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1.
Sci Adv ; 9(5): eabq5920, 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724226

RESUMO

Despite receiving the same sensory input, opposing partisans often interpret political content in disparate ways. Jointly analyzing controlled and naturalistic functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we uncover the neurobiological mechanisms explaining how these divergent political viewpoints arise. Individuals who share an ideology have more similar neural representations of political words, experience greater neural synchrony during naturalistic political content, and temporally segment real-world information into the same meaningful units. In the striatum and amygdala, increasing intersubject similarity in neural representations of political concepts during a word reading task predicts enhanced synchronization of blood oxygen level-dependent time courses when viewing real-time, inflammatory political videos, revealing that polarization can arise from differences in the brain's affective valuations of political concepts. Together, this research shows that political ideology is shaped by semantic representations of political concepts processed in an environment free of any polarizing agenda and that these representations bias how real-world political information is construed into a polarized perspective.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Semântica , Humanos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 897, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650256

RESUMO

The amygdala is modulated by dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, and this modulation is altered in mood disorders. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the presence/absence of quantitative alterations in the expression of main dopaminergic and cholinergic markers in the amygdala of mice with oestrogen receptor ß (ERß) knock-out which exhibit increased anxiety, using immunohistochemistry and quantitative methods. Such alterations could either contribute to increased anxiety or be a compensatory mechanism for reducing anxiety. The results show that among dopaminergic markers, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2-like receptor (DA2) is significantly elevated in the amygdala of mice with ERß deprivation when compared to matched controls, whereas the content of dopamine D1-like receptor (DA1) is not altered by ERß knock-out. In the case of cholinergic markers, muscarinic acetylcholine type 1 receptor (AChRM1) and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChRα7) display overexpression while the content of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) remains unchanged. In conclusion, in the amygdala of ERß knock-out female the dopaminergic and cholinergic signalling is altered, however, to determine the exact role of ERß in the anxiety-related behaviour further studies are required.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Receptor beta de Estrogênio , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/genética , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Colinérgicos/metabolismo
3.
eNeuro ; 10(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635250

RESUMO

Avoiding potentially harmful, and consuming safe food is crucial for the survival of living organisms. However, the perceived valence of sensory information can change following conflicting experiences. Pleasurability and aversiveness are two crucial parameters defining the perceived valence of a taste and can be impacted by novelty. Importantly, the ability of a given taste to serve as the conditioned stimulus (CS) in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is dependent on its valence. Activity in anterior insula (aIC) Layer IV-VI pyramidal neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is correlated with and necessary for CTA learning and retrieval, as well as the expression of neophobia toward novel tastants, but not learning taste familiarity. Yet, the cellular mechanisms underlying the updating of taste valence representation in this specific pathway are poorly understood. Here, using retrograde viral tracing and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in trained mice, we demonstrate that the intrinsic properties of deep-lying Layer IV-VI, but not superficial Layer I-III aIC-BLA neurons, are differentially modulated by both novelty and valence, reflecting the subjective predictability of taste valence arising from prior experience. These correlative changes in the profile of intrinsic properties of LIV-VI aIC-BLA neurons were detectable following both simple taste experiences, as well as following memory retrieval, extinction learning, and reinstatement.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Camundongos , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Neurônios
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614278

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common psychiatric condition associated with a high risk of psychiatric comorbidity and impaired social/occupational functioning when not promptly treated. The identification of biological markers may facilitate the diagnostic process, leading to an early and proper treatment. Our aim was to systematically review the available literature about potential biomarkers for SAD. A search in the main online repositories (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsychInfo, etc.) was performed. Of the 662 records screened, 61 were included. Results concerning cortisol, neuropeptides and inflammatory/immunological/neurotrophic markers remain inconsistent. Preliminary evidence emerged about the role of chromosome 16 and the endomannosidase gene, as well as of epigenetic factors, in increasing vulnerability to SAD. Neuroimaging findings revealed an altered connectivity of different cerebral areas in SAD patients and amygdala activation under social threat. Some parameters such as salivary alpha amylase levels, changes in antioxidant defenses, increased gaze avoidance and QT dispersion seem to be associated with SAD and may represent promising biomarkers of this condition. However, the preliminary positive correlations have been poorly replicated. Further studies on larger samples and investigating the same biomarkers are needed to identify more specific biological markers for SAD.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Humanos , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Neuroimagem , Biomarcadores , Hidrocortisona , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Ansiedade/psicologia
5.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 158(1): 47-50, 2023.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596490

