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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 181, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523908

RESUMO

Laying hens on the free-range systems are susceptible to challenging situations in relation to the rearing environment. Therefore, this work evaluated how solar radiation influences the behavior of laying hens raised in a free-range system, in the Brazilian Savanna. The activities included data collection of meteorological variables and behavioral analysis of 300 commercial laying hens in relation to the frequency of use of indoor and outdoor areas of rearing housing. The solar radiation is the main factor that directly affects the heat gain of production animals, in this experiment had a high amplitude during all day, going from 33.42 to 756.98 W m-2. It was observed that the highest frequency of 79% and 91% use of the barn areas by the hens was at 8 am and 4 pm, respectively. The internal area of the housing was more used by hens 87% and 68% at 12 h and 14 h, respectively. Hens were not observed in the paddocks at noon and 2 pm. Hens spend more than 6 h of the day inside the housing to provide shelter from solar radiation. Which the conclusion the solar radiation influences the behavior of laying hens, at times of the day of the higher incidence of radiation, and high air and global temperatures, it was not observed the presence of hens in the external areas of the housing, especially with the use of the paddocks; at these times the hens seek shelter inside the housing to get away from the incidence of direct solar radiation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Brasil , Coleta de Dados , Meio Ambiente , Feminino
2.
Can Vet J ; 63(5): 528-534, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502250

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting the swine industry. The main objective of this study was to assess whether sow farm distance to slaughterhouses and meteorological variables were associated with PRRS outbreaks. This case-control study paired 104 sow farms with or without a reported PRRS outbreak (N = 208) during the same period. Data on the distance to the closest slaughterhouse, swine density, presence of an air filtration system, or a neighboring farm, and weather conditions were collected, and a multivariable conditional logistic regression model was created to investigate the association between variables of interest and the occurrence of a PRRS outbreak. Swine density, presence of an air filtration system, presence of a neighboring farm, and PRRS herd-level status before the outbreak were associated with the occurrence of PRRS outbreaks. Farms in areas with higher swine density and nearby swine farms had increased odds of reporting an outbreak compared to farms in low swine density areas and farms having no neighbors. Under the conditions of this study, none of the meteorological variables or the distance to the closest slaughterhouse were associated with occurrence of PRRS outbreaks.


Enquête sur la distance aux abattoirs et les paramètres météorologiques dans l'apparition d'épidémies de syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin dans les troupeaux reproducteurs de porcs aux États-Unis. Le syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin (SRRP) est l'une des maladies les plus importantes sur le plan économique affectant l'industrie porcine. L'objectif principal de cette étude était d'évaluer si la distance entre les élevages de truies et les abattoirs et les variables météorologiques étaient associées aux épidémies de SRRP. Cette étude cas-témoin a apparié 104 élevages de truies avec ou sans éclosion de SRRP déclarée (N = 208) au cours de la même période. Des données sur la distance à l'abattoir le plus proche, la densité porcine, la présence d'un système de filtration d'air ou d'une ferme voisine et les conditions météorologiques ont été recueillies, et un modèle de régression logistique conditionnelle multivariable a été créé pour étudier l'association entre les variables d'intérêt et l'occurrence d'une épidémie de SRRP.La densité porcine, la présence d'un système de filtration de l'air, la présence d'une ferme voisine et le statut du troupeau relativement au SRRP avant l'épidémie ont été associés à l'apparition d'épidémies de SRRP. Les fermes situées dans des zones à forte densité porcine et d'autres fermes porcines à proximité avaient plus de chances de signaler une épidémie que les fermes situées dans des zones à faible densité porcine et les fermes sans voisins. Dans les conditions de cette étude, aucune des variables météorologiques ni la distance à l'abattoir le plus proche n'étaient associées à la survenue d'épidémies de SRRP.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 8794044, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387226

RESUMO

This paper was aimed at discussing the information monitoring of animal husbandry based on the Internet of Things and wireless communication system. The breeding and health of animals in the breeding industry has always been a topic that people talk about. The advent of the wireless communication system has made monitoring and positioning technologies more and more simple. The wireless communication network technology is applied to the environmental monitoring of animal breeding farms, and a real-time reporting system is designed to pay attention to animal health in real time. This article focuses on the connection between the two. First, this article briefly describes the state of the wireless communication network and the aquaculture industry, furthermore explains the research methods, such as the livestock breeding environment monitoring system model, which needs to have the characteristics of humanization, fast and simple, easy to maintain, high reliability, compatibility, scalability, and intelligence, and designs related monitoring systems and hardware systems to integrate carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other gas sensors with temperature and humidity sensors to sense the environment. Next, this article shows the wireless communication network monitoring and positioning algorithm, namely, the TOA-based wireless communication positioning algorithm and the LTE prediction algorithm. The predicted time is used as the link weight, and the weight within the wide link cluster is defined according to the time threshold, making the link maintain stability for a short time to enhance the network topology. Then, this article conducts experiments based on ZigBee wireless communication network sensor combined with improved genetic algorithm in the temperature and humidity test of farms, designs the environmental monitoring system, improves the algorithm, and cooperates with experiments and analysis to verify the feasibility and apply it to the temperature and humidity test of the livestock farm. The results are good, and the temperature and humidity errors are reduced by 88.28% and 84.21%, respectively. It has a certain degree of guidance. Finally, it is discussed and summarized. It can be seen that the system and algorithm designed in this paper have a good prospect in the development of animal husbandry. However, this algorithm takes a long time and has a broader research space.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Fazendas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecnologia sem Fio
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(17): e2116722119, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412864

