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2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262507, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020757

RESUMO

This study sought to determine whether lower extremity muscle size, power and strength could be a determinant of whole-body maximal aerobic performance in athletes. 20 male and 19 female young athletes (18 ± 4 years) from various sporting disciplines participated in this study. All athletes performed a continuous ramp-incremental cycling to exhaustion for the determination of peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]: the highest [Formula: see text] over a 15-s period) and maximal power output (MPO: power output corresponding to [Formula: see text]). Axial scanning of the right leg was performed with magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring muscles at 50% of thigh length were measured. Moreover, bilateral leg extension power and unilateral isometric knee extension and flexion torque were determined. All variables were normalised to body mass, and six independent variables ([Formula: see text], CSAs of thigh muscles, leg extension power and knee extension and flexion torque) were entered into a forward stepwise multiple regression model with MPO being dependent variable for males and females separately. In the males, [Formula: see text] was chosen as the single predictor of MPO explaining 78% of the variance. In the females, MPO was attributed to, in the order of importance, [Formula: see text] (p < 0.001) and the CSA of QF (p = 0.011) accounting for 84% of the variance. This study suggests that while oxygen transport capacity is the main determinant of MPO regardless of sex, thigh muscle size also has a role in whole-body maximal aerobic performance in female athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anatomia Transversal , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 22(1): 19-24, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial number of survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) suffer from treatment-related late adverse effects. While multiple studies have identified the effects of chemotherapeutics and radiation therapy on musculoskeletal outcomes, few have investigated their associations with genetic factors. METHODS: Here we analyzed musculoskeletal complications in relation to common and rare genetic variants derived through whole-exome sequencing of the PETALE cohort. Top-ranking associations were further assessed through stratified and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: DUOX2 variant was associated with skeletal muscle function deficit, as defined by peak muscle power Z score ≤ -2 SD (P = 4.5 × 10-5 for genotyping model). Upon risk stratification analysis, common variants in the APOL3, COL12A1, and LY75 genes were associated with Z score ≤ -2 SD at the cross-sectional area (CSA) at 4% radial length and lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) in high-risk patients (P ≤ 0.01). The modulation of the effect by risk group was driven by the interaction of the genotype with cumulative glucocorticoid dose. Identified variants remained significant throughout multivariate analyses incorporating non-genetic factors of the studied cohort. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study identified novel genetic variants associated with long-term musculoskeletal impairments in childhood ALL survivors. Replication in an independent cohort is needed to confirm the association found in this study.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anatomia Transversal , Densidade Óssea , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Oxidases Duais/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Medição de Risco , Sobreviventes , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
4.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(1): 51-61, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726282

RESUMO

The current work aimed to study the anatomical features of the guinea pig's head by two medical imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and their correlation with the anatomical cross-sectional images. Six adult healthy guinea pigs were used in the present study. Two heads were imaged by CT scanner and then by MRI. The examined heads were cut sagittally and transversely, and two skulls were macerated. The anatomical features were identified on the anatomical sections and compared with the tomographic and MRI images obtained. Data were presented as three-dimensional reconstructed images of the head. In addition, representative combinations of the sagittal and transverse anatomical sections and the corresponding CT scans and MRI images were also presented. Reconstruction of CT images enabled the visualization of different bony structures and airways of the guinea pig head. In addition, skull bones were easily visualized on CT scans, while different parts of the brain were identified on MRI images. Air cavities could be identified by their different contrast on the CT scans and their low intensity on MRI images. The study showed that guinea pig had poorly developed paranasal sinus system represented by rostral and caudal maxillary sinuses. On the contrary, the guinea pig had two tympanic bullae: a small dorsal and a large ventral bulla. In conclusion, this study provides one of the first investigations that uses the multislice CT scans and MRI to study the guinea pig's head and their correlation with the corresponding anatomical sections.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Anatomia Transversal , Animais , Cobaias , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Seio Maxilar , Osso Temporal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
5.
Anat Sci Educ ; 15(1): 127-142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369254