RESUMO

Because the early-life period is a critical window for the development and reorganization of neural circuits, the early life environment has a great impact on cognitive and emotional functions. It has been reported that a history of early life adversity such as child maltreatment and neglect increases the risk for psychiatric disorders with social and emotional problems. To develop treatments for these psychiatric disorders, it is important to understand the neural mechanisms of how early-life adversity causes social and emotional dysfunctions. In this article, we introduce our research that has revealed adolescent social isolation impairs social and stress-coping behaviors through subregion-dependent synaptic disruption in the orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit in mice.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Camundongos , Animais , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Isolamento Social
6.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(1): 113-123, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigated the effects of suspended moxibustion stimulating Shenshu (BL23) and Guanyuan (CV4) acupoints on the amygdala and HPA axis in our rat model and elucidated the possible molecular mechanisms of moxibustion on kidney- deficiency symptom pattern (KYDS). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group ( 12) and an experimental group ( 48). Rats in the experimental group were given intramuscular injections of hydrocortisone to establish a KYDS model. The 48 rats successfully modeled were then randomly divided into a model group (model, 12), a carbenoxolone intraperitoneal injection group (CBX, 12), a moxibustion group (moxi, 12), and a moxi + CBX group ( 12). In the moxi, the Shenshu (BL23) and Guanyuan (CV 4) acupoints were treated with moxibustion for 14 d. After treatment, measures were taken of serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The expression of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1), CRH, and ACTH in the rats' amygdala, hypothalamus, or pituitary (as appropriate) was detected. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Compared with those of the control group, the serum levels of CRH, ACTH, and CORT; the mRNA and protein expressions of MR, GR, and 11ß-HSD1 in the amygdala; the mRNA and protein expressions of 11ß-HSD1 in the hypothalamus; the CRH mRNA expression in the amygdala and hypothalamus; and the ACTH mRNA expression in the pituitary of the rats in the model group were all significantly decreased (0.05 or 0.01). After treatment with moxibustion, all the aforementioned observation indices except for 11ß-HSD1 mRNA expression were ameliorated compared with those in the model group (0.05 or 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Suspended moxibustion can effectively improve the serum levels of ACTH, CRH, and CORT and can up-regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of MR, GR, 11ß-HSD1, CRH, and ACTH in the amygdala and hypothalamus of KYDS rats. This may be one of the molecular mechanisms with which moxibustion alleviates KYDS.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Moxibustão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo
7.
Mol Brain ; 16(1): 10, 2023 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658598

RESUMO

Social animals become stressed upon social isolation, proactively engaging in affiliative contacts among conspecifics after resocialization. We have previously reported that calcitonin receptor (Calcr) expressing neurons in the central part of the medial preoptic area (cMPOA) mediate contact-seeking behaviors in female mice. Calcr neurons in the posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MeApd) are also activated by resocialization, however their role in social affiliation is still unclear. Here we first investigated the functional characteristics of MeApd Calcr + cells; these neurons are GABAergic and show female-biased Calcr expression. Next, using an adeno-associated virus vector expressing a short hairpin RNA targeting Calcr we aimed to identify its molecular role in the MeApd. Inhibiting Calcr expression in the MeApd increased social contacts during resocialization without affecting locomotor activity, suggesting that the endogenous Calcr signaling in the MeApd suppresses social contacts. These results demonstrate the distinct roles of Calcr in the cMPOA and MeApd for regulating social affiliation.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Corticomedial , Receptores da Calcitonina , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Receptores da Calcitonina/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 315: 121373, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621536

