for glucose than the human counterpart, with apparent Km values of 45.9 µM (AcGlck) and 124 µM (BmGlck) compared to ~8 mM for HsGlck. Additionally, AcGlck and BmGlck differ from each other and other Glcks in their sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors, suggesting that inhibitors with pan-amoebic activity could be challenging to generate.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Amoeba , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Naegleria fowleri , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/parasitologia , Glucoquinase , Humanos
16.
J Water Health ; 20(4): 657-669, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482382

RESUMO

The occurrence of amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, in sediment samples from Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana was investigated. This amoeba is pathogenic and can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods were used to test for the prevalence of Naegleria fowleri, HF183, and E. coli. N. fowleri was detected in 51.25% of our sediment samples. Illumina sequencing of sediment samples revealed ten different phyla, with Cyanobacteria being the most predominant at sites that generally presented with the highest median N. fowleri concentrations. N. fowleri was however strongly negatively correlated with HF183 (r = -0.859, p < 0.001). Whenever sediment E. coli concentrations were below 1.54 Log GC/g, there was only a 37.5% chance that N. fowleri would be detected in the same sample. When sediment E. coli concentrations exceeded 2.77 Log GC/g, the chances of detecting N. fowleri in the same sample increased to 90%, potentially suggesting predatory activity by the amoeba. The effect of temperature was observed to be different in relation to observed N. fowleri concentrations and detection rates. Although sediment samples collected during periods of higher temperatures had significantly lower mean N. fowleri concentrations (2.7 Log GC/g) compared to those collected at lower temperatures (3.7 Log GC/g, t(39) = 4.167, p < 0.001), higher N. fowleri detection rates in the overall samples were observed at higher temperatures (>19.1 °C) than at lower temperatures (<19.1 °C).


Assuntos
Amoeba , Naegleria fowleri , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Lagos
17.
Subcell Biochem ; 98: 41-59, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378702

RESUMO

Macropinocytosis is a relatively unexplored form of large-scale endocytosis driven by the actin cytoskeleton. Dictyostelium amoebae form macropinosomes from cups extended from the plasma membrane, then digest their contents and absorb the nutrients in the endo-lysosomal system. They use macropinocytosis for feeding, maintaining a high rate of fluid uptake that makes assay and experimentation easy. Mutants collected over the years identify cytoskeletal and signalling proteins required for macropinocytosis. Cups are organized around plasma membrane domains of intense PIP3, Ras and Rac signalling, proper formation of which also depends on the RasGAPs NF1 and RGBARG, PTEN, the PIP3-regulated protein kinases Akt and SGK and their activators PDK1 and TORC2, Rho proteins, plus other components yet to be identified. This PIP3 domain directs dendritic actin polymerization to the extending lip of macropinocytic cups by recruiting a ring of the SCAR/WAVE complex around itself and thus activating the Arp2/3 complex. The dynamics of PIP3 domains are proposed to shape macropinocytic cups from start to finish. The role of the Ras-PI3-kinase module in organizing feeding structures in unicellular organisms most likely predates its adoption into growth factor signalling, suggesting an evolutionary origin for growth factor signalling.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Dictyostelium , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Amoeba/metabolismo , Dictyostelium/genética , Dictyostelium/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Pinocitose
18.
Eur J Protistol ; 84: 125892, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436680

RESUMO

There is a significant gap in research and knowledge on the diversity and distribution of Chilean ciliates. To tackle these issues, we used cultures and protargol preparations to describe the ciliates present in poorly explored areas. At these sites, we identified 45 ciliate morphospecies, 35 of which represent unprecedent records to Chile. Then, we brought together our records with literature data to construct a species checklist. This checklist summarises 132 years of data and describes the identity, habitat and distribution of 207 species, including 15 species potentially endemic to Chile. This checklist is far from complete: a diversity estimate suggests that at least two-thirds of the ciliate species occurring in Chile have yet to be described. The checklist is dominated by freshwater taxa because ciliates from marine, brackish and terrestrial environments have rarely been investigated in Chile. Finally, after controlling for sampling artefacts, we found that ciliates exhibit a bell-shaped latitudinal diversity gradient in Chile. This peculiar biogeographical pattern is common in Chile. Plants, animals and testate amoebae also exhibit a bell-shaped latitudinal diversity gradient in Chile. This finding suggests that the historical contingencies that drove the biogeography of the Chilean biota also shaped ciliate biogeography.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Cilióforos , Animais , Lista de Checagem , Chile , Ecossistema
19.
Protist ; 173(3): 125870, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489252

RESUMO

Heterolobosea is one of the major protist groups in soils. While an increasing number of soil heterolobosean species has been described, we have likely only scratched the surface of heterolobosean diversity in soils. Here, we expand this knowledge by morphologically and molecularly classifying four novel strains. One was identified as Naegleria clarki, while the remaining three strains had no identical Blast hit against GenBank and could only be reliably identified to the genus level: two strains as Allovahlkampfia spp. and one strain as Vahlkampfia sp. One Allovahlkampfia strain was most closely affiliated with Allovahlkampfia sp. Nl64 and the other strain was affiliated with 'Solumitrus' palustris, which is now named Allovahlkampfia palustris comb.nov. As there are only two valid species described within Allovahlkampfia, we combined all published sequences related to Allovahlkampfia and propose five new groups within this genus. The last strain was most closely related, but clearly distinct from, Vahlkampfia orchilla, based on DNA barcoding. As such, we propose this amoeba as a new species named Vahlkampfia bulbosis n.sp. Together, our study extends the described diversity of soil heteroloboseans through the description of a new Vahlkampfia species and by revising the morphologically and phylogenetically diverse genus Allovahlkampfia.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Naegleria , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Naegleria/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo
20.
Parasitol Res ; 121(6): 1805-1809, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403922

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri can cause acute primary amoebic encephalitis. It is known that contact-dependent pathogenicity in free-living amoeba may be mediated through a carbohydrate-dependent pathway. In this study, the effect of mannose on the interaction between N. fowleri and pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli DH5α was analyzed. In particular, the changes in proteases expressed by N. fowleri in response to mannose were analyzed. Unlike the conventional method, mannose was treated with N. fowleri for 1 h. The association between N. fowleri and E. coli O157:H7 treated with 50-mM and 100-mM mannose was significantly reduced by approximately 70.9% and 128.5%, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 invasion was reduced by about 10.8% by 100-mM mannose. Moreover, as a result of culturing N. fowleri invaded by E. coli O157:H7 for 24 h, E. coli O157:H7 also grew about 1.2 times in the group not treated with mannose. E. coli DH5α association was reduced by 25.7% by 100-mM mannose. On the other hand, there was almost no inhibitory effect by 100-mM glucose. In the analysis in which mannose bound to either N. fowleri or bacteria and affected the interaction, there was little effect on the interaction between N. fowleri and bacteria. In zymographic analysis, about 135-kDa and 75-kDa bands were observed by 50-mM and 100-mM mannose, and two bands were significantly increased by 100-mM mannose. This study suggests that mannose can be mediated in the contact-dependent pathway of N. fowleri and will serve as a basis for inducing changes in the protease of N. fowleri by other monosaccharides.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Naegleria fowleri , Escherichia coli , Manose/metabolismo , Naegleria fowleri/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases
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