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1.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13767, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123790

RESUMO

Buffaloes are raised by small farm holders primarily as source of draft power owing to its resistance to hot climate, disease, and stress conditions. Over the years, transformation of these animals from draft to dairy was deliberately carried out through genetic improvement program leading to the development of buffalo-based enterprises. Buffalo production is now getting more attention and interest from buffalo raisers due to its socioeconomic impact as well as its contribution to propelling the livestock industry in many developing countries. Reproduction of buffaloes, however, is confronted with huge challenge and concern as being generally less efficient to reproduce compared with cattle due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as poor estrus manifestation, silent heat, marked seasonal infertility, postpartum anestrus, long calving interval, delayed puberty, inherently low number of primordial follicles in their ovaries, high incidence of atresia, and apoptosis. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are major interventions for the efficient utilization of follicle reserve in buffaloes. The present review focuses on estrus and ovulation synchronization for fixed time artificial insemination, in vitro embryo production, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, somatic cell nuclear transfer, the factors affecting utilization in various ARTs, and future perspectives in buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Sêmen , Anestro , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária
2.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 244: 107044, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914334

RESUMO

The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of GnRH-loaded chitosan-TPP nanoparticles (GnRH-CsNPs) to improve the reproductive performance of anestrus buffaloes during the summer. Egyptian buffaloes (n = 50) were synchronized for estrus either with the ovsynch protocol (OVSs, n = 20) or with the modified ovsynch protocol (OVSm, n = 30) using GnRH-CsNPs. Sera samples were collected on days 0, 7, and 10 (insemination day); and days15 and 30 post insemination for estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) determination. The follicles were monitored on day 0 and day 10. CLs diameter and pregnancy diagnosis were scanned on day 30 post insemination. Using a half dose of GnRH as GnRH-CsNPs in the OVSm improved (P < 0.05) the number of total and large follicles, and the total surface area of subordinate and large follicles compared to the OVSs protocol. The OVSm increased (P < 0.05) the largest follicles diameter on day 10 and CLs diameter on day 30 post insemination compared to the OVSs protocol. E2 concentration was greater (P < 0.05) on insemination day, and P4 concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) on days 15 and 30 post insemination in the OVSm than in the OVSs. The estrus induction rate was 80 % higher (P < 0.05) in the OVSm and cows exhibited estrus within 17.54 h earlier than the OVSs (50 % within 42 h), respectively. The conception rate increased in OVSm compared to OVSs (75 vs. 40 %, respectively). In conclusion, nanofabrication of GnRH allowed to reduce hormonal dose to 50 % without any adverse effects on fertility, and improved ovarian activity and reproductive performance of anestrus buffaloes during the low breeding season.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Anestro , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez , Progesterona , Estações do Ano
3.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 81: 106749, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834880

RESUMO

Studies in cats and dogs have proven the usefulness of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a diagnostic tool to determine the castration status or to diagnose ovarian remnant syndrome. Yet the secretion pattern of AMH over the estrous cycle in queens has not been investigated so far. Seven healthy sexually intact female cats were examined daily for signs of estrous behavior over a trial period of 4 months. Five queens showed regular estrous behavior, 1 queen was mated in her first heat and 1 queen never showed any signs of heat. To distinguish between inter-estrus and metestrus progesterone levels were determined. Serum samples for AMH and progesterone measurement were collected from the regular cycling queens in late anestrus, at several times during heat, inter-estrus and metestrus, from the mated queen during her first heat and during pregnancy, and in the acycling queen at various times during the trial period. The measured AMH values in anestrus were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in heat (P < 0.001), metestrus (P = 0.12) and inter-estrus (P = 0.449). In anestrus the median AMH levels were 10.26 ng/ml (range 4.96 to 22.90 ng/ml), in heat 5.97 ng/ml (range 3.32- 22.96 ng/ml), in inter-estrus 10.47 (range 3.35-22.96 ng/ml) and in metestrus 6.38 ng/ml (range 4.50-10.75 ng/ml. The pregnant cat showed median AMH concentrations of 6.47 ng/ml (range 5.60-9.80 ng/ml) during her pregnancy. The acycling queen had solely low AMH values with a median concentration of 0.39 ng/ml. In conclusion there were high variations of the AMH levels among and within the individual cats and between heat cycles in the single cat. Remarkable high AMH concentrations were measured in the younger queens of the study in their first estrous cycles and also in anestrus, when less ovarian activity is expected. Further studies are necessary to emphasize the reasons for these high AMH concentrations especially in young queens.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Progesterona , Anestro , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Ciclo Estral , Estro , Feminino , Gravidez
4.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 81: 106746, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750019

