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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101027, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772643

RESUMO

Canine tick-borne diseases, such as babesiosis, rangeliosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis, are of veterinarian relevance, causing mild or severe clinical cases that can lead to the death of the dog. The aim of this study was detecting tick-borne protozoan and rickettsial infections in dogs with anemia and/or thrombocytopenia in Uruguay. A total of 803 domestic dogs were evaluated, and 10% were found positive (detected by PCR) at least for one hemoparasite. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of four hemoprotozoan species: Rangelia vitalii, Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, and the rickettsial Anaplasma platys. The most detected hemoparasite was R. vitalii, followed by H. canis and A. platys. This is the first report of B. vogeli in Uruguay and the second report of H. americanum in dogs from South America. The results highlight the importance for veterinarians to include hemoparasitic diseases in their differential diagnosis of agents causing anemia and thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Anemia , Doenças do Cão , Piroplasmida , Trombocitopenia , Animais , Uruguai , Cães , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Trombocitopenia/parasitologia , Anemia/veterinária , Anemia/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Feminino , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Masculino , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
2.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 50: 101006, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644035

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) affecting dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) have considerable importance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) because of the consequences associated with production decline and economic losses. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of selected VBDs in camels in the UAE and identify risk factors. This research is currently affected by the low number of epidemiological molecular surveys addressing this issue. Blood samples were obtained from 425 dromedary camels from different locations across the UAE. Whole genomic DNA was isolated, and PCR screening was done to detect piroplasmids (Babesia/Theileria spp.), Trypanosoma spp., and Anaplasmataceae spp. (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia and Wolbachia spp.). Amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Trypanosoma sequences were identified as T. brucei evansi, whereas Anaplasmataceae sequences were identified as A. platys-like. All camels were negative for Babesia/Theileria spp. (0%); however, 18 camels were positive for T. b. evansi (4%) and 52 were positive for A. platys-like (12%). Mixed infection with T. b. evansi and A. platys-like was found in one camel. Statistical analyses revealed that camels with a brown coat colour were significantly more prone to acquire the A. platys-like strain compared with those having a clearer coat. A similar finding was observed when comparing urban moving camels with desert indoor and urban indoor camels. Continuous disease surveillance is required to ensure and maintain the good health status of the camels in the UAE. Nonetheless, the risk of disease outbreak remains if the misuse of drugs continues.


Assuntos
Camelus , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Animais , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Camelus/parasitologia , Prevalência , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/genética , Filogenia , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/classificação , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 58: 102696, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases (TBD) are considered neglected diseases in Thailand with disease burden likely underestimated. To assess risk for emerging TBD in Thailand, the seasonality of questing tick and pathogen prevalence were studied in Khao Yai National Park, a top tourist destination. METHODS: During 2019, questing ticks around tourist attractions were systematically collected bimonthly and analyzed for Rickettsia and Anaplasmataceae bacterial species by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Larvae and nymphs of questing ticks peaked in Khao Yai National Park during the late rainy-winter season, though no specific trends were observed in adult ticks. Winter (November to February) was the highest risk for human tick-bites due to higher numbers of both ticks and visitors. Of the total 5916 ticks analyzed (651 pools), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis were detected at low rates (≤0.05%). There was a higher prevalence of human rickettsioses (0.2-7%) in ticks surveyed with Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia raoultii, and Rickettsia montana the major species. Amblyomma ticks had the highest prevalence of Rickettsia (85%, 35/44 Amblyomma adults), in which only R. tamurae and R. raoultii were found in Amblyomma with mixed species infections common. We report the first detection of R. africae-like and N. mikurensis in Ixodes granulatus adults in Thailand, suggesting I. granulatus as a potential vector for these pathogens. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the risk of emerging TBD in Thailand and underscores the need for tick-bite prevention among tourists in Thailand.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Estações do Ano , Prevalência , Parques Recreativos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
4.
RMD Open ; 10(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neoehrlichia mikurensis is a tick-borne bacterium that primarily causes disease in immunocompromised patients. The bacterium has been detected in ticks throughout Europe, with a 0%-25% prevalence. N. mikurensis infection presents unspecific symptoms, which can easily be mistaken for inflammatory disease activity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of N. mikurensis in rheumatological patients receiving tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) and a cohort of healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 400 rheumatological patients treated with TNFi and 400 healthy blood donors. Plasma samples were retrieved from the Danish Rheumatological Biobank and the Danish Blood Donor Study between 2015 and 2022. Age, sex, diagnosis and duration of TNFi treatment were recovered from the Danish Rheumatological Database, DANBIO. Data on age and sex were available for the blood donors. One plasma sample per individual was tested for N. mikurensis DNA-specific real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. RESULTS: In the rheumatological patients, the median age was 61 years (IQR 55-68 years), 62% were women, and 44% had a diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. In total, 54% of the patients were treated with infliximab. The median time from TNFi initiation to blood sampling was 20 months (IQR, 5-60 months). N. mikurensis DNA was not detected in any samples from patients or blood donors. CONCLUSION: N. mikurensis infection does not appear to represent a prevalent risk in Danish rheumatological patients receiving TNFi or in blood donors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae , Anaplasmataceae , Artrite Reumatoide , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Doadores de Sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(1): 151-159, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219227