RESUMO

While integrated delivery of anatomy and radiology can support undergraduate anatomical education, the interpretation of complex three-dimensional spatial relationships in cross-sectional and radiological images is likely to be demanding for novices. Due to the value of technology-enhanced and multimodal strategies, it was hypothesized that simultaneous digital and physical learning could enhance student understanding of cross-sectional anatomy. A novel learning approach introduced at a United Kingdom university medical school combined visualization table-based thoracic cross-sections and digital models with a three-dimensional printed heart. A mixed-method experimental and survey approach investigated student perceptions of challenging anatomical areas and compared the multimodal intervention to a two-dimensional cross-section control. Analysis of seven-point Likert-type responses of new medical students (n = 319) found that clinical imaging (mean 5.64 SD ± 1.20) was significantly more challenging (P < 0.001) than surface anatomy (4.19 ± 1.31) and gross anatomy (4.92 ± 1.22). Pre-post testing of students who used the intervention during their first anatomy class at medical school (n = 229), identified significant increases (P < 0.001) in thoracic cross-sectional anatomy interpretation performance (mean 31.4% ± 15.3) when compared to the subsequent abdominal control activity (24.1% ± 17.6). Student test scores were independent of mental-rotation ability. As depicted on a seven-point Likert-type scale, the intervention may have contributed to students considering cross-sectional interpretation of thoracic images (4.2 ± 1.23) as significantly less challenging (P < 0.001) than comparable abdominal images (5.59 ± 1.14). These findings could have implications for how multimodal cross-sectional anatomy learning approaches are implemented within medical curricula.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Anatomia Transversal/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional
6.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 79-86, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591338

RESUMO

Realistic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) applications for anatomical studies are being developed from true-colored sectioned images. We generated advanced-sectioned images of the entire male body and verified that anatomical structures of both normal and abnormal shapes could be visualized in them. The cadaver was serially sectioned at constant intervals using a cryomacrotome. The sectioned surfaces were photographed using a digital camera to generate horizontal advanced-sectioned images in which normal and abnormal structures were classified. Advanced-sectioned images of the entire male body were generated. The image resolution was 3.3 × 3.3 fold better than that of the first sectioned images obtained in 2002. In the advanced-sectioned images, normal and abnormal structures ranging from microscopic (≥0.06 mm × 0.06 mm; pixel size) to macroscopic (≤473.1 mm × 202 mm; body size) could be identified. Furthermore, the real shapes and actual sites of lung cancer and lymph node enlargement were ascertained in them. Such images will be useful because of their true color and high resolution in digital 2D and 3D applications for gross anatomy and clinical anatomy. In future, we plan to generate new advanced-sectioned images of abnormal cadavers with different diseases for clinical anatomy studies.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Anatomia Transversal , Cadáver , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 734362, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721293

RESUMO

The aim of the present paper is to determine the sex of the individual using three-dimensional geometric and inertial analyses of metatarsal bones. Metatarsals of 60 adult Chinese subjects of both sexes were scanned using Aquilion One 320 Slice CT Scanner. The three-dimensional models of the metatarsals were reconstructed, and thereafter, a novel software using the center of mass set as the origin and the three principal axes of inertia was employed for model alignment. Eight geometric and inertial variables were assessed: the bone length, bone width, bone height, surface-area-to-volume ratio, bone density, and principal moments of inertia around the x, y, and z axes. Furthermore, the discriminant functions were established using stepwise discriminant function analysis. A cross-validation procedure was performed to evaluate the discriminant accuracy of functions. The results indicated that inertial variables exhibit significant sexual dimorphism, especially principal moments of inertia around the z axis. The highest dimorphic values were found in the surface-area-to-volume ratio, principal moments of inertia around the z axis, and bone height. The accuracy rate of the discriminant functions for sex determination ranged from 88.3% to 98.3% (88.3%-98.3% cross-validated). The highest accuracy of function was established based on the third metatarsal bone. This study showed for the first time that the principal moment of inertia of the human bone may be successfully implemented for sex estimation. In conclusion, the sex of the individual can be accurately estimated using a combination of geometric and inertial variables of the metatarsal bones. The accuracy should be further confirmed in a larger sample size and be tested or independently developed for distinct population/age groups before the functions are widely applied in unidentified skeletons in forensic and bioarcheological contexts.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense/métodos , Ossos do Metatarso/patologia , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anatomia Transversal/métodos , Autopsia , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Caracteres Sexuais , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27536, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731150