RESUMO

Male goats rendered sexually active by exposure to a photoperiodic treatment are more efficient than untreated goats in stimulating LH secretion and ovulation in seasonally anestrous goats. This phenomenon is called the "male effect." Here, we determined whether sexually active bucks are able to stimulate the endocrine and sexual activities of other bucks in seasonal sexual rest through the phenomenon that we called the "buck-to-buck effect." We used bucks rendered sexually active (SA) during sexual rest by exposure to 2.5 mo of artificial long days (16 h of light per d) and untreated, sexually inactive (SI) bucks. In Experiment 1, we determined the short-term (21 d) LH and testosterone responses of sexually inactive bucks joined with a SA or SI buck. In Experiment 2, we determined the long-term (60 d) testosterone and sexual behavior responses of sexually inactive bucks joined with 2 SA or SI bucks. In Experiment 3, we determined the efficacy of bucks initially exposed to the buck-to-buck effect, the SABB bucks, to thereafter induce a "classical" male effect in seasonally anestrous goats. In Experiments 1 and 2, there was an interaction between time and groups in LH and testosterone plasma concentrations (P < 0.01). In Experiment 1, plasma LH concentrations were greater in bucks joined with a SA buck than in those joined with an SI buck (P < 0.05). In Experiments 1 and 2, testosterone concentrations were greater in bucks joined with SA bucks than in those joined with SI bucks (P < 0.05). In addition, in Experiment 2, the sexually inactive bucks joined with SA bucks displayed more nudging than those joined with SI bucks (P < 0.001). In Experiment 3, kidding rates did not differ between females joined with SA (34 of 40: 85%) or SABB bucks (32 of 40: 80%; P > 0.05). We concluded that the endocrine and sexual activities of bucks during sexual rest can be stimulated by SA bucks. In addition, SABB bucks are able to stimulate the reproductive activity of seasonally anestrous goats.


Assuntos
Anestro , Cabras , Anestro/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Cabras/fisiologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Testosterona
5.
Gene ; 834: 146580, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598680

RESUMO

Thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme (TRHDE) gene is implicated in Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) mediated prolactin secretion. It has been shown that the prolactin secretion alters the Gonadotropin-releasinghormone(GnRH) mediated estrous cycle. Therefore, TRHDE may also regulate postpartum anestrus. Earlier studies reported the role of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in various pathophysiological conditions by altering the structure and function of the proteins. Hence, in the present study, we identified SNPs in the putative promoter, first exon, middle exon and 3'-UTR containing the last exon of TRHDE gene and determined their association with postpartum anestrus (PPA) in Murrah buffaloes. We found one non synonymous SNP (G > C at 118095875 bp on chromosome 4) in the first exon of TRHDE and performed its association analysis in a population sample of 50 extreme PPA (residual PPAI: 123.06 ± 12.98 days) and 50 normal (residual PPAI: -80.46 ± 3.19 days) buffaloes. The residual PPAI value was the observed PPAI adjusted for the effect of 38 non-genetic factors. The analysis showed a significant (P < 0.004167) association of this SNP with PPA in buffaloes. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) also supported that the C allele altering Glutamine to Histidine at the amino acid 148 of TRHDE could enhance the stability and rigidity of TRHDE protein, which may lower its activity, increase TRH and prolactin, and reduce GnRH in PPA buffaloes. The MDS analysis further strengthens the association of the SNP (G > C) in the TRHDE gene with PPA condition in Murrah buffaloes. However, further investigation is needed to prove the MDS observations.


Assuntos
Anestro , Búfalos , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Período Pós-Parto/genética , Prolactina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/genética
6.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(4): e13121, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355344