RESUMO

This study presents the results of the molecular detection of tick-borne microorganisms in Amblyomma tigrinum Koch collected near the city of Viedma, Río Negro, Argentina. Ticks were collected in their non-parasitic stage, on pet dogs and on Lycalopex gymnocercus (Pampa fox). Also, six tick samples from humans were analyzed. All ticks were morphologically identified to species level and genomic DNA was extracted. The DNA samples were examined by end point PCR assays to amplified DNA of Anaplasma sp., Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Rickettsia sp. and Theileria sp. Although all tested DNA samples from the collected ticks resulted negative to the detection of Piroplasmida and Rickettsia spp., 16 samples (16.5%, including all hosts) were positive in the 16S rDNA gene PCR that detects bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family. Phylogenetic analysis of seven obtained partial sequences resulted in the identification of three bacteria: two Ehrlichia spp. (related to Ehrlichia sp. strain Iberá and strain Viedma) and Candidatus Anaplasma boleense. The latter finding represents the first detection of this novel Candidatus species in A. tigrinum. Based on the results of this study, it must be assumed that the diversity of bacteria of the Anaplasmataceae family in Argentina is greater than previously thought, and that these bacteria can infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Doenças do Cão , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Amblyomma/genética , Argentina , Filogenia , Ehrlichia , Rickettsia/genética , Anaplasma/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
6.
Vet Res Commun ; 48(1): 585-589, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37718328

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to report the first detection of Candidatus Ehrlichia pampeana in Haemaphysalis juxtakochi from Argentina. Free-living ticks were collected from vegetation by drag-flag method on five sample sites in Entre Ríos Province, central Argentina, belonging to the Espinal Phytogeographic Province. Molecular detection of order Rickettsiales agents was performed using gltA (Rickettsia spp.), 16 S rRNA and groEL (Anaplasmataceae) genes as targets. A total of 67 ticks of Amblyomma aureolatum (20 nymphs and 4 adults), Amblyomma dubitatum (15 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (24 nymphs and 4 adults) were collected. While all tested ticks were negative for Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasmataceae agents could neither be detected in A. aureolatum nor in A. dubitatum, Candidatus Ehrlichia pampeana was detected in one male of H. juxtakochi. DNA sequences of this microorganism (16 S rDNA and groEL) are related to sequences of Ehrlichia ewingii. The findings of the current study represent the first report of this Ehrlichia strain for Argentina.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Masculino , Animais , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsiales , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Argentina , Rickettsia/genética , Ehrlichia/genética
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 24(1): 10-16, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060712

RESUMO

Background: Ehrlichia canis is transmitted by ticks causing Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, which is considered one of the most critical tickborne pathogens. Materials and Methods: This study aimed to identify by PCR technique E. canis in ticks associated with dogs from urban and rural homes in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The study was conducted at 13 localities in eight municipalities from 2012 to 2021. Results: A total of 1873 ticks of three species were captured: Amblyomma tenellum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. The overall infection rate of E. canis in ticks was 59.12% (149/252). Of the 15 sequences, three haplotypes were identified. Conclusion: The urban transmission cycle of canine ehrlichiosis is demonstrated, where the potential vector is the tick R. sanguineus s.l.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Canidae , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichiose , Ixodidae , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Cães , Animais , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Rickettsiales , México/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichia/genética
8.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 15(2): 102290, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070273

