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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130695, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365251

RESUMO

The study illustrates the molecular mechanisms by which marine-derived peptides exhibited different structures and inhibition functions to concurrently inhibit multiple enzymes involved in chronic diseases. Peptides (2 mg/mL) exhibited inhibition against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, inhibition of 52.2-78.8%), pancreatic α-amylase (16.3-27.2%) and lipase (5.3-17.0%). Further in silico analyses on physiochemistry, bioactivity, safety and interaction energy with target enzymes indicated that one peptide could inhibit multiple enzymes. Peptide FENLLEELK potent in inhibiting both ACE and α-amylase showed different mechanisms: it had ordered extended structure in ACE active pocket with conventional H-bond towards Arg522 which is the ligand for activator Cl-, while the peptide folded into compact "lariat" conformation within α-amylase active site and the K residue in peptide formed intensive H-bonds and electrostatic interactions with catalytic triad Asp197 - Asp300 - Glu233. Another peptide APFPLR showed different poses in inhibiting ACE, α-amylase and lipase, and it formed direct interactions to lipase catalytic residues Phe77 & His263.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Amilases , Lipase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27487, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731128

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fatty pancreas (FP) is characterized by pancreatic fat accumulation and the subsequent development of pancreatic and metabolic complications. However, FP has not been categorized in the manual for abdominal ultrasound in cancer screening and health check-ups in Japan, and the pathology of FP has not been fully elucidated.Nine hundred and nineteen people who underwent a medical check-up had the severity of their pancreatic fat accumulation categorized after transabdominal ultrasonographic examination. The relationships between FP, lifestyle-related diseases, and fatty liver disease at this time were assessed using stratification analysis.The prevalence of FP was 46.8% (430/919). People with FP were more likely to be male and had higher prevalences of lifestyle-related diseases, including fatty liver disease. Men and women were similarly represented in each tertile of pancreas brightness. Older age; high waist circumference, triglyceride and glucose index, serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hepatic steatosis index; and low serum amylase were associated with the presence of severe FP. Moreover, the group with severe liver steatosis had a higher prevalence of FP and a higher pancreatic brightness score. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with liver steatosis were more likely to have severe FP.The severity of FP is associated with features of lifestyle-related diseases and the severity of liver steatosis. These findings suggest that high visceral fat content is associated with more severe fatty pancreas as a phenotype of ectopic fat accumulation, as well as fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatopatias/patologia , Exame Físico/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Amilases/sangue , Glicemia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatopatias/complicações , Pancreatopatias/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Circunferência da Cintura
3.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(5): 323-329, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the salivary IgA (immunoglobulin A) and alpha amylase levels in the unstimulated whole saliva samples of caries-free and caries-active children and correlate it with the caries status and age. STUDY DESIGN: The salivary IgA and amylase was investigated in 100 children in the range of 8-12 years divided in two groups, control group (DMFT and/or deft = 0) and study group (DMFT/deft score ≥5). The salivary IgA was measured using kit based on two-site sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle and amylase was estimated using the vitro amyl slides. RESULTS: The mean salivary IgA and amylase levels in the saliva of the children in the control group was found to be significantly increased (p=.001 and p=.014 respectively) whereas the relationship between salivary IgA and amylase levels in the saliva of the children was found to be insignificant with the age (p=.392 and p=.306 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that salivary IgA and amylase levels in saliva increased significantly in caries free children and the level of salivary IgA and alpha amylase has no significant relation with the age of the children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Imunoglobulina A , Amilases , Criança , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Saliva , alfa-Amilases
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23442-23458, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperamylasemia was found in a group of patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization. However, the evolution and the clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in COVID-19, is not well characterized. DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, treatment and outcome information of 1,515 COVID-19 patients with available longitudinal amylase records collected from electronic medical system were analyzed to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in this infection. Associated variables with hyperamylasemia in COVID-19 were also analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1,515 patients, 196 (12.9%) developed hyperamylasemia, among whom 19 (1.3%) greater than 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) and no clinical acute pancreatitis was seen. Multivariable ordered logistic regression implied older age, male, chronic kidney disease, several medications (immunoglobin, systemic corticosteroids, and antifungals), increased creatinine might be associated with hyperamylasemia during hospitalization. Restricted cubic spline analysis indicated hyperamylasemia had a J-shaped association with all-cause mortality and the estimated hazard ratio per standard deviation was 2.85 (2.03-4.00) above ULN. Based on the multivariable mixed-effect cox or logistic regression model taking hospital sites as random effects, elevated serum amylase during hospitalization was identified as an independent risk factor associated with in-hospital death and intensive complications, including sepsis, cardiac injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum amylase was independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Since early intervention might change the outcome, serum amylase should be monitored dynamically during hospitalization.