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common neuropathy. Although CTS progression is known to be associated with thenar muscle (TM) atrophy, the diagnostic value of TM atrophy for CTS has not been established. In this research, the thenar muscle cross-sectional area (TMCSA) was evaluated to analyze the relationship between the TMCSA and CTS. We assumed that TMCSA is a major diagnostic parameter in the CTS.Both TMCSA and thenar muscle thickness (TMT) samples were acquired from 18 CTS patients, and from 18 control subjects who underwent wrist magnetic resonance imaging with no evidence of CTS. T2-weighted transverse magnetic resonance imaging images were obtained. We measured the TMCSA and TMT at the level of first carpometacarpal joint.The average TMCSA was 296.98 ±â€Š49.39 mm2 in the normal group and 203.36 ±â€Š72.13 mm2 in the CTS group. The average TMT was 8.54 ±â€Š1.45 mm in the normal group and 7.38 ±â€Š1.14 mm in the CTS group. CTS group had significantly lower TMCSA and TMT. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis showed that the best cutoff point for the TMCSA was 260.18 mm2, with 77.8% sensitivity, 77.8% specificity. The best cutoff point of the TMT was 7.70 mm, with 61.1% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity.Although the TMCSA and TMT were both significantly associated with CTS, the TMCSA was a much more sensitive measurement parameter. Thus, to evaluate CTS patients, the physician should more carefully inspect the TMCSA than TMT.


Assuntos
Anatomia Transversal/instrumentação , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Atrofia/diagnóstico , Atrofia/etiologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/inervação , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mediano/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Articulação do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(6): 974-984, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558730

RESUMO

The brain is the most essential part of the central nervous system which regulates and coordinates all body activities. Based on its phylogenetic development from the neural tube, the brain is divided into rhombencephalon (hindbrain), mesencephalon (midbrain) and prosencephalon (forebrain). The present study is achieved to describe the morphological characteristics of the normal forebrain in the donkey using the matched magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cross-sectional anatomy. Ten cadaveric heads of healthy adult donkeys of both sexes were used. Two heads were examined using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, and the brains of the other heads were gently extracted; six brains were sectioned into transverse, dorsal and sagittal slices, and two brains were grossly inspected. MR images were selected in correlation to their closely corresponding gross sections. Both cross-sectional anatomy and MRI scans showed extensive gyration of the neocortex. The forebrain structures appeared with variable intensities on three sequences, Flair, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI, enabling comprehensive evaluation of the relevant neuroanatomical structures. The present study provided a precise neuroanatomical atlas of the forebrain in the donkey which could help in the quick and efficient interpretation of clinical diseases of the forebrain, localization of the forebrain functions and evolutionary neurobiology.


Assuntos
Equidae , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Anatomia Transversal , Animais , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Filogenia , Prosencéfalo
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 540-549, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary sources of metals are not well established among pregnant women in the United States. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to perform a diet-wide association study (DWAS) of metals during the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: In early pregnancy (11.3 ± 2.8 weeks of gestation), 1196 women from Project Viva (recruited 1999-2002 in eastern Massachusetts) completed a validated FFQ (135 food items) and underwent measurements of erythrocyte metals [arsenic (As), barium, cadmium, cesium (Cs), copper, mercury (Hg), magnesium, manganese, lead (Pb), selenium (Se), zinc]. The DWAS involved a systematic evaluation and visualization of all bivariate relations for each food-metal combination. For dietary items with strong associations with erythrocyte metals, we applied targeted maximum likelihood estimations and substitution models to evaluate how hypothetical dietary interventions would influence metals' concentrations. RESULTS: Participants' mean ± SD age was 32.5 ± 4.5 y and prepregnancy BMI was 24.8 ± 5.4 kg/m2; they were mostly white (75.9%), college graduates (72.4%), married or cohabitating (94.6%), had a household income >$70,000/y (63.5%), and had never smoked (67.1%). Compared with other US-based cohorts, the overall diet quality of participants was above average, and concentrations of erythrocyte metals were lower. The DWAS identified significant associations of several food items with As, Hg, Pb, Cs, and Se; for example, As was higher for each SD increment in fresh fruit (11.5%; 95% CI: 4.9%, 18.4%), white rice (17.9%; 95% CI: 9.4%, 26.9%), and seafood (50.9%; 95% CI: 42.8%, 59.3%). Following the guidelines for pregnant women to consume ≤3 servings/wk of seafood was associated with lower As (-0.55 ng/g; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.28 ng/g) and lower Hg (-2.67 ng/g; 95% CI: -3.55, -1.80 ng/g). Substituting white rice with bread, pasta, tortilla, and potato was also associated with lower As (35%-50%) and Hg (35%-70%). CONCLUSIONS: Our DWAS provides a systematic evaluation of diet-metals relations. Prenatal diet may be an important source of exposures to metals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Eritrócitos/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais/química , Adulto , Anatomia Transversal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25812, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950986