RESUMO

Tick-borne microorganisms in many tick species and many areas of China are still not thoroughly investigated. In this study, 224 ticks including two species (Haemaphysalis longicornis and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis) were collected from four cities in Hebei, Shandong, and Qinghai provinces, China. Ticks were screened for the presence of tick-borne bacterial microorganisms including Rickettsia, Anaplasmataceae (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neoehrlichia, etc.), Coxiella, Borrelia, and Bartonella. Two Anaplasma species (Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma capra) were detected in H. longicornis from Xingtai City of Hebei Province, with a positive rate of 3 % and 8 %, respectively. A Coxiella species was detected in H. longicornis ticks from all three locations in Hebei and Shandong provinces, with the positive rate ranging from 30 to 75 %. All the 16S and rpoB sequences were very similar (99.77-100 % identity) to Coxiella endosymbiont of Haemaphysalis ticks. An Ehrlichia species was detected in H. qinghaiensis (6/66, 9 %) from Xining City, Qinghai Province. The 16S and groEL sequences had 100 % and 97.40-97.85 % nucleotide identities to "Candidatus Ehrlichia pampeana" strains, respectively, suggesting that it may be a variant of "Candidatus Ehrlichia pampeana". All the ticks were negative for Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Bartonella. Because all the ticks were removed from goats or humans and were partially or fully engorged, it is possible that the microorganisms were from the blood meal but not vectored by the ticks. Our results may provide some information on the diversity and distribution of tick-borne pathogens in China.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Bartonella , Borrelia , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Anaplasma/genética , Ehrlichia/genética , Bartonella/genética , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Borrelia/genética , Cabras , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 327, 2023 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37704990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks carry microbes, some of which are pathogenic for humans and animals. To assess this One Health challenge, 342 ticks were collected from pet dogs and cats at 10 veterinary clinics in Finland as part of the European project "Protect Our Future Too". METHODS: The tick species were identified, and ticks were screened with quantitative PCR (qPCR) for tick-borne pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Borrelia miyamotoi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Babesia spp. For comparison, a subset of tick DNA (20 qPCR-positive samples) was analysed with 16S next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Most ticks were Ixodes ricinus (289, 84.5%), followed by Ixodes persulcatus (51, 14.9%). One hybrid tick (I. ricinus/I. persulcatus, 0.3%) and one Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick (0.3%) were identified. We found one or more of the analysed pathogens in 17% (59/342) of the ticks. The most prevalent pathogen was B. burgdorferi s.l. (36, 10.5%), followed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 3.5%), B. miyamotoi (5, 1.5%), Babesia venatorum (4, 1.2%), and TBEV (1, 0.3%). Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis DNA was amplified from three (0.9%) ticks. Ehrlichia canis was not detected. In the 16S NGS, six samples produced enough reads for the analysis. In these six samples, we confirmed all the positive qPCR findings of Borrelia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the ticks of this study emphasizes the importance of awareness of ticks and tick-borne diseases and prevention. Furthermore, the results show that veterinary surveillance can facilitate early detection of tick-borne pathogens and new tick species and draw attention to possible co-infections that should be considered both in symptomatic humans and animals after tick bites.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Babesia , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Ixodes , Humanos , Gatos , Cães , Animais , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Babesia/genética , Ehrlichia canis
10.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0290853, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37647311

RESUMO

Microbes are an important part of the vineyard ecosystem, which significantly influence the quality of grapes. Previously, we identified a bud mutant variety (named 'Fengzao') from 'Kyoho' grapes. The variation of microbial communities in grape and its bud mutant variety has not been studied yet. So, in this study, with the samples of both 'Fengzao' and 'Kyoho', we conducted high-throughput microbiome sequencing and investigated their microbial communities in different tissues. Obvious differences were observed in the microbial communities between 'Fengzao' and 'Kyoho'. The fruit and the stem are the tissues with relatively higher abundance of microbes, while the leaves contained less microbes. The fruit and the stem of 'Kyoho' and the stem of 'Fengzao' had relatively higher species diversity based on the alpha diversity analysis. Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodobacteraceae had significantly high abundance in 'Fengzao'. Firmicutes and Pseudomonas were highly abundant in the stems of 'Kyoho', and family of Spirochaetaceae, Anaplasmataceae, Chlorobiaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae, and genera of Spirochaeta, Sphingomonas, Chlorobaculum and Wolbachia were abundant in the fruits of 'Kyoho'. These identified microbes are main components of the microbial communities, and could be important regulators of grapevine growth and development. This study revealed the differences in the microbial compositions between 'Kyoho' and its bud mutant, and these identified microbes will be significant resources for the future researches on the quality regulation and disease control of grapevines.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Chlorobi , Microbiota , Vitis , Microbiota/genética , Enterobacteriaceae
11.
Lakartidningen ; 1202023 07 24.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37526409