Assuntos
Amilases/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hiperamilassemia/complicações , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiperamilassemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening parasitic disease next to malaria, which is responsible for the death of 50,000 patients annually. It has three major clinical stages, including visceral, cutaneous, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Ethiopia is one of the east African countries commonly affected with leishmanisis disease. There are many drugs for leishmaniasis, including sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin combined therapy. However, the adverse effect of those combined drugs is not well-defined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess serum amylase, lipase, and associated factors among patients with VL treatment with those combined drugs. METHODS: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center from February to September 2020 G.C. Simple random sampling technique was utilized to select study participants. The study participants who fulfill the inclusion criteria were included in the study with written informed consent. 5 ml of blood was withdrawn by an experienced health professional to analyze serum amylase and lipase level. Descriptive data was presented by tables, charts and graphs. Data was cleared, entered by Epi-data version 3.1 then transfer to STATA 14.1 SE version and for analysis paired t-test was used, for factors correlation and regression was used. Those factor variable who have p-value <0.25 was filtered and goes to multivariate regression and p-value <0.05 was considered as significant variables. RESULTS: The result of this study showed that there was a significant mean difference between serum pancreatic amylase and lipase before and after treatment. The mean ± SD level of serum amylase after treatment showed a statistically significant elevation (P<0.001) as compared to its level before treatment. Similarly, the mean ± SD level of serum lipase after treatment showed a statistically significant elevation (P<0.001) as compared to its level before treatment. There was also significant association between age and baseline serum amylase as compared to serum amylase after treatment. Similarly, there was also significant relation of age and serum lipase with serum lipase after treatment. CONCLUSION: In this study, the level of serum amylase and lipase at treatment of cure was higher and there was an increase in mean serum amylase and lipase after a patient taking sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin combined drugs. Consequently, the elevated result of these biochemical profiles mainly associated with drug induced adverse effect and associated risk factors in VL patients.


Assuntos
Amilases/sangue , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Lipase/sangue , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641534