RESUMO

SignificanceThe bacterium Yersinia pestis has caused numerous historically documented outbreaks of plague and research using ancient DNA could demonstrate that it already affected human populations during the Neolithic. However, the pathogen's genetic diversity, geographic spread, and transmission dynamics during this early period of Y. pestis evolution are largely unexplored. Here, we describe a set of ancient plague genomes up to 5,000 y old from across Eurasia. Our data demonstrate that two genetically distinct forms of Y. pestis evolved in parallel and were both distributed across vast geographic distances, potentially occupying different ecological niches. Interpreted within the archeological context, our results suggest that the spread of plague during this period was linked to increased human mobility and intensification of animal husbandry.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Peste , Yersinia pestis , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Animais , DNA Antigo , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Filogenia , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Peste/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis/classificação , Yersinia pestis/genética , Yersinia pestis/isolamento & purificação
6.
Vet Rec ; 190(8): 308, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420197
7.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266449, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390055

RESUMO

Globally, biosecurity is instrumental in prevention, control and management of livestock diseases and protection of human health. It is defined, prescribed, adopted and enforced through global, regional and national frameworks, laws, policies and strategies. There is more biosecurity practice research conducted in developed countries than developing ones. Consequently, the gap between the ideals recommended in biosecurity frameworks and what is practical in under-resourced rural settings is poorly understood. This anthropological study sought to assess adoption of biosecurity practices across a cattle, sheep and goat value chains continuum to demonstrate where risks lie. The cross-sectional mixed-methods study took place in Baringo County, Kenya. Qualitatively, it utilized 26 focus group discussions with community members and 10 observational interviews with slaughter facility workers. Quantitatively, it included a household survey with 560 community members and a separate survey with 231 livestock traders. Results show that producers, traders and slaughter facility workers did observe some biosecurity practices but not others due but not limited to personal preference, limitations in veterinary service delivery and enforcement of some biosecurity measures, and lack of requisite infrastructure. The study concludes that the implementation of biosecurity measures in rural settings is more complex than envisioned in biosecurity policies and frameworks. It can be hampered by resource limitations, poor enforcement, and contestations with cultural practices. The study recommends that further studies on willingness to adopt biosecurity measures targeting community members in under-resourced settings be conducted to identify possible critical points of intervention at county and national levels.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Cabras , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Quênia , Gado , Marketing , Políticas , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266457, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390068

RESUMO

The circulation of livestock pathogens in the pig industry is strongly related to animal movements. Epidemiological models developed to understand the circulation of pathogens within the industry should include the probability of transmission via between-farm contacts. The pig industry presents a structured network in time and space, whose composition changes over time. Therefore, to improve the predictive capabilities of epidemiological models, it is important to identify the drivers of farmers' choices in terms of trade partnerships. Combining complex network analysis approaches and exponential random graph models, this study aims to analyze patterns of the swine industry network and identify key factors responsible for between-farm contacts at the French scale. The analysis confirms the topological stability of the network over time while highlighting the important roles of companies, types of farm, farm sizes, outdoor housing systems and batch-rearing systems. Both approaches revealed to be complementary and very effective to understand the drivers of the network. Results of this study are promising for future developments of epidemiological models for livestock diseases. This study is part of the One Health European Joint Programme: BIOPIGEE.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Suínos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos , Gado , Suínos
9.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408677

RESUMO

Analytical control of protein and amino acid (AA) contents of animal tissues is an important problem in the fundamental and applied aspects. The aims of the work were the following: to measure the pig blood AAs; and to establish the correlations between AAs and biochemical parameters in dependence on the pig fattening duration. All 80 animals were divided onto 4 animal groups: 65, 72, 82, and 90 fattening days. The correlations between AAs and the total protein or its fractions (TP&F), nitrogen metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, some enzymes in the pig blood for each of these animal groups obtained for the first time. The authors established the following total amounts of correlation coefficients (with reasonable p-values) in each of the group separately: group 1, 1* (p < 0.05); group 2, 0; group 3, 28* (p < 0.05) and 9** (p < 0.01); group 4, 28* (p < 0.05) and 25** (p < 0.01). Thus, about 82-90 days (groups 3 and 4) can be the optimal for the pig fattening, based on the correlation analysis for the numerous data of major AA and biochemical parameters of pig blood. These results can be useful for animal health monitoring and husbandry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Suínos , Aminoácidos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Nitrogênio , Suínos
10.
Zebrafish ; 19(2): 56-66, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439044