RESUMO

The modulation of the kisspeptin system holds promise as a treatment for human reproductive disorders and for managing livestock breeding. The design of analogs has overcome some unfavorable properties of the endogenous ligands. However, for applications requiring a prolongation of drug activity, such as ovulation induction in the ewe during the non-breeding season, additional improvement is required. To this aim, we designed and tested three formulations containing the kisspeptin analog C6. Two were based on polymeric nanoparticles (NP1 and NP2) and the third was based on hydrogels composed of a mixture of cyclodextrin polymers and dextran grafted with alkyl side chains (MD/pCD). Only the MD/pCD formulation prolonged C6 activity, as shown by monitoring luteinizing hormone (LH) plasma concentration (elevation duration 23.4 ± 6.1, 13.7 ± 4.7 and 12.0 ± 2.4 h for MD/pCD, NP1 and NP2, respectively). When compared with the free C6 (15 nmol/ewe), the formulated (MD/pCD) doses of 10, 15 and 30 nmol/ewe, but not the 90 nmol/ewe dose, provided a more gradual release of C6 as shown by an attenuated LH release during the first 6 h post-treatment. When tested during the non-breeding season without progestogen priming, only, the formulated 30 nmol/ewe dose triggered ovulation (50% of ewes). Hence, we showed that a formulation with an adapted action time would improve the efficacy of C6 with respect to inducing ovulation during the non-breeding season. This result suggests that formulations containing a kisspeptin analog might find applications in the management of livestock reproduction but also point to the possibility of their use for the treatment of some human reproductive pathologies.


Assuntos
Anestro , Kisspeptinas , Ovulação , Animais , Feminino , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Hormônio Luteinizante , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução , Ovinos
7.
Gene ; 827: 146456, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358656

RESUMO

Postpartum anestrus interval (PPAI) is the interval between parturition and the first postpartum estrus exhibition in animals. Appearance of both normal and PPA buffaloes under the same farm conditions indicates the role of possible genetic predisposition to PPA. To identify the genetic and non-genetic factors associated with PPA in buffaloes, we collected data on PPAI and other 38 non-genetic variables from 575 Murrah buffaloes in the field conditions and identified the PPA associated non-genetic factors in our previous study. To explore the genetic factors associated with the unexplained variation in PPAI residuals, the present study identified 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 candidate genes using Sanger sequencing. Exploration of their association with the PPAI residuals of 50 extreme PPA and 50 normal buffaloes identified the significant (P < 0.01) association of the SNP (g.37219977A>G) in the 3'-UTR region of the Meprin A 1 subunit beta (Mep1b) gene with PPAI, which was further validated (P = 0.058) in a large population sample (n = 417). Bioinformatics analysis of the 3'-UTR region has identified three miRNA, bta-miR-2420, bta-miR-2325b and bta-miR-453 that could regulate Igf-1 in the plasma of animals with different genotypes (GG, AG and AA). The higher Igf-1 levels in the GG genotypes than that of AA and AG genotypes of this SNP (g.37219977A>G) further suggest the association of Mep1b gene with PPA condition in Murrah buffaloes. As a result of this study, we propose that buffaloes with protective alleles at this SNP be selected to improve the herd's reproductive efficiency.


Assuntos
Anestro , Metaloendopeptidases , MicroRNAs , Anestro/genética , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Período Pós-Parto/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestagens are the most widely used therapy in anestrus type II. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaginal progesterone inserts therapy in anestrus type II in cows. METHODS: The study was conducted on 33 cows. Progesterone (PR) and estrogen (ER) receptors expression in endometrium was assessed on a molecular level based on mRNA tissue expression. Additionally, blood 17ß-estradiol and progesterone levels were evaluated. RESULTS: A decrease in mRNA expression of A and B PR and ER α was noted in treated and untreated animals. In the treated group, an increase of ERß mRNA expression was observed, while a decreased was found in untreated animals. There was increased PR, ERα and ß expression in endometrial tissue in treated cows, and decreased expression of these factors in untreated cows. In the treated group, recurrence of ovarian cyclicity was noted in 52% of animals and pregnancy was obtained in 34.8% of them, while in the untreated group, recurrence did not occur. In the control group, spontaneous recurrence of ovarian cyclicity was not observed. An increase of PR expression was correlated with increased proliferation of endometrial cells. CONCLUSIONS: It seems likely that the endometrium is well developed and ready for placentation after removing the exogenous source of progesterone and preventing the recurrence of cyclicity of ovaries.