RESUMO

Spodoptera litura Fab. is a polyphagous pest causing damage to many agriculture crops leading to yield loss. Recurrent usage of synthetic pesticides to control this pest has resulted in resistance development. Plant-derived diterpenoid compound andrographolide was isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. It was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and quantified by HPLC. Nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic profile were evaluated. Third, fourth and fifth instar larvae were treated with different concentrations of andrographolide. At 3, 6 and 9 ppm-treated concentrations the larvae showed decreased RGR, RCR, ECI, ECD values with adverse increase in AD. The digestive enzymes were significantly inhibited when compared with control. Conspicuously, andrographolide showed pronounced mortality of S. litura by inhibition of enzyme secretion and intake of food. The binding ability of andrographolide with CYTP450 showed high affinity with low binding energy. Andrographolide has the potential to be exploited as a biocontrol agent against S. litura as an eco-friendly pesticide.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Amilases/metabolismo , Andrographis/química , Animais , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both underground rhizomes/buds and above-ground Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) shoots/culms/branches are connected together into a close inter-connecting system in which nutrients are transported and shared among each organ. However, the starch storage and utilization mechanisms during bamboo shoot growth remain unclear. This study aimed to reveal in which organs starch was stored, how carbohydrates were transformed among each organ, and how the expression of key genes was regulated during bamboo shoot growth and developmental stages which should lay a foundation for developing new theoretical techniques for bamboo cultivation. RESULTS: Based on changes of the NSC content, starch metabolism-related enzyme activity and gene expression from S0 to S3, we observed that starch grains were mainly elliptical in shape and proliferated through budding and constriction. Content of both soluble sugar and starch in bamboo shoot peaked at S0, in which the former decreased gradually, and the latter initially decreased and then increased as shoots grew. Starch synthesis-related enzymes (AGPase, GBSS and SBE) and starch hydrolase (α-amylase and ß-amylase) activities exhibited the same dynamic change patterns as those of the starch content. From S0 to S3, the activity of starch synthesis-related enzyme and starch amylase in bamboo rhizome was significantly higher than that in bamboo shoot, while the NSC content in rhizomes was obviously lower than that in bamboo shoots. It was revealed by the comparative transcriptome analysis that the expression of starch synthesis-related enzyme-encoding genes were increased at S0, but reduced thereafter, with almost the same dynamic change tendency as the starch content and metabolism-related enzymes, especially during S0 and S1. It was revealed by the gene interaction analysis that AGPase and SBE were core genes for the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Bamboo shoots were the main organ in which starch was stored, while bamboo rhizome should be mainly functioned as a carbohydrate transportation channel and the second carbohydrate sink. Starch metabolism-related genes were expressed at the transcriptional level during underground growth, but at the post-transcriptional level during above-ground growth. It may be possible to enhance edible bamboo shoot quality for an alternative starch source through genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilases/genética , Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/ultraestrutura , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Rizoma/ultraestrutura
8.
Ann Ital Chir ; 92: 441-451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pancreaticoduodenectomy has been established as the treatment of choice for the management of benign and malignant lesions of the pancreatic head, and pancreaticojejunal or pancreaticogastric anastomosis seems to be the safer choice for the management of the pancreatic duct. However, in certain seldom, but still existing circumstances, pancreatic duct ligation or occlusion with a chemical substance is a valuable and viable alternative. The aim of the current study is to compare these two methods of occlusion of the pancreatic duct regarding the endocrine and exocrine function of the pancreas and its histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 health mixed breed dog of both sexes were randomized in two groups: group A, in which the pancreatic duct was ligated and group B, in which the pancreatic duct was occluded with prolamine. RESULTS: None of the animals presented postoperatively steatorrhea and significant body weight changes. Peripancreatic inflammation at sacrifice, inflammatory cell infiltration and edema of the pancreas on the 15th postoperative day and 30th postoperative day were milder after occlusion with prolamine than after ligation. Ligation of pancreatic duct lead to significantly greater hyperamylasemia than prolamine occlusion every day until the 15th. Mild hyperglycemia presented from the first to the fourth day in both groups, which was associated with a significant drop in insulin. Glucagon remained within the normal values at all times during the experiment. None of glucose, insulin and glucagon differed between groups. CONCLUSION: Prolamine occlusion of the pancreatic duct causes milder hyperamylasemia and less extensive inflammation both macroscopically and microscopically than ligation. KEY WORDS: Pancreas, Pancreaticoduodenectomy, Hyperamylasemia.


Assuntos
Glucagon , Insulina , Amilases , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Glucose , Ligadura , Masculino , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Ductos Pancreáticos/cirurgia , Fenilpropanolamina
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579147

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that causes severe tissue damage. Ghee butter from bovine colostrum (GBBC) is a clarified butter produced by heating milk fat to 40 °C and separating the precipitating protein. As colostrum mainly contains fatty acids (FAs), immunoglobulins, maternal immune cells, and cytokines, we hypothesized that it may exert anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of GBBC on experimental AP in mice. Two intraperitoneal (ip) injections of L-arginine (8%) were given 1 h apart to generate the AP murine model. After 12 h from the first L-arginine injection, mice were divided into the following experimental groups: AP mice treated with GBBC (oral gavage (po) every 12 h) and non-treated AP mice (po vehicle every 12 h). Control animals received vehicle only. At 72 h, mice were euthanized. Histopathological examination along with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and amylase/lipase activity assays were performed. In a separate set of experiments, FFAR1 and FFAR4 antagonists were used to verify the involvement of respective receptors. Administration of GBBC decreased MPO activity in the pancreas and lungs along with the microscopical severity of AP in mice. Moreover, treatment with GBBC normalized pancreatic enzyme activity. FFAR1 and FFAR4 antagonists tended to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of GBBC in mouse AP. Our results suggest that GBBC displays anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse model of AP, with the putative involvement of FFARs. This is the first study to show the anti-inflammatory potential of a nutritional supplement derived from GBBC.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colostro/química , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Ghee/análise , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Arginina/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(9): 975-984, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482515