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, multiple-site, cross-sectional area (CSA) reference values were established for major peripheral nerves, including small branches, in the upper extremity of a healthy Asian population.This study included 107 prospectively recruited age-matched, healthy subjects with a mean age of 46 years (range, 24-75 years). All subjects underwent standardized nerve conduction studies for the median, ulnar, peroneal, posterior tibial, and sural nerves. CSA was measured unilaterally at 21 sites of the median, ulnar, radial, posterior interosseous, superficial radial sensory, musculocutaneous, lateral antebrachial cutaneous, and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves.According to their age, the subjects were assigned to the younger group (20-40 years, n = 40), the middle group (40-59 years, n = 40), and the older group (60-80 years, n = 27). The significant differences of CSA values between age groups were found only at certain sites, such as the median (wrist, P = .003), ulnar (medial epicondyle, P = .031; forearm, P = .022), radial (antecubital fossa, P = .037), and superficial radial sensory nerve (P = .028). The CSA significantly correlated with gender, height, weight, and body mass index.This study provides CSA reference values for nerves, including small sensory nerves in the upper extremity, which can be useful in the ultrasonographic investigation of various peripheral neuropathies in the upper extremity.


Assuntos
Nervos Periféricos/anatomia & histologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anatomia Transversal , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 1927-1935, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To identify prognostic imaging biomarkers from staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with sarcomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CT scans for baseline staging, and surveillance 1-year CT scans in patients newly diagnosed with sarcoma were evaluated. Pectoralis muscle area (PMA), pectoralis muscle index (PMI) and pectoralis CT attenuation density (PMT) were measured. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to determine the association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: There were 147 patients (53.1% male) who were followed for a median 1,414 days (range=219-4851 days). Approximately 47.6% (70/147) of patients progressed and 29.9% (44/147) died. Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models adjusting for gender, tumor grade and chemotherapy treatment showed that a higher baseline PMT and baseline PMI were associated with increased OS. CONCLUSION: Higher baseline PMI and PMT are associated with increased overall survival in patients with sarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Músculos Peitorais/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anatomia Transversal/métodos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Peitorais/patologia , Prognóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(8): 3881-3898, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791797