Assuntos
Anestro , Endométrio/citologia , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Bovinos , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Progesterona/sangue , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/sangue
9.
J Vet Sci ; 23(1): e3, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35088950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic yaks are the most important livestock species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Adult female yaks normally breed in the warm season (July to September) and enter anestrous in the cold season (November to April). Nevertheless, it is unclear how ovarian activity is regulated at the molecular level. OBJECTIVES: The peculiarities of yak reproduction were assessed to explore the molecular mechanism of postpartum anestrus ovaries in yaks after pregnancy and parturition. METHODS: Sixty female yaks with calves were observed under natural grazing in Haiyan County, Qinghai Province. Three yak ovaries in pregnancy and postpartum anestrus were collected. RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics were employed to analyze the pregnancy and postpartum ovaries after hypothermia to identify the genes and proteins related to the postpartum ovarian cycle. RESULTS: The results revealed 841 differentially expressed genes during the postpartum hypoestrus cycle; 347 were up-regulated and 494 genes were down-regulated. Fifty-seven differential proteins were screened: 38 were up-regulated and 19 were down-regulated. The differential genes and proteins were related to the yak reproduction process, rhythm process, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway categories. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome and proteomic sequencing approaches were used to investigate postpartum anestrus and pregnancy ovaries in yaks. The results confirmed that BHLHE40, SF1IX1, FBPX1, HSPCA, LHCGR, BMP15, and ET-1R could affect postpartum hypoestrus and control the state of estrus.


Assuntos
Anestro , Ovário , Proteoma , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Ovário/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 236: 106905, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922186

RESUMO

The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the effect of MTNR1A gene polymorphisms on reproductive performance in ewes of one Italian and two Slovenian dairy sheep breeds (Sarda, Istrian Premenka and Boska, respectively) which were located at different latitudes, and 2) to highlight if the different season of the male placement with females that was utilized in the different breeding systems in Sardinia (Italy) and Slovenia resulted in different effects of these polymorphisms on reproductive functions. Reproductively mature ewes (n = 100) from each breed were utilized to conduct the study. To evaluate the reproductive efficiency, lambing dates and number of lambs born were recorded per ewe; additionally, the duration in days from ram placement with ewes to lambing (DRPEL), litter size and the fertility rate were determined based on lambing dates. In each breed, there were eight nucleotide variations within the MTNR1A gene exon II, two of which (g.17355358 and g.17355171), respectively, resulted in a valine to isoleucine, and alanine to aspartic acid substitution, in amino acid sequence. The SNPs at position g.17355452 and g.17355458 were determined to have effects on reproductive performance. Genotypes C/C and C/T at g.17355452 in Bovska and Sarda and genotype A/A at g.17355458 in Istrian Pramenka were associated with a greater fertility and a lesser duration in days from ram placement with ewes to lambing. These findings confirmed that the nucleotide sequences of the MTNR1A gene could affect reproductive functions of Mediterranean sheep.


Assuntos
Anestro/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/genética , Reprodução/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Feminino , Itália , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Eslovênia
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946810

RESUMO

Most sheep are seasonal estrus, and they breed in autumn when the days get shorter. Seasonal estrus is an important factor that affects the productivity and fertility of sheep. The key point to solve this problem is to explore the regulation mechanism of estrus in sheep. Therefore, in this study, transcriptomic sequencing technology was used to identify differentially expressed mRNAs in the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary of Small Tail Han sheep (year-round estrus) and tan sheep (seasonal estrus) among luteal, proestrus and estrus stages. There were 256,923,304,156 mRNAs being identified in the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary, respectively. Functional analysis showed that the photosensor, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were enriched significantly. It is speculated that photoperiod may initiate estrus by stimulating the corresponding pathways in hypothalamus. ODC1, PRLH, CRYBB2, SMAD5, OPN1SW, TPH1 are believed to be key genes involved in the estrogen process. In conclusion, this study expanded the database of indigenous sheep breeds, and also provided new candidate genes for future genetic and molecular studies on the seasonal estrus trait in sheep.


Assuntos
Estro/genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Células Neuroendócrinas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Hipófise/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Anestro/genética , Anestro/metabolismo , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Estrogênios/genética , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estro/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Isoleucina/genética , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Leucina/genética , Leucina/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Estações do Ano , Ovinos
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 929-937, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285261