RESUMO

Incidences of pancreatic cancer and acute and chronic pancreatitis are rising globally, and often no curative treatment is available at the time of diagnosis. We tested the hypothesis that low and high plasma concentrations of pancreatic amylase are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer, acute pancreatitis, and chronic pancreatitis in the general population. We included 101,765 individuals (55% women) aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study with baseline measurements of plasma pancreatic amylase. After recruitment in 2004-2015 during a median 9 years of follow-up (range 0-15), we collected information about diagnoses of pancreatic cancer, acute pancreatitis, and chronic pancreatitis from the national Danish Patient Registry, the national Danish Cancer Registry, and the national Danish Causes of Death Registry. The median age was 58 years (interquartile range: 48-67) and the median plasma pancreatic amylase 32 U/L (26-40). During follow-up, 442 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 282 with chronic pancreatitis, and 401 with acute pancreatitis. Compared to individuals with pancreatic amylase levels in the 41st-60th percentiles, those with extreme low (1st-2.5th percentiles) and extreme high (97.5th-100th percentiles) pancreatic amylase had hazard ratios of 2.4 (95% confidence interval; 1.6-3.6) and 2.2 (1.4-3.7) for pancreatic cancer, of 1.8 (1.1-3.3) and 3.2 (1.8-5.6) for chronic pancreatitis, and of 1.1 (0.6-1.8) and 1.5 (0.8-2.7) for acute pancreatitis, respectively. In apparently healthy individuals from the general population, extreme low and extreme high plasma pancreatic amylase were associated with 2-threefold higher risk of both pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Amilases/sangue , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/sangue , Pancreatite/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/sangue , Pancreatite Crônica/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101395, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455310

RESUMO

Drying temperature (DT) of corn can influence its nutritional quality, but whether this is influenced by endosperm hardness is not clear. Two parallel experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of 2 yellow dent corn hybrids with average and hard kernel hardness, dried at 3 temperatures (35, 80, and 120°C), and 2 supplementation levels of an exogenous amylase (0, 133 g/ton of feed) on live performance, starch and protein digestibility, and energy utilization of Ross 708 male broilers. Twelve dietary treatments consisting of a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement were evaluated using 3-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design. In Experiment 1, a total of 1,920 male-chicks were randomly allocated to 96 floor pens, whereas 480 day-old chicks were distributed among 96 cages for Experiment 2. At 40 d, interaction effects (P < 0.05) were detected on BWG, FCR, and flock uniformity. Supplementation with exogenous amylase resulted in heavier broilers, better FCR and flock uniformity, only in the diets based on corn dried at 35°C. Additionally, interaction effects were observed on FCR due to kernel hardness and DT (P < 0.01), kernel hardness and amylase supplementation (P < 0.001), and DT and amylase supplementation (P < 0.05). Exogenous amylase addition to the diets based on corn with an average hardness improved FCR up to 2 points (1.49 vs. 1.51 g:g) whereas there was no effect of amylase on FCR of broilers fed diets based on corn with hard endosperm. Total tract retention of starch was increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed diets based on corn with average kernel hardness compared to hard kernel. Corn dried at 80 and 120°C had up to 1.21% points less starch total tract retention than the one dried at 35°C. Supplementing alpha-amylase resulted in beneficial effects for broiler live performance, energy utilization, and starch total tract digestibility results. Treatment effects on starch characteristics were explored. Corn endosperm hardness, DT and exogenous amylase can influence the live performance of broilers. However, these factors are not independent and so must be manipulated strategically to improve broiler performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Zea mays , Amilases , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Dureza , Nutrientes , Temperatura
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10515-10526, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463509

RESUMO

As a natural flavonolignan, silibinin is reported to possess multiple biological activities, while the inhibitory potential of silibinin on carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, the inhibitory effect and underlying mechanism of silibinin against α-amylase/α-glucosidase were investigated. The results indicated that silibinin showed a strong inhibitory efficiency against α-amylase/α-glucosidase in noncompetitive manners and exhibited synergistic inhibition against α-glucosidase with acarbose. However, interestingly, the inhibitory effect of silibinin was significantly hindered in various milk protein-rich environments, but this phenomenon disappeared after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of milk proteins in vitro. Furthermore, silibinin could combine with the inactive site of α-amylase/α-glucosidase and change the microenvironment and secondary structure of the enzymes, thereby influencing the catalytic efficiency of enzymes. This research suggested that silibinin could be used as a novel carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitor, and milk beverages rich in silibinin had the potential for further application in antidiabetic dietary or medicine.