RESUMO

AIMS: Allergic asthma is associated with anxiety-related behaviors, leading to poor quality of life. Previous studies mainly described the neuropathophysiology of asthma-induced anxiety. However, the effects of corticosteroids, the most common anti-inflammatory agents for asthma treatment, on the neurophysiological foundations of allergic asthma-induced anxiety are unexplored. MAIN METHODS: Here, we evaluated lung and brain inflammation as well as anxiety in an animal model of allergic asthma pretreated with inhaled fluticasone propionate. Furthermore, to define the neurophysiological bases of these conditions, we studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-amygdala circuit, which is previously shown to accompany asthma-induced anxiety. KEY FINDINGS: Our data showed that allergen induces anxiety, mPFC and amygdala inflammation, as well as disruptions in the local and long-range oscillatory activities within the mPFC-amygdala circuit. Interestingly, we observed a roughly consistent trend of changes with inhaled fluticasone pretreatment. Namely, the asthma-induced behavioral, inflammatory, and neurophysiological changes were partly, but not totally, prevented by inhaled fluticasone pretreatment. SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that early treatment of asthmatic patients with inhaled corticosteroids improves mPFC-amygdala circuit function by attenuating neuroinflammation leading to reduced anxiety. These findings could lead clinical guidelines of asthma to consider the neuropsychiatric disorders of patients in treatment recommendations.


Assuntos
Asma , Qualidade de Vida , Animais , Androstadienos/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Fluticasona/uso terapêutico , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação
9.
J Neurosci ; 43(5): 812-826, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596697

RESUMO

Distributed cortical regions show differential responses to visual objects belonging to different domains varying by animacy (e.g., animals vs tools), yet it remains unclear whether this is an organization principle also applying to the subcortical structures. Combining multiple fMRI activation experiments (two main experiments and six validation datasets; 12 females and 9 males in the main Experiment 1; 10 females and 10 males in the main Experiment 2), resting-state functional connectivity, and task-based dynamic causal modeling analysis in human subjects, we found that visual processing of images of animals and tools elicited different patterns of response in the pulvinar, with robust left lateralization for tools, and distinct, bilateral (with rightward tendency) clusters for animals. Such domain-preferring activity distribution in the pulvinar was associated with the magnitude with which the voxels were intrinsically connected with the corresponding domain-preferring regions in the cortex. The pulvinar-to-right-amygdala path showed a one-way shortcut supporting the perception of animals, and the modulation connection from pulvinar to parietal showed an advantage to the perception of tools. These results incorporate the subcortical regions into the object processing network and highlight that domain organization appears to be an overarching principle across various processing stages in the brain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Viewing objects belonging to different domains elicited different cortical regions, but whether the domain organization applied to the subcortical structures (e.g., pulvinar) was unknown. Multiple fMRI activation experiments revealed that object pictures belonging to different domains elicited differential patterns of response in the pulvinar, with robust left lateralization for tool pictures, and distinct, bilateral (with rightward tendency) clusters for animals. Combining the resting-state functional connectivity and dynamic causal modeling analysis on task-based fMRI data, we found domain-preferring activity distribution in the pulvinar aligned with that in cortical regions. These results highlight the need for coherent visual theories that explain the mechanisms underlying the domain organization across various processing stages.


Assuntos
Pulvinar , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Pulvinar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulvinar/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia
10.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 59: 101187, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640624

RESUMO

Earlier pubertal development appears to be one pathway through which childhood trauma contributes to psychopathology in adolescence. Puberty-related changes in neural networks involved in emotion processing, namely the amygdala-medial prefrontal (mPFC) circuit, may be a potential mechanism linking trauma and adolescent psychopathology. Our participants were 227 youth between 10 and 13 years of age who completed assessments of threat and deprivation-related experiences of adversity, pubertal stage, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A subset (n = 149) also underwent a functional MRI scan while passively viewing fearful and calm faces. Potential mechanisms linking childhood trauma with psychopathology, encompassing earlier pubertal timing and neural response to aversive stimuli were explored. Earlier pubertal development was associated with childhood trauma as well as increased externalizing symptoms in boys only. Earlier pubertal timing in males and females was negatively associated with activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampal, and fusiform regions when comparing fearful and calm faces. However, amygdala-mPFC connectivity showed no association with pubertal timing or psychopathology symptoms. These findings do not support accelerated amygdala-mPFC development as a mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychopathology, but instead provide support for the role of pubertal development in normative decreases in limbic activation across development.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Psicopatologia , Emoções , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1305, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693904