RESUMO

The number of cases diagnosed with neoehrlichiosis in Stockholm has increased over the last years. PCR analysis is needed for the detection of the intracellular bacterium Neoehrlichia mikurensis. The real number of cases in the area is unknown since the specific PCR for N mikurensis is not routinely included in the workup for unknown fever in Stockholm. By describing three cases, we want to increase the awareness of neoehrlichiosis among clinicians. Symptoms of prolonged fever, myalgia and thrombosis among immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion of neoehrlichiosis and the specific PCR analysis should be performed. The diagnosed patients were all treated with doxycycline; the fever disappeared within a few days, and clinical improvement was observed. After treatment no relapses were noticed, despite immunological deficiencies in the patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae , Anaplasmataceae , Humanos , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Febre/microbiologia
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(8): 1659-1662, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37486220

RESUMO

We report a confirmed case of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection in a woman in Spain who had a previous hematologic malignancy. Candidatus N. mikurensis infections should be especially suspected in immunocompromised patients who exhibit persistent fever and venous thrombosis, particularly if they live in environments where ticks are prevalent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae , Anaplasmataceae , Ixodes , Neoplasias , Carrapatos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 14(6): 102222, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37418999

RESUMO

Bacteria of the sister genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma (Anaplasmataceae) are obligate intracellular Alphaproteobacteria that are transmitted mostly through arthropod vectors. These agents can infect different vertebrate cells, depending on the species involved, and can cause diseases in animals and humans. In this study, we evaluated the presence of Anaplasmataceae bacteria in Amblyomma calcaratum ticks collected from a road-killed Tamandua tetradactyla in the Rainforest ecoregion in Argentina. All samples were screened for Anaplasmataceae DNA using a real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Evidence of Anaplasmataceae DNA was detected in three out of thirty-nine Am. calcaratum ticks. Phylogenetic analysis of a portion of 16S rRNA gene positioned one sample (Ehrlichia sp. strain Ac124) with Ehrlichia sequences and the other two samples with Anaplasma sequences; Anaplasma sp. strain Ac145 close to Anaplasma odocoilei and Anaplasma sp. strain Ac152 in an ancestral position to most Anaplasma species. The groEL sequence obtained showed that Ehrlichia sp. strain Ac124 was phylogenetically related to Ehrlichia sp. strain Iberá reported infecting Amblyomma tigrinum from Iberá wetlands in Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis using the rpoB sequence positioned Anaplasma sp. strain Ac145 close to the canine pathogen Anaplasma platys, while Anaplasma sp. strain Ac152 was positioned close to the bovine pathogen Anaplasma marginale. In this study, three Anaplasmataceae agents were detected in adults of Am. calcaratum associated with a T. tetradactyla. These results suggest that the number of Anaplasmataceae species, as well as their distribution, is largely unknown.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Vermilingua , Amblyomma/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Floresta Úmida , Anaplasma/genética , Ehrlichia/genética , Carrapatos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 179, 2023 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37269018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hippoboscid flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), also known as louse flies or keds, are obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites of animals, and accidentally of humans. The potential role of hippoboscids as vectors of human and veterinary pathogens is being increasingly investigated, but the presence and distribution of infectious agents in louse flies is still unknown in parts of Europe. Here, we report the use of molecular genetics to detect and characterize vector-borne pathogens in hippoboscid flies infesting domestic and wild animals in Austria. METHODS: Louse flies were collected from naturally infested cattle (n = 25), sheep (n = 3), and red deer (n = 12) across Austria between 2015 and 2019. Individual insects were morphologically identified to species level and subjected to DNA extraction for molecular pathogen screening and barcoding. Genomic DNA from each louse fly was screened for Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Trypanosomatida, Anaplasmataceae, Filarioidea and Piroplasmida. Obtained sequences of Trypanosomatida and Bartonella spp. were further characterized by phylogenetic and haplotype networking analyses. RESULTS: A total of 282 hippoboscid flies corresponding to three species were identified: Hippobosca equina (n = 62) collected from cattle, Melophagus ovinus (n = 100) from sheep and Lipoptena cervi (n = 120) from red deer (Cervus elaphus). Molecular screening revealed pathogen DNA in 54.3% of hippoboscids, including infections with single (63.39%), two (30.71%) and up to three (5.90%) distinct pathogens in the same individual. Bartonella DNA was detected in 36.9% of the louse flies. Lipoptena cervi were infected with 10 distinct and previously unreported Bartonella sp. haplotypes, some closely associated with strains of zoonotic potential. DNA of trypanosomatids was identified in 34% of hippoboscids, including the first description of Trypanosoma sp. in H. equina. Anaplasmataceae DNA (Wolbachia spp.) was detected only in M. ovinus (16%), while < 1% of the louse flies were positive for Borrelia spp. and Filarioidea. All hippoboscids were negative for Piroplasmida. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic screening confirmed the presence of several pathogens in hippoboscids infesting domestic and wild ruminants in Austria, including novel pathogen haplotypes of zoonotic potential (e.g. Bartonella spp.) and the first report of Trypanosoma sp. in H. equina, suggesting a potential role of this louse fly as vector of animal trypanosomatids. Experimental transmission studies and expanded monitoring of hippoboscid flies and hippoboscid-associated pathogens are warranted to clarify the competence of these ectoparasites as vectors of infectious agents in a One-Health context.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Anoplura , Bartonella , Cervos , Dípteros , Piroplasmida , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Bovinos , Cervos/parasitologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Ruminantes , Bartonella/genética , Anaplasmataceae/genética
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(5)2023 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37239466