Assuntos
Acarbose , alfa-Glucosidases , Acarbose/farmacologia , Amilases , Glucosidases , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Proteínas do Leite , Silibina , alfa-Amilases
13.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2551-2558, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We developed an experimental method to reproduce insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath system. However, secretion of trypsin, another pancreatic enzyme, interferes with insulin production in such systems. We aimed to ascertain the minimum trypsin inhibitor (TI), dose for obtaining a sustained, stable rate of insulin secretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The action of TI (1-10 µg/ml) on pancreatic preparations of male Wistar-Imamichi rats in organ bath experiments was assessed by measuring insulin, amylase, and trypsin activity. RESULTS: The level of insulin outflow remained steady in the TI-treated samples, in contrast to that in the untreated control, where insulin secretion decreased over time. The level of amylase outflow did not change significantly. Trypsin activity was significantly lower in the TI-treated samples than in the control. CONCLUSION: Even low concentrations of TI can maintain insulin secretion by inhibiting trypsin activity in organ bath experiments.


Assuntos
Amilases , Inibidores da Tripsina , Animais , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Masculino , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Inibidores da Tripsina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 353, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection presents itself in a wide variety of ways, ranging from mild self-limited illness to severe systemic disease with multiorgan involvement. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a very rare complication that is associated with Salmonella infection, especially among the pediatric population. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old boy presented with a two-day fever and experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The boy was admitted as a case of acute gastroenteritis, and Salmonella was found in his stool culture. The severity of his abdominal pain during his hospital stay indicated the possibility of AP. A clinical examination and blood workup were performed and showed significant elevation in amylase and lipase, which confirmed the diagnosis of AP. CONCLUSION: Although abdominal pain is a common presentation of Salmonella infection, the possibility of AP must be considered when the pain is severe and the characteristics of the pain are suggestive of AP. Herein, we report a case of AP complicating Salmonella infection in an immunocompetent child.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Pancreatite , Infecções por Salmonella , Doença Aguda , Amilases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(2): 292-296, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze abdominal drain on the first postoperative day and evaluate its predictive nature for the diagnosis of Pancreatic Fistula exclusion, seeking to establish a cutoff point from which lower values demonstrate safety in excluding the possibility of this complication. METHODS: From August 2017 to June 2020, data from 48 patients undergoing pancreatic resection were collected and analyzed from a prospective cohort. The patients were divided into two groups, one group consisting of patients who did not develop PF (Group A), and the other composed of patients who developed PF (Group B). The receiver operation characteristic curve was constructed, and cutoff points were evaluated by calculating sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Group A brought 30 patients together (62.5%) and Group B brought 18 patients together (37.5%). The 444 U/L value was the most satisfactory cutoff point for the receiver operation characteristic curve (CI 0.690-0.941), with a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 60%, thus being able to select 18 of 30 patients who did not succumb to PF. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal drain on the first postoperative day can be used as a predictive factor in the diagnosis of PF exclusion (CI 0.690-0.941), with the value of 444 U/L being the best performance cutoff point.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Fístula Pancreática , Amilases , Drenagem , Humanos , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440959

RESUMO

Athletes are exposed to a tremendous amount of stress, both physically and mentally, when performing high intensity sports with frequent practices, pushing numerous athletes into choose to use ergogenic aids such as caffeine or ß-alanine to significantly improve their performance and ease the stress and pressure that is put onto the body. The beneficial or even detrimental effects of these so-called ergogenic aids can be appreciated through the use of numerous diagnostic tools that can analyze various body fluids. In the recent years, saliva samples are gaining more ground in the field of diagnostic as it is a non-invasive procedure, contains a tremendous amount of analytes that are subject to pathophysiological changes caused by diseases, exercises, fatigue as well as nutrition and hydration. Thus, we describe here the current progress regarding potential novel biomarkers for stress and physical activity, salivary α-amylase and salivary cortisol, as well as their use and measurement in combination with different already-known or new ergogenic aids.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Esportes , Amilases , Atletas , Humanos , Saliva
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444230

RESUMO

In obesity, to reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT), caloric restriction is a valid strategy. Salivary amylase is an enzyme that cleaves large starch carbohydrates molecules and its production is modulated by the central nervous system. In addition, heart rate variability (HRV) is simply a measure of the variation in time between each heartbeat. This variation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. In the light of this evidence, the aim of this study is to characterize the effect of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on the autonomic nervous system in obese patients. Twenty subjects affected by obesity were recruited before and after 8 weeks of VLCKD intervention to evaluate salivary amylase by the ELISA test and HRV analysis. These parameters significantly increased after dietary treatment, and positively correlate to each other. VLCKD exerts a positive effect on salivary amylase and HRV, ameliorating body composition and biochemical features. In brief, this dietary intervention improves the autonomic nervous system activity. This is the first study about the effects of VLCKD upon the autonomic nervous system, but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism undergone VLCKD effects.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Amilases , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Restrição Calórica , Humanos , Obesidade
18.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299456