RESUMO

Aging is associated with widespread alterations in cerebral white matter (WM). Most prior studies of age differences in WM have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but typical DTI metrics (e.g., fractional anisotropy; FA) can reflect multiple neurobiological features, making interpretation challenging. Here, we used fixel-based analysis (FBA) to investigate age-related WM differences observed using DTI in a sample of 45 older and 25 younger healthy adults. Age-related FA differences were widespread but were strongly associated with differences in multi-fiber complexity (CX), suggesting that they reflected differences in crossing fibers in addition to structural differences in individual fiber segments. FBA also revealed a frontolimbic locus of age-related effects and provided insights into distinct microstructural changes underlying them. Specifically, age differences in fiber density were prominent in fornix, bilateral anterior internal capsule, forceps minor, body of the corpus callosum, and corticospinal tract, while age differences in fiber cross section were largest in cingulum bundle and forceps minor. These results provide novel insights into specific structural differences underlying major WM differences associated with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anatomia Transversal , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas , Tratos Piramidais , Substância Branca/citologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gait Posture ; 86: 192-198, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human foot has competent mechanisms for supporting weight and adapting movement to various surfaces; in particular, the toe flexor muscles aid in supporting the foot arches and may be important contributors to postural stability. However, the role of intrinsic foot muscle morphology and structure in the postural control system remains unclear, and the relationship between them is not well known. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are intrinsic foot muscle morphology and toe flexor strength related to static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men?. METHODS: A total of 27 healthy men aged 19-27 years participated in this study. intrinsic foot muscle morphology included muscle hardness and thickness. Cross-sectional area was measured by ultrasonography at an ankle dorsiflexion angle of 0°. The hardness of the abductor hallucis (AbH), flexor hallucis brevis, and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles was measured using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography. Static postural stability during single-leg standing on a single force platform with closed eyes was assessed for the right leg. In the assessment of dynamic postural stability, the subjects jumped and landed on single-leg onto a force platform and the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) was measured. RESULTS: FDB muscle thickness showed a positive correlation with anteroposterior stability index (APSI) (r = 0.398, p = 0.040). AbH muscle hardness was negatively correlated with APSI (r = -0.407, p = 0.035); whereas FDB muscle hardness was positively correlated with DPSI (r = 0.534, p = 0.004), vertical stability index (r = 0.545, p = 0.003), and maximum vertical ground reaction force (r = 0.447, p = 0.020). Multiple regression with forced entry revealed that only DPSI was significantly correlated with FDB muscle hardness (p = 0.003). SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicated that intrinsic foot muscle hardness plays an important role in dynamic postural control among healthy young men, which may enable a more rapid muscular response to changes in condition during jump landing and better performance in balance tasks.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Dureza/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Anatomia Transversal , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
15.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(5): 815-823, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aside from basic Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines, few metrics are in place to monitor fellows' progress. The purpose of this study was to determine objective trends in neuroradiology fellowship training on-call performance during an academic year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the number of cross-sectional neuroimaging studies dictated with complete reports by neuroradiology fellows during independent call. Monthly trends in total call cases, report turnaround times, relationships between volume and report turnaround times, and words addended to preliminary reports by attending neuroradiologists were evaluated with regression models. Monthly variation in frequencies of call-discrepancy macros were assessed via χ2 tests. Changes in frequencies of specific macro use between fellowship semesters were assessed via serial 2-sample tests of proportions. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2017, for 29 fellows, monthly median report turnaround times significantly decreased during the academic year: July (first month) = 79 minutes (95% CI, 71-86 minutes) and June (12th month) = 55 minutes (95% CI, 52-60 minutes; P value = .023). Monthly report turnaround times were inversely correlated with total volumes for CT (r = -0.70, F = 9.639, P value = .011) but not MR imaging. Words addended to preliminary reports, a surrogate measurement of report clarity, slightly improved and discrepancy rates decreased during the last 6 months of fellowship. A nadir for report turnaround times, discrepancy errors, and words addended to reports was seen in December and January. CONCLUSIONS: Progress through fellowship correlates with a decline in report turnaround times and discrepancy rates for cross-sectional neuroimaging call studies and slight improvement in indirect quantitative measurement of report clarity. These metrics can be tracked throughout the academic year, and the midyear would be a logical time point for programs to assess objective progress of fellows and address any deficiencies.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Neurologistas/educação , Neurologia/educação , Radiologistas/educação , Radiologia/educação , Acreditação , Anatomia Transversal , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Neuroimagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(3): 614-624, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687110

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the anatomical structures in the head region of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) using computed tomography. For this, three giant anteater corpses, adult and female, were used. The tomographic analysis was performed in sequential order in rostrocaudal direction. Subsequently, the heads of these animals were sectioned in cross sections of approximately 1.5 cm each. Tomographic images were compared with anatomical sections. The association between computed tomography and anatomical sections allowed the visualization of anatomical structures found in the nasal, oral, cranial, pharyngeal and ear cavities. An elongated oral cavity delimited by the elongated mandible was observed. The oral cavity was mainly occupied by a thin and elongated tongue formed mainly by the union of the sternoglossal muscles. The nasopharynx and oropharynx extended up to the neck at the level of the fifth cervical vertebra. The findings of this study suggest that the giant anteater has a head with structures morphologically adapted to its feeding habits, such as an elongated skull, tongue, styloid bones and mandible. In addition, based on the results of this study, it is possible to suggest that computed tomography is a pivotal tool for the veterinary routine of wild animals, since it allowed the identification of anatomical structures found in the head of the giant anteater.