RESUMO

Zoonotic pathogens are responsible for most infectious diseases in humans, with rodents being important reservoir hosts for many of these microorganisms. Rodents, thus, pose a significant threat to public health. Previous studies in Senegal have shown that rodents harbour a diversity of microorganisms, including human pathogens. Our study aimed to monitor the prevalence of infectious agents in outdoor rodents, which can be the cause of epidemics. We screened 125 rodents (both native and expanding) from the Ferlo region, around Widou Thiengoly, for different microorganisms. Analysis, performed on rodent spleens, detected bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family (20%), Borrelia spp. (10%), Bartonella spp. (24%) and Piroplasmida (2.4%). Prevalences were similar between native and the expanding (Gerbillus nigeriae) species, which has recently colonised the region. We identified Borrelia crocidurae, the agent responsible for tick-borne relapsing fever, which is endemic in Senegal. We also identified two other not-yet-described bacteria of the genera Bartonella and Ehrlichia that were previously reported in Senegalese rodents. Additionally, we found a potential new species, provisionally referred to here as Candidatus Anaplasma ferloense. This study highlights the diversity of infectious agents circulating in rodent populations and the importance of describing potential new species and evaluating their pathogenicity and zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Bartonella , Piroplasmida , Animais , Humanos , Roedores , Senegal/epidemiologia , Bartonella/genética
16.
Parasite ; 30: 13, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37162293

RESUMO

The family Anaplasmataceae includes tick-borne bacteria of major public and veterinary health interest, as best illustrated by members of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Recent epidemiological surveys have also reported on the presence of a novel putative genus in the Anaplasmataceae, Candidatus Allocryptoplasma, previously described as Candidatus Cryptoplasma in the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. However, the genetic diversity of Ca. Allocryptoplasma and its phylogenetic relationship with other Anaplasmataceae remain unclear. In this study, we developed a multi-locus sequence typing approach, examining the DNA sequence variation at five genes of Ca. Allocryptoplasma found in ticks. Combining this multi-locus sequence typing and genetic data available on public databases, we found that substantial genetic diversity of Ca. Allocryptoplasma is present in Ixodes, Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks on most continents. Further analyses confirmed that the Ca. Allocryptoplasma of ticks, the Ca. Allocryptoplasma of lizards and some Anaplasma-like bacteria of wild mice cluster into a monophyletic genus, divergent from all other genera of the family Anaplasmataceae. Candidatus Allocryptoplasma appears as a sister genus of Anaplasma and, with the genera Ehrlichia and Neoehrlichia, they form a monophyletic subgroup of Anaplasmataceae associated with tick-borne diseases. The detection of genetically distinct Ca. Allocryptoplasma in ticks of significant medical or veterinary interest supports the hypothesis that it is an emergent genus of tick-borne pathogens of general concern.