RESUMO

The inhibition of certain digestive enzymes by target food matrices represents a new approach in the treatment of socially significant diseases. Proving the ability of fruits to inhibit such enzymes can support the inclusion of specific varieties in the daily diets of patients with diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, etc., providing them with much more than just valuable micro- and macromolecules. The current study aimed atidentifying and comparing the GC-MS metabolic profiles of eight peach varieties ("Filina", "Ufo 4, "Gergana", "Laskava", "July Lady", "Flat Queen", "Evmolpiya", and "Morsiani 90") grown in Bulgaria (local and introduced) and to evaluate the inhibitory potential of their extracts towards α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, and acetylcholinesterase. In order to confirm samples' differences or similarities, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also applied to the identified metabolites. The results provide important insights into the metabolomic profiles of the eight peach varieties and represent a first attempt to characterize the peels of the peach varieties with respect to α-glucosidase-, α-amylase-, lipase-, and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory activities. All of the studied peach extracts displayed inhibitory activity towards α-glucosidase (IC50: 125-757 mg/mL) and acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 60-739 mg/mL), but none of them affected α-amylase activity. Five of the eight varieties showed inhibitory activity towards porcine pancreatic lipase (IC50: 24-167 mg/mL). The obtained results validate the usefulness of peaches and nectarines as valuable sources of natural agents beneficial for human health, although further detailed investigation should be performed in order to thoroughly identify the enzyme inhibitors responsible for each activity.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bulgária , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Prunus persica/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14692, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331821

RESUMO

OBJECT: We aimed to evaluate the elevation of amylase and lipase enzymes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and their relationship with the severity of COVID-19. METHOD: In this study, 1378 patients with COVID-19 infection were included. Relation of elevated amylase and lipase levels and comorbidities with the severity of COVID-19 was analysed. The effects of haemodynamic parameters and organ failure on pancreatic enzymes and their relations with prognosis were statistically analysed. RESULTS: The 1378 patients comprised of 700 (51.8%) men and 678 (%49.2) women. Of all patients, 687 (49.9%) had mild and 691 (50.1%) patients had severe COVID-19 infection. Amylase elevation at different levels occurred in 316 (%23) out of 1378 patients. In these patients, the amylase levels increased one to three times in 261 and three times in 55 patients. Pancreatitis was detected in only six (%1.89) of these patients according to the Atlanta criteria. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, elevated amylase levels were significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.37; P < .001). Moreover, diabetes mellitus (DM; OR: 1.82; P = .001), kidney failure (OR: 5.18; P < .001), liver damage (OR: 6.63; P < .001), hypotension (OR: 6.86; P < .001) and sepsis (OR: 6.20; P = .008) were found to be associated with mortality from COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Elevated pancreatic enzyme levels in COVID-19 infections are related to the severity of COVID-19 infection and haemodynamic instability. In a similar way to other organs, the pancreas can be affected by severe COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Amilases , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pancreatite/virologia
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 52-60, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216786

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on intestinal healthy status of tongue sole in terms of immunity, antioxidant status, digestive ability, mucosal barrier-related genes expression and microbiota. Three experimental diets were prepared with BA levels at 0 mg/kg (CT), 300 mg/kg (BA1) and 900 mg/kg (BA2) in a commercial basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicates with 120 fish (10.87 ± 0.32 g) in each tank. After an 8-week feeding trial, growth parameters were significantly enhanced in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), and compared with CT group, survival rate in BA2 group was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Intestinal lysozyme activity and contents of immunoglobulin M and complement 3 were significantly increased in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. BAs inclusion also significantly improved intestinal antioxidant capabilities by increasing antioxidase activities and decreasing malondialdehyde levels. In addition, compared with CT group, intestinal digestive ability was substantially enhanced as indicated by the significantly increased lipase activity in BA2 group (P < 0.05) and significantly increased amylase activity in BA1 and BA2 groups (P < 0.05). Coincidentally, BAs inclusion significantly upregulated the relative expression of intestinal mucosal barrier-related genes (P < 0.05). Further, dietary BAs distinctly remodeled intestinal microbiota by decreased the abundance of some potential pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, dietary BAs supplementation is an effective way to improve the intestinal healthy status of tongue sole.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Linguados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Complemento C3/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/metabolismo , Linguados/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
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