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the different plasma metabolites between anestrus and estrus postpartum dairy cows and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention of anestrus in dairy farm cows. In the experiment, one hundred and sixty-seven Holstein dairy cows were selected with similar age and parity. According to the concentration of ß-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose in plasma during 14 to 21 days in milk, all dairy cows were determined as having a status of energy balance. According to the results of clinical symptom, rectal and B ultrasound examination at 60 to 90 days postpartum, these cows were divided into twenty estrus and twenty-four anestrus group, other dairy cows were removed. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance technology was utilized to detect the plasma metabolites changes and screen different plasma metabolites between anestrus and estrus cows. Ten different metabolites including alanine, glutamic acid, asparagine, creatine, choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased in anestrous cows compared with estrous cows. Metabolic pathway analyses indicated that differential metabolites were primarily involved in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism. These metabolites and their enrichment pathways indicate that reduced steroid hormone synthesis precursors result in lower levels of estradiol and progesterone and cause anestrus in negative energy balance. These data provide a better understanding of the changes that may affect estrus of postpartum dairy cows at NEB status and lay the ground for further research.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os diferentes metabolitos do plasma entre o cio e o cio pós-parto de vacas leiteiras e fornecer uma base teórica para a prevenção do cio de vacas em fazendas de leite. No experimento, foram selecionadas 127 vacas leiteiras Holstein com idade e paridade similares. De acordo com a concentração de ß- ácido hidroxibutírico, ácidos graxos não esterificados e glicose no plasma entre 14 e 21 dias no leite, todas as vacas leiteiras foram determinadas em estado de equilíbrio energético. De acordo com os resultados dos sintomas clínicos, do exame de ultra-som retal e B aos 60 a 90 dias pós-parto, estas vacas foram divididas em vinte cios e vinte e quatro grupos de cio, outras vacas leiteiras foram removidas. A tecnologia de ressonância magnética nuclear 1H foi utilizada para detectar as alterações dos metabólitos plasmáticos e para triar diferentes metabólitos plasmáticos entre as vacas do cio e do cio. Dez diferentes metabólitos incluindo alanina, ácido glutâmico, asparagina, creatina, colina, fosfocholina, glicerofosfocolina, lipoproteína de baixa densidade e lipoproteína de muito baixa densidade foram significativamente diminuídos nas vacas antróficas em comparação com as vacas estro. As análises da via metabólica indicaram que os metabólitos diferenciais estavam principalmente envolvidos no metabolismo de aminoácidos e glicerofosfolipídios. Estes metabólitos e suas vias de enriquecimento indicam que a redução dos precursores da síntese de hormônios esteróides resulta em níveis mais baixos de estradiol e progesterona e causa anestros no balanço energético negativo. Estes dados fornecem uma melhor compreensão das mudanças que podem afetar o cio das vacas leiteiras pós-parto no estado de NEB e preparam o terreno para mais pesquisas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Progesterona/análise , Anestro/sangue , Estro/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Estradiol/análise , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Aminoácidos , Glucose , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 328, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002300

RESUMO

The growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) intervenes in the fecundity and prolificacy of the ewe, which are important variables that participate in the reproductive efficiency of a flock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of FecGE mutation of the gene GDF9 in the natural response of the manifestation to estrus, return to estrus, ovulation rate, pregnancy, lambing, prolificacy, and fecundity rate in Pelibuey ewes, during the anestrus period. The sequences of the exon 2 of the gene GDF9 were obtained from blood samples collected in Whatman™ FTA™ cards from 42 multiparous Pelibuey ewes with reproductive records. For this purpose, the quality of the sequences was analyzed and the polymorphisms and genotypes were searched for. The ewes were grouped according to their group: (a) homozygous or Embrapa (GG), (b) wild (AA), and (c) group without gene (sG). All the ewes studied manifested estrus behavior, but none showed signs of return to estrus after natural mating (p > 0.05); likewise, the pregnancy and lambing rates (p > 0.05) did not show differences between groups. However, the group GG presented higher ovulation rate, prolificacy, and fecundity rate (p < 0.05), compared to groups AA and sG. Although no differences were found in the manifestation of estrus, return to estrus, and percentage of pregnancy and lambing in females from the genotypes studied, the homozygous ewes GG presented 1.22 and 1.72 more corpus luteum (CL, p < 0.05), prolificacy of 0.7 and 0.7, and fecundity rate of 0.8 and 1.0 more lambs per ewe (p < 0.05) than the ones produced by the wild-type AA and sG groups, respectively.