RESUMO

The greatly increased use of aquatic species to study disease over the past 20 years necessitates understanding their husbandry and housing requirements to optimize research and welfare and to ensure compliance with regulations. To achieve these goals, aquatic systems have expanded from pet shop and home aquaria to research-grade systems incorporating designs and features to increase their robustness, practicality, and flexibility. Moreover, these last decades have seen the increasing use of aquatic animals for infectious disease research using containment level 2 (CL2)/biosafety level 2 pathogens. In this study, we discuss the facility design requirements and modifications, which must be considered for the planning, construction, and use of an aquatic facility for zebrafish infected with CL2 pathogens. These include decontamination of water and equipment, racking and filtration design, personal protective equipment, and husbandry procedures. This guidance is based on our experience in the design and ongoing management of such facilities.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Peixe-Zebra , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Água
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5641384, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463272

RESUMO

In order to improve the effect of animal husbandry economic analysis, this article studies the animal husbandry economy based on system dynamics and studies how to define total factor productivity and its measurement method. Moreover, this article compares and analyzes the production function method, data envelopment analysis, and index method for measuring total factor productivity, selects decision-making units, and determines and processes input-output data. In addition, this article combines the system dynamics model to explore the causal relationship of the animal husbandry economy and builds an intelligent model to intelligently analyze the animal husbandry economy. Finally, this article analyzes the economy and performance of animal husbandry based on simulation experiments. The simulation test results show that the system dynamics model proposed in this article has a good performance in the economic analysis of animal husbandry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 685, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are increasingly used throughout the world in food animal production for controlling and preventing disease and for promoting growth. But this trend also has the potential for promoting antibiotic resistance, which represents a threat to human, animal, and environmental health. The use of antibiotics and the potential effects of antibiotic dependence has often been associated with large-scale food animal production. But rural households also engage in small-scale production, often operating literally in backyards. While some small-scale producers use veterinary antibiotics, many do not. This paper examines knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and agricultural practices (KAP) that represent an alternative to dependence on antibiotics. METHODS: Qualitative field research was based on four focus group discussions (FGDs) with non-indigenous backyard food animal producers in four communities near Quito, Ecuador and two FGDs with veterinarians. FGDs were supplemented by structured observations and key informant interviews. They were recorded with digital audio devices and transcriptions were analyzed independently by two researchers using a three-stage coding procedure. Open coding identifies underlying concepts, while axial coding develops categories and properties, and selective coding integrates the information in order to identify the key dimensions of the collective qualitative data. RESULTS: Backyard food animal producers in the Ecuadorian highlands generally do not use antibiotics while rearing small batches of animals and poultry for predominantly non-commercial household consumption. Instead, they rely on low cost traditional veterinary remedies. These practices are informed by their Andean history of agriculture and a belief system whereby physical activity is a holistic lifestyle through which people maintain their health by participating in the physical and spiritual environment. CONCLUSIONS: Backyard food animal producers in the Ecuadorian highlands implement complex strategies based on both economic calculations and sociocultural underpinnings that shape perceptions, attitudes, and practices. They use traditional veterinary remedies in lieu of antibiotics in most cases because limited production of food animals in small spaces contributes to a predictable household food supply, while at the same time conforming to traditional concepts of human and environmental health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Equador , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 158, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Central Dry Zone (CDZ) of Myanmar is a critical region of livestock production. This region supports 10 million people whose livelihoods depend on small-scale, dry-land agriculture, but it is also one of the poorest regions of Myanmar. Little is known about the constraints to animal health in multi-species livestock farms in this region or the relationships between husbandry practices and measures of the success of livestock rearing such as income, and successful health management. RESULTS: In this study, we describe associations between husbandry practices and animal health problems affecting different body systems. We also develop a biosecurity and livestock disease prevention index by taking account of different activities (i.e. treatment, vaccination, reducing disease transmission practice, sanitation) that can be compared between livestock species, estimate the income generated from livestock production, and identify factors influencing these parameters. Cross-sectional study was used to collect data on livestock production and health from cattle (N = 382), sheep, goat (N = 303) and village chicken (N = 327) farmers in 40 villages of the CDZ. Survey-design based techniques and F-statistics, ordinal, and binomial regression were used for data analysis. Our results indicate that a significant proportion of farmers' income in the CDZ comes from crop production (43.2%) and livestock production (23.1%) and the rest of the farmers' income is derived from trading, supported by other relatives and employment. Our results indicate that animal health management practices, herd/flock size, and experience of farmers contributed significantly to the presence of animal health problems, in particular related to the physical, respiratory and digestive systems. Animal health management was usually conducted in traditional ways. Among different livestock species farms, cattle farms (cattle median BDPI: 45; IQR: 35-55) practised better biosecurity than other livestock species farms (i.e. small ruminant and village chicken farms) (small ruminant and village chicken BDPI: 10; IQR: 0-20). Interestingly, the ownership groups (i.e. rearing singly or multispecies) did not show any impact on biosecurity and disease prevention index of the farms. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified good practice households and these findings will be useful for designing intervention trials to improve the production and health outcomes evaluated in this study.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gado , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos , Ovinos
14.