Assuntos
Anatomia Transversal , Animais , Eutérios , Feminino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 41(4): 831-840, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736510

RESUMO

Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy and Systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a small vessel disease caused by TREX1 mutations. RVCL-S is characterized by retinal vasculopathy and brain white matter lesions with and without contrast enhancement. We aimed to investigate cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in RVCL-S. In this cross-sectional observational study, 21 RVCL-S patients, 23 mutation-negative family members, and 31 healthy unrelated controls were included. CVR to a hypercapnic challenge was measured using dual-echo arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Stratified analyses based on age were performed. We found that CVR was decreased in gray and white matter of RVCL-S patients compared with family members and healthy controls (ANCOVA; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). This was most noticeable in RVCL-S patients aged ≥40 years (ANCOVA, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In RVCL-S patients aged < 40 years, only CVR in white matter was lower when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Gray matter CVR was associated with white matter lesion volume in RVCL-S patients (r = -0.527, P = 0.01). In conclusion, impaired cerebrovascular reactivity may play an important role in the pathophysiology of RVCL-S and may be an useful early biomarker of cerebrovascular disease severity.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Vasculite Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/patologia , Anatomia Transversal , Biomarcadores , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Vasculite Retiniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 3-20, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compares lower limb diaphyseal robusticity between Native Alaskan hunter-gatherers to reconstruct patterns of mobility and engagement with terrain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ancestral remains included in this study date between 600 and 1800 C.E. and were divided into three regions: Coastal Bay, Far North Coastal, and Inland/Riverine. Cross-sectional properties were determined at femoral and tibial midshafts and standardized by powers of body mass and bone length. RESULTS: Consistently elaevated areas and second moments of area were found in ancestral remains from the Far North Coastal, while the Coastal Bay remains had reduced diaphyseal robusticity. Individuals from the Inland/Riverine region were intermediate in robusticity for male femora, but similar to the Coastal Bay group for females. Sexual dimorphism was greatest in the Inland/Riverine ancestral remains and comparable between Coastal Bay and Far North Coastal regions. CONCLUSIONS: Ancestral remains from the Far North Coastal region have the greatest diaphyseal robusticity in response to intensive hunting and travel over rugged terrain. Reduced sexual dimorphism in the Far North Coastal region suggest female participation in hunting activities. Intermediate diaphyseal robusticity among Inland/Riverine males and increased sexual dimorphism reflects diverse patterns of mobility in relation to the hunting cycle between males and females. Reduced diaphyseal robusticity and sexual dimorphism among the Coastal Bay group is associated with sedentary villages established around net fishing in regions with low relief. Such findings argue against technocentric views of sedentism in hunter-gatherer lifeways and generally reflect diverse adaptive strategies and interaction with local terrain among Indigenous Late Holocene hunter-gatherers of Alaska.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Diáfises/anatomia & histologia , Hábitos , Migração Humana , Adulto , Alaska , Anatomia Transversal , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Tíbia/anatomia & histologia
20.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(4): 569-576, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is difficult for medical students and novice clinicians to interpret cardiac computed tomographs and echocardiographs. This study was intended to help familiarize them with the clinical images of the heart by providing software to browse the various planes of a heart's volume model with real color and high resolution. METHODS: On the sectioned images of a male cadaver, the heart and adjacent structures were segmented to obtain color-filled images. Volume models of the sectioned images and color-filled images were reconstructed and sectioned to obtain three orthogonal planes and five standard oblique planes. The planes were inputted into lab-made browsing software, which was then distributed free of charge. RESULTS: Users of the software would hopefully progress as follows. After experiencing the real color and high resolution, they would become familiar with the grayscale and low resolution. After experiencing the automatic annotation of the basic heart structures, they would become familiar with the detailed structures. After experiencing the designated planes, they would become familiar with the arbitrary planes. After experiencing the still heart, they would become familiar with the moving heart during echocardiography. CONCLUSION: The software, with a user-friendly interface and realistic features, is expected to properly orient medical novices to cardiac computed tomography and echocardiography images.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Anatomia Transversal , Cadáver , Cor , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , República da Coreia , Software , Estudantes de Medicina , Interface Usuário-Computador , Projetos Ser Humano Visível
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