Assuntos
Anestro , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Reprodução , Animais , Estro/genética , Feminino , Mutação , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 1-10, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153061

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of plasma pathological changes before timed artificial insemination (TAI) on pregnancy of cows. The contents of estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4), glucose (Glu), selenium (Se), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and histamine (HIS) in plasma of 48 Holstein cows were measured before TAI. According to the estrus detection, the cows were divided into estrus (E) and anestrus (A) groups. After pregnancy testing at 28 d after TAI, two groups of E and A were divided into positive pregnancy of E group (EP+), negative pregnancy of E group (EP-), positive pregnancy of A group (AP+), and negative pregnancy of A group (AP-). The contents of E2, P4, Glu, Se, BDNF and hIS significantly differed among the four groups (P<0.01). The ROC analysis was used to determine the risk of negative pregnancy test (-) after TAI was increased when plasma E2 was less than 46.45 pmol/L in cows before TAI. The changes in E2, P4,hIS, Glu, and BDNF in the blood of natural estrus and natural anestrus cows affected the pregnancy after TAI. the level of E2 in plasma may be used to assess the risk of negative pregnancy after TAI.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a influência de mudanças patológicas de plasma antes de inseminação artificial (TAI) na gestação de vacas. O conteúdo de estrogênio (E2), progesterona (P4), glucose (Glu), selênio (Se), fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF), e histamina (HIS) no plasma de 48 vacas Holstein foi medido antes de TAI. De acordo com a detecção de estro, as vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: estro (E) e anestro (A). Após teste de gestação 28 d após TAI, dois grupos de E e A foram formados em gestação positiva do grupo E (EP+), gestação negativa do grupo E (EP-), gestação positiva do grupo A (AP+), e gestação negativa do grupo A (AP-). Os valores de E2, P4, Glu, Se, BDNF e hIS foram significativamente diferentes entre os quatro grupos (P<0,01). A análise ROC foi utilizada para determinar o risco de teste de gestação negativo (-) após aumento de TAI quando plasma E2 estava abaixo de 46,45 pmol/L em vacas antes de TAI. Alterações em E2, P4,hIS, Glu e BDNF no sangue de estro natural e anestro natural em vacas afetou a gestação após TAI. O nível de E2 no plasma pode ser usado para avaliar o risco de gestação negativa após TAI.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Plasma , Anestro/sangue , Estro/sangue , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Curva ROC
15.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(1): 50-57, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776605

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins play a crucial role in cellular development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has been localised in the human endometrium, where its immunoexpression changes during the menstrual cycle. Similar studies have not been done for the equid species, so the present study aimed to describe endometrial HSP90 immunoexpression in mare endometrium. Endometrial biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, and sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin in preparation for HSP90 immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining and morphometric analyses were performed on the epithelial lining, endometrial glands and connective stroma during oestrus, dioestrus phase and anoestrus period (n = 7 per phase or period). Immunoexpression was localised in the basal region of the epithelial cells lining the lumen. Immunoexpression was greater during oestrus than during either dioestrus or anoestrus. During anoestrus, there was little immunostaining in the endometrium, suggesting that HSP90 is involved in the functional modulation of sex steroid receptors in cyclic mares. Indeed, the function of HSP90 as a chaperone in the folding of proteins, such as steroid receptors, might explain the greater intensity of immunostaining during the oestrus and dioestrus phases, compared the anoestrus period. We conclude that, in the mare, HSP90 plays a role in endometrial function and that further studies are needed to test whether it is important in pathological conditions as endometritis.


Assuntos
Anestro/fisiologia , Diestro/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Estro/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Cavalos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária
16.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 74: 106511, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739763

RESUMO

Taurine is an abundant intracellular beta-amino acid majorly synthesized in the liver and transported through plasma. In mammals, taurine was reported to be involved in various physiological functions, including the enhancement of testosterone levels, the major estradiol precursor. Therefore, we hypothesize that taurine levels are associated with ovarian follicular steroids as well as with a reproductive problem called postpartum anestrus (PPA) in dairy buffaloes. To understand the taurine levels and its possible role in buffalo ovarian follicles, a correlation was established among taurine, estradiol, and testosterone levels in the ovarian follicular fluid. For this purpose, buffalo ovaries were obtained from the slaughterhouse, and follicular fluid samples were collected from small (<4 mm), medium (4-8 mm) and large (>8 mm) follicles. Taurine and steroid levels in the follicular fluid were analyzed by TLC and ELISA, respectively. Taurine and testosterone levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the follicular fluid of small and medium follicles than large follicles, whereas the estradiol levels were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the large follicles. Thus, taurine showed a positive correlation (r = 0.75) with testosterone and a negative correlation (r = -0.77) with estradiol in buffalo follicular fluid, indicating its possible role in testosterone function during follicular development. Interestingly, significantly (P < 0.001) lower plasma taurine levels in PPA (n = 50) than normal cyclic (n = 50) buffaloes represented its association with PPA. Therefore, our present study recommends the need for future nutrition studies on taurine supplementation to PPA buffaloes.