RESUMO

The amygdala plays a role in emotion, learning, and memory and has been implicated in behavioral disorders. Better understanding of the amygdala circuitry is crucial to develop new therapies for these disorders. We used data from 200 healthy-subjects from the human connectome project. Using probabilistic tractography, we created population statistical maps of amygdala connectivity to brain regions involved in limbic, associative, memory, and reward circuits. Based on the amygdala connectivity with these regions, we applied k-means clustering to parcellate the amygdala into three clusters. The resultant clusters were averaged across all subjects and the main white-matter pathways of the amygdala from each averaged cluster were generated. Amygdala parcellation into three clusters showed a medial-to-lateral pattern. The medial cluster corresponded with the centromedial and cortical nuclei, the basal cluster with the basal nuclei and the lateral cluster with the lateral nuclei. The connectivity analysis revealed different white-matter pathways consistent with the anatomy of the amygdala circuit. This in vivo connectivity-based parcellation of the amygdala delineates three clusters of the amygdala in a mediolateral pattern based on its connectivity with brain areas involved in cognition, memory, emotion, and reward. The human amygdala circuit presented in this work provides the first step for personalized amygdala circuit mapping for patients with behavioral disorders.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Substância Branca , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia
12.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 24(2): e92-e103, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current approaches for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may result in suboptimal seizure control and cognitive decline. An incomplete treatment of the epileptogenic zone and unnecessary violation of functional cortical and subcortical areas may contribute to suboptimal results. OBJECTIVE: To describe and test the anatomic feasibility of a novel endoscopic anterior transmaxillary (ATM) approach to the temporal lobe and to compare the described technique to other transfacial approaches. METHODS: Twenty-four cadaveric brain hemispheres fixed in formalin were used to study anterior temporal surface anatomy. Two additional hemispheres were fixed in formalin and then frozen for white matter dissections. Subsequently, bilateral dissections on 4 injected cadaveric heads were used to describe the endoscopic ATM approach and to evaluate various anterior endoscopic corridors for the temporal pole and mesial temporal lobe structures. RESULTS: The ATM approach was considered superior because of direct visualization of the temporal pole and natural alignment with the mesial temporal structures. The mean exposure corridor covered 49.1° in the sagittal plane and 66.2° in the axial plane. The ATM allowed direct access lateral to the maxillary and mandibular nerves with an anterior-posterior trajectory aligned to the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus formation, allowing for a selective amygdalohippocampectomy with preservation of the trigeminal branches and the lateral temporal neocortex. CONCLUSION: The ATM approach is anatomically feasible, providing a direct and selective approach for the temporal pole and mesial temporal lobe structures, with a substantial angle of visualization because of its direct alignment with the mesial temporal lobe structures.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Humanos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Lobo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114179, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592493

RESUMO

The abnormal fear memory will lead to the onset of stress disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and so on. Therefore, the intervention in the formation of abnormal fear memory will provide a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of PTSD. In our previous studies, we found that blockade of dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) with highly selective antagonist YQA14 or knockout of DRD3 was able to attenuate the expression or retrieval of fear memory in PTSD animal models. However, the neurobiological mechanism of regulation of DRD3 in fear is unclear. In the present research, we clarified that DRD3 was expressed in the dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Then, we identified that microinjection of YQA14 (1 µg/0.2 µl/side) in VTA before the aversive stimuli in the training session or during days subsequent to the shock significantly meliorated the freezing behaviors in the inescapable electric foot-shock model. At last, using fiber photometry system, we found that microinjection of YQA14 in VTA promoted the dopamine neurotransmitter release in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and pre-training YQA14 infusion in VTA lowered the increase of dopamine (DA) in BLA induced by shock during the training session or by context during the retrieval session. All above the results demonstrated that YQA14 attenuated the fear learning through the blockade of DRD3 in VTA decreasing the excitability of the projection to BLA. This study may provide new mechanisms and potential intervention targets for stress disorders with abnormal fear memory.