Title: Diversité et phylogénie du genre bactérien transmis par les tiques Candidatus Allocryptoplasma (Anaplasmataceae). Abstract: La famille des Anaplasmataceae comprend des bactéries transmises par les tiques qui présentent un intérêt majeur pour la santé publique et vétérinaire, comme les membres des genres Anaplasma et Ehrlichia. Des surveillances épidémiologiques récentes ont également signalé la présence d'un nouveau genre putatif dans les Anaplasmataceae, Candidatus Allocryptoplasma, initialement décrit comme Ca. Cryptoplasma chez une tique nord-américaine, Ixodes pacificus. Cependant, la diversité génétique des bactéries Ca. Allocryptoplasma et leurs relations phylogénétiques avec d'autres Anaplasmataceae restent méconnues. Dans cette étude, nous avons développé une approche de typage génétique multi-locus, en examinant la variation nucléotidique pour cinq gènes de bactéries Ca. Allocryptoplasma détectées chez les tiques. En combinant ce typage génétique multi-locus et les données génétiques disponibles dans les bases de données publiques, nous avons mis en évidence qu'une diversité génétique substantielle des bactéries Ca. Allocryptoplasma est présente chez les tiques des genres Ixodes, Amblyomma et Haemaphysalis sur la plupart des continents. Des analyses complémentaires confirment que les bactéries Ca. Allocryptoplasma des tiques, les bactéries Ca. Allocryptoplasma de lézards et des bactéries Anaplasma-like de souris sauvages se regroupent dans un genre monophylétique, divergent de tous les autres genres de la famille Anaplasmataceae. Candidatus Allocryptoplasma apparaît comme un genre frère d'Anaplasma et, avec les genres Ehrlichia et Neoehrlichia, ces trois genres forment un sous-groupe monophylétique d'Anaplasmataceae associé aux maladies transmises par les tiques. La détection de Ca. Allocryptoplasma dans des tiques d'intérêt médical et vétérinaire soutient l'hypothèse qu'il s'agit d'un genre émergent d'agents pathogènes majeurs.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Ixodes , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Camundongos , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Filogenia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Ehrlichia/genética , Ixodes/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Anaplasma/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
17.
J Med Entomol ; 60(3): 590-603, 2023 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37052414

RESUMO

Understanding the distribution of infected ticks is informative for the estimation of risk for tickborne diseases. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is the primary vector for 7 medically significant pathogens in United States. However, knowledge of the ranges of these pathogens in host-seeking ticks is incomplete, particularly for those occurring at low prevalence. To aid in prioritizing costly field sampling efforts, we estimated ranges of suitable habitat for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia miyamotoi in the eastern United States based on existing county-level surveillance records. The resulting suitability maps were compared against those developed previously for Bo. burgdorferi s.s., which shares similar ecology but has been detected in a greater number of counties. The overall accuracy of the habitat suitability models was high (AUC ≥ 0.92) for all 4 pathogens. The most important predictors were related to temperature and moisture. The upper midwestern and northeastern states were predicted to be highly suitable for all 4 pathogens. Based on our models, we prioritized sampling in 431, 275, and 539 counties currently lacking pathogen records that our models classified as suitable for A. phagocytophilum, Ba. microti, and Bo. miyamotoi, respectively. As a second-tier priority, we identified 311 (A. phagocytophilum), 590 (Ba. microti), and 252 (Bo. miyamotoi) counties, based on high suitability scores for Bo. burgdorferi. Our models can be used to improve cost-effectiveness of field sampling efforts aimed at improving accuracy and completeness of pathogen distribution maps.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Anaplasmataceae , Babesia microti , Borrelia burgdorferi , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Piroplasmida , Spirochaetaceae , Estados Unidos , Animais , Rickettsiales , Ecossistema
18.
J Intern Med ; 293(6): 782-790, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37013266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis) is a newly discovered tick-borne pathogen that can inflict life-threatening illness in immunocompromised patients. N. mikurensis infection is only detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methodologies. We describe three distinct clinical manifestations of N. mikurensis infection (neoehrlichiosis) in Danish patients receiving B-lymphocyte-depleting therapy, rituximab, for underlying hematological, rheumatological, or neurological disorders. All three patients went through a protracted pre-diagnostic period. METHODS: N. mikurensis DNA was detected and confirmed using two methods. Blood was tested by specific real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene and by 16S and 18S profiling followed by sequencing. Bone marrow was analyzed by 16S and 18S profiling. RESULTS: N. mikurensis was detected in blood samples in all three cases and in bone marrow from one of the three. The severity of the symptoms ranged from prolonged fever lasting more than 6 months to life-threatening hyperinflammation in the form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Interestingly, all patients presented with splenomegaly and two with hepatomegaly. After starting doxycycline therapy, symptoms were relieved within a few days, and biochemistry and organomegaly quickly normalized. CONCLUSION: We present three Danish patients recognized by the same clinician over a period of 6 months, strongly suggesting that many cases are going unrecognized. Second, we describe the first case of N. mikurensis-induced HLH and emphasize the potential severity of undetected neoehrlichiosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae , Anaplasmataceae , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Humanos , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/tratamento farmacológico , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido
19.
Vet Res Commun ; 47(4): 2241-2245, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37084109