Assuntos
Anestro/fisiologia , Búfalos , Líquido Folicular/química , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Transtornos Puerperais/veterinária , Taurina/análise , Animais , Estradiol/análise , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/metabolismo , Taurina/sangue , Testosterona/análise
17.
Theriogenology ; 176: 225-232, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628085

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of letrozole and its effect on FSH and LH concentrations after single (IV, IM, SC) and repeated IV doses in anestrous ewes. This study was conducted in experiments 1 and 2 by randomly dividing 24 healthy Akkaraman ewes in anestrus into two equal groups. In experiment 1, the pharmacokinetics of letrozole following single IV, IM, and SC administration at 1 mg/kg dose and its effect of a single IV dose on plasma FSH and LH concentration were determined. In experiment 2, the effect of repeated IV doses of letrozole on FSH and LH concentrations was established. Plasma concentration of letrozole was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. FSH and LH concentrations were quantified using ELISA. The elimination half-life (t1/2ʎz) for IV, IM, and SC routes were 9.94, 37.29, and 41.07 h, respectively. The IV route for letrozole had a total clearance of 0.11 L/h/kg and a volume of distribution at a steady state of 1.50 L/kg. The peak plasma concentration was 0.11 µg/mL for the IM route and 0.14 µg/mL for the SC routes. The bioavailability was 55.18% for the IM route and 75.34% for the SC route. Letrozole following single and repeated (every 24 h for 3 days) IV administrations at 1 mg/kg dose did not affect LH concentration in anestrous ewes but caused an increase in the FSH concentration. This increase in FSH concentration may create a potential for the use of letrozole in ovarian superstimulation protocols. Favorable pharmacokinetic properties (long t1/2ʎz and good bioavailability) of letrozole for IM and SC routes require further investigation before use in estrus induction or estrus synchronization protocols in sheep.


Assuntos
Anestro , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Animais , Feminino , Gonadotropinas , Letrozol , Hormônio Luteinizante , Ovinos
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20109, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635709

RESUMO

Steroid synthesis and production in ruminant uterus is not obvious, especially in seasonally reproduced. We compared steroid production by investigating enzymes involved in red deer uterine steroid metabolism in reproductive seasons. Blood and uteri (endometrium and myometrium) were collected post mortem from hinds on 4th day (N = 8), 13th day of the cycle (N = 8), anestrus (N = 8) and pregnancy (N = 8). The expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450), 3 -beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), 17 -beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD), aldo-keto reductase family 1 C1 (AKR1C1), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and progesterone receptors (PRs), were analyzed using real-time-PCR and Western Blotting. Plasma samples were assayed for 17-beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone (T4) concentrations by EIA. Hinds at the beginning of the estrous cycle, mainly in endometrium, were characterized by a high mRNA expression of 3ß-HSD, AKR1C1, PRs and ERα, contrary to the expression in myometrium during pregnancy (P < 0.05). For P4, E2, and FSH, concentration was the highest during the 13th day of the estrous cycle (P < 0.05). Uterine steroid production and output in hinds as a representative seasonally reproduced ruminant occurred mainly during the estrous cycle and sustained in anestrus.


Assuntos
Anestro/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Útero/fisiologia , Anestro/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gravidez , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1823, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363830