Assuntos
Receptores de Dopamina D3 , Área Tegmentar Ventral , Animais , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D3/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Medo
14.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 16(1): e014544, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated metabolic activity of amygdala is known to be related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular event by increasing inflammatory cell production from bone marrow. We tried to identify the factors of metabolic activity in the amygdala, vertebrae, liver, spleen, and internal carotid artery related to the future vascular events after stroke. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with acute stroke were included (72±10 years of age, 39% women) and underwent whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography between August 1, 2015 and February 28, 2020. We compared the FDG uptake in the amygdala, vertebrae, liver, spleen, and internal carotid artery between patients with and without recurrent vascular event. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors related to recurrent stroke and vascular event. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 18 months, 22 patients experienced vascular events, including 15 stroke recurrence. Patients with recurred vascular event had a significantly higher FDG uptake in the amygdala and vertebrae than those without. The Cox proportional hazard model including diabetes, renal function, and carotid stenosis showed that a higher FDG uptake in the amygdala was independently associated with total vascular events (hazard ratio, 3.11 [95% CI, 1.11-8.70]) and higher FDG uptake in the vertebrae with stroke recurrence (hazard ratio, 4.94 [95% CI, 1.29-18.9]). CONCLUSIONS: The increased metabolic activities of the vertebrae and amygdala are related to future vascular event among stroke survivors.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Coluna Vertebral , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
15.
J Neurosci Res ; 101(3): 367-383, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478439

RESUMO

The ability to recognize others' emotions is vital to everyday life. The goal of this study was to assess which emotions show age-related decline in recognition accuracy of facial emotional expressions across the entire adult lifespan and how this process is related to cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind [ToM]), alexithymia traits, and amygdala subnuclei volumes in a large cohort of healthy individuals. We recruited 140 healthy participants 18-85 years old. Facial affect processing was assessed with the Penn Emotion Recognition task (ER40) that contains images of the five basic emotions: Neutral, Happy, Sad, Angry, and Fearful. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets were acquired on a 4.7T MRI system. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between studied variables. We found that while both sexes demonstrated age-related reduction in recognition of happy emotions and preserved recognition of sadness, male participants showed age-related reduction in recognition of fear, while in female participants, age-related decline was linked to recognition of neutral and angry facial expressions. In both sexes, accurate recognition of sadness negatively correlated with alexithymia traits. On the other hand, better ToM capabilities in male participants were associated with improvement in recognition of positive and neutral emotions. Finally, none of the observed age-related reductions in emotional recognition were related to amygdala and its subnuclei volumes. In contrast, both global volume of amygdala and its cortical and centromedial subnuclei had significant direct effects on recognition of sad images.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Empatia , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Longevidade , Emoções , Cognição , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Facial , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
16.
Neuroscience ; 510: 72-81, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572173

RESUMO

Social anxiety is characterized by an intense fear of evaluation from others and/or withdrawal from social situations. Extreme social anxiety can lead to social anxiety disorder. There remains an urgent need to investigate the neural substrates of subclinical social anxiety for early diagnosis and intervention to reduce the risk to develop social anxiety disorder. Twenty-nine young adults were recruited (10 males/19 females; mean age (SD) = 20.34 (2.29)). Trait-like social anxiety was assessed by Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used with an emotional face-matching paradigm to probe brain activation in response to emotional stimuli including angry, fearful, and happy faces, with shape-matching as a control condition. Behavioral results showed positive correlations between Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale scores and the reaction time in both angry and fearful conditions. The activation of superficial amygdala and the deactivation of basal forebrain in response to angry condition showed positive correlations with the level of social anxiety. In addition, the resting-state functional connectivity between these two regions was negatively correlated with the level of social anxiety. These results may help to understand the individual difference and corresponding neural underpinnings of social anxiety in the subclinical population, and might provide some insight to develop strategies for early diagnosis and interventions of social anxiety to reduce the risk of deterioration from subclinical to clinical level of social anxiety.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Medo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Ira , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Expressão Facial
17.
Behav Brain Res ; 440: 114254, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516942

RESUMO

Reward-associated conditioned stimuli (CSs) can acquire predictive value, evoking conditioned approach behaviours that prepare animals to engage with forthcoming rewards. Such CSs can also acquire conditioned reinforcing value, becoming attractive and pursued. Through their conditioned effects, CSs can promote adaptive (e.g., locating food) but also maladaptive behaviours (e.g., drug use). Basolateral amygdala neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens core (BLA→NAc core neurons) mediate the response to appetitive CSs, but the extent to which this involves effects on the predictive and/or conditioned reinforcing properties of CSs is unclear. Thus, we examined the effects of optogenetic stimulation of BLA→NAc core neurons on i) CS-triggered approach to the site of reward delivery, a Pavlovian conditioned approach response and ii) the instrumental pursuit of a CS, a measure of conditioned reinforcement. Water-restricted, adult male rats learned that a light-tone compound cue (the CS) predicts water delivery into a receptacle. Pairing optogenetic stimulation of BLA→NAc core neurons with CS presentation potentiated CS-triggered water receptacle visits. This suggests that activity in BLA→NAc core neurons promotes Pavlovian goal-approach behaviour. Next, rats could lever press for CS presentations, without water delivery. Optogenetic stimulation of BLA→NAc core neurons either during instrumental test sessions or during prior CS-water conditioning did not influence lever responding for the CS. This suggests that activity in BLA→NAc core neurons does not influence the instrumental pursuit of a water-paired CS. We conclude that activation of BLA→NAc core neurons promotes cue-induced control over behaviour by increasing conditioned goal-approach responses, without affecting the operant pursuit of reward cues.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Núcleo Accumbens , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Optogenética , Condicionamento Operante , Recompensa , Neurônios
18.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 144: 105005, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549377

RESUMO

Laboratory threat extinction paradigms and exposure-based therapy both involve repeated, safe confrontation with stimuli previously experienced as threatening. This fundamental procedural overlap supports laboratory threat extinction as a compelling analogue of exposure-based therapy. Threat extinction impairments have been detected in clinical anxiety and may contribute to exposure-based therapy non-response and relapse. However, efforts to improve exposure outcomes using techniques that boost extinction - primarily rodent extinction - have largely failed to date, potentially due to fundamental differences between rodent and human neurobiology. In this review, we articulate a comprehensive pre-clinical human research agenda designed to overcome these failures. We describe how connectivity guided depolarizing brain stimulation methods (i.e., TMS and DBS) can be applied concurrently with threat extinction and dual threat reconsolidation-extinction paradigms to causally map human extinction relevant circuits and inform the optimal integration of these methods with exposure-based therapy. We highlight candidate targets including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and mesolimbic structures, and propose hypotheses about how stimulation delivered at specific learning phases could strengthen threat extinction.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Mapeamento Encefálico
19.
Neurosci Lett ; 792: 136958, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356820

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized behaviorally by cognitive deterioration and emotional disruption, and neuropathologically by amyloid-ß (A ß) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and complement C3 (C3)-expressing neurotoxic, reactive astrocytes. We previously demonstrated that C3 + reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of AD patients express serine racemase (SR), which produces the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist D-serine. We show here that C3 + reactive astrocytes express SR in the amygdala of AD patients and in an amyloid mouse model of familial AD (5xFAD). 5xFAD mice also have deficits in cue fear memory recall that is dependent on intact amygdala function. Our results suggest that D-serine produced by reactive astrocytes in the amygdala could contribute to glutamate excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration observed with AD progression.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Astrócitos , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Placa Amiloide , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Serina
20.
Neuropharmacology ; 222: 109298, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328063

RESUMO

Women have increased vulnerability to PTSD and anxiety disorders compared to men. Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of these disorders is critical for identifying risk factors and developing appropriate sex-specific interventions. Despite the clear clinical relevance of an examination of sex differences in fear responses, the vast majority of pre-clinical research on fear learning and memory formation has exclusively used male animals. This review highlights sex differences in context and cued fear conditioning, fear extinction and fear generalization with a focus on the neural circuits underlying these behaviors in rodents. There are mixed reports of behavioral sex differences in context and cued fear conditioning paradigms, which can depend upon the behavioral indices of fear. However, there is greater evidence of differential activation of the hippocampus, amygdalar nuclei and the prefrontal cortical regions in male and female rodents during context and cued fear conditioning. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a sexually dimorphic structure, is of particular interest as it differentially contributes to fear responses in males and females. In addition, while the influence of the estrous cycle on different phases of fear conditioning is delineated, the clearest modulatory effect of estrogen is on fear extinction processes. Examining the variability in neural responses and behavior in both sexes should increase our understanding of how that variability contributes to the neurobiology of affective disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue on 'Fear, anxiety and PTSD'.


Assuntos
Medo , Caracteres Sexuais , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Extinção Psicológica , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Generalização Psicológica
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