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to report the first detection of Procyon cancrivorus naturally co-infected with Hepatozoon sp. cf. H. procyonis and a novel Anaplasma strain from South America and potential vector tick species associated. On August 30, 2016, a specimen of P. cancrivorus was found dead on the route in Chaco province, Argentina. A tick and a blood sample by cardiac puncture was collected from the specimen. DNA was extracted from blood sample and the tick was morphological identity as a female of Amblyomma ovale. Molecular detection of Anaplasmataceae family and Hepatozoon spp. agents was performed targeting two different loci: 16 S rRNA and 18 S rRNA gene. The phylogenetic analyses show that the Anaplasma sp. strain detected in P. cancrivorus in this study is similar to Anaplasma sp. strains previously detected in Nasua nasua and A. ovale from Brazil. Furthermore, Hepatozoon sp. of the H. procyonis group was amplified that is phylogenetically closely related to H. procyonis reported in N. nasua from Brazil. Since it was not exactly the same as the latter, it was decided to name at Hepatozoon sp. cf. H. procyonis. It is possible that, this potential new species of Anaplasma would be specific for Procyonidae family and there are two species of Hepatozoon linked to this family in South America. These results added to other published studies suggest that A. ovale could be a potential vector both for the new potential strain of Anaplasma and for the Hepatazoon sp. of the H. procyonis group.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Apicomplexa , Carnívoros , Procyonidae , Carrapatos , Feminino , Animais , Guaxinins , Anaplasma/genética , Rickettsiales , Argentina , Filogenia , Brasil
20.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 22(1): 20, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36941613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tick-borne bacterium, Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis) can cause severe febrile illness and thromboembolic complications in immunocompromised individuals. We investigated the presence of N. mikurensis DNA in retrospectively collected plasma from a well-characterized cohort of Danish immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Plasma samples from 239 patients with immune dysfunction related to hematological or rheumatological disease or due to immunosuppressive therapy, were retrieved from a transdisciplinary biobank (PERSIMUNE) at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Serving as immunocompetent controls, plasma samples from 192 blood donors were included. All samples were collected between 2015 and 2019. Real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene was used to detect N. mikurensis DNA. Sequencing was used for confirmation. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA as a proxy of tick exposure. Prevalence was compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Neoehrlichia mikurensis DNA was detected in 3/239 (1.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3 - 3.6%) patients, all of whom primarily had a hematological disease. Follow-up samples of these patients were negative. N. mikurensis DNA was not detected in any of the blood donor samples. IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected with similar prevalence in immunocompromised patients and blood donors, i.e., 18/239 (7.5%, 95% CI: 4.8-11.5%) and 11/192 (5.7%, 95%: CI 3.2-10.0%). CONCLUSION: In this study, patients with N. mikurensis were not identified by clinical indication and N. mikurensis may therefore be underdiagnosed in Danish patients. Further investigations are needed to explore the clinical significance and implications of this infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae , Anaplasmataceae , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
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