RESUMO

Following the induction of oestrus out of season in small ruminants, low fertility and variations in fertility rates are associated with embryonic losses. One of the main causes of embryonic loss is luteal dysfunction. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) supports the luteal structure, and increasing progesterone levels may be beneficial in terms of promoting embryonic life. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH administration following an oestrus induction protocol in the anoestrus season for preventing embryonic loss in goats having failure to conceive during the season. In the study, 106 Damascus goats aged 3-5 years and weighing 45-60 kg were used. The oestrus of 106 goats in the anoestrous group was stimulated with progesterone and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) treatment. Out of breeding season, goats were divided into the 4 following groups: GnRH0 (n = 27), GnRH7 (n = 26), GnRH0+7 (n = 27) and control (n = 26). In each goat, an intravaginal sponge (IS) containing 20 mg of fluorogestone acetate (FGA) was placed into the vagina and left for 9 days. With the withdrawal of the sponge, 550IU PMSG and 125 µg of d-cloprostenol were injected intramuscularly. Oestrus detection was made via teaser bucks for 3 days starting 24 h after withdrawal of the IS. Eighteen bucks known to be fertile were used for breeding. Goats in the oestrus period were mated via natural breeding. The GnRH analogue lecirelin was injected intramuscularly at breeding in the GnRH0 group, on day 7 post-breeding in the GnRH7 group, and both at breeding and on day 7 post-breeding in the GnRH0+7 group. No injections were given to the control group. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken by jugular vena puncturing on days 3, 6, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 after breeding from 10 randomly chosen goats in all groups. The goats with a level of > 3.5 ng/mL of progesterone on day 21 post-breeding were evaluated as pregnant. Pregnancy was also viewed on day 50 after breeding by real-time ultrasonography (USG) with a 5-7.5 MHz convex probe. The oestrus rate was 96.23% (102/106) in the goats. The rates of onset of oestrus between 36-48 h, 48-60 h and 60 h and beyond were 38.7% (41/106), 21.7% (23/106) and 35.8% (38/106), respectively. The total pregnancy rate was 35.8% (38/106). There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) found for the pregnancy rate, embryonic death rate or progesterone concentration of the groups. However, serum progesterone levels were statistically different in the GnRH7 group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). After synchronisation, various anti-luteolytic strategies can be used to support corpus luteum development and elevate progesterone concentration in the luteal phase to decrease embryonic loss and increase reproductive performance. Therefore, application of GnRH to support the luteal structure and to increase progesterone levels may be beneficial in terms of supporting embryonic life. The results showed that GnRH treatment on the day 7 post-breeding following oestrus induction, including FGA and PMSG, can increase serum progesterone levels in Damascus goats in the anoestrus period. However, following oestrus induction in the anoestrus period, it was seen that GnRH treatment at breeding or on day 7 after breeding did not have any positive effect on embryonic loss or reproductive performance. In conclusion, it was considered that this protocol could be implemented successfully, yielding a 35% pregnancy rate in Damascus goats in the anoestrus period, but embryonic loss must be deeply studied in detail.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Anestro , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/embriologia , Perda do Embrião/veterinária , Gonadotropinas/administração & dosagem , Cabras
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 455, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical sterilization is the most effective method of contraception for dogs. It also prevents pyometra and reduces the risk of mammary tumour development. However, this procedure also has negative effects, such as urinary incontinence. Steroid hormone deprivation following gonadectomy could also affect canine vaginal mucosa conditions and the microbial community colonizing the vaginal tract. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the vaginal cytology and microbial community of two groups of bitches, including 11 in anoestrus and 10 sterilized bitches (post-pubertal sterilization in the last 4 years). Bacteria were identified through metataxonomic analysis, amplifying the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene, and culturing methods. RESULTS: Vaginal mucosa cytology was suggestive of dystrophic conditions in sterilized bitches, whereas a typical anoestrus pattern with parabasal and intermediate cells was appreciable in anoestrous animals. Metataxonomic analysis revealed large inter-individual variability. Salmonella, Mycoplasma and Staphylococcus were present in moderate quantities in almost all the samples in both groups. Mollicutes (class level) and Tenericutes (phylum level) were commonly present in moderate quantities in anoestrus samples, whereas these microbes were present at high levels in a single sample from the sterilized group. Based on culturing, a higher number of different species were isolated from the anoestrous bitches, and Mycoplasma canis was exclusively identified in an anoestrous bitch. Staphylococcus spp. was the most frequently isolated genus in both groups, followed by Streptococcus spp., and, among gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia spp. and Haemophilus spp. A comparison of the numbers of the most frequently isolated genera of bacteria from vaginal cultures of bitches revealed that Pasteurella and Proteus were the most frequently identified in sterilized animals based on metataxonomic analysis (p-value = 0.0497 and 0.0382, respectively), whereas Streptococcus was significantly and most frequently isolated from anoestrous bitches using culture methods (p value = 0.0436). CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary investigation, no global patterns of the vaginal bacteria community were noted that characterized the condition of the bitches; however, cytology suggested local modifications. Sterilization after puberty caused minimal alterations in the vaginal microbial community of bitches within 4 years after surgery.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Vagina/microbiologia , Anestro , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Cães , Feminino , Histerectomia/veterinária , Membrana Mucosa/citologia , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Projetos Piloto , Vagina/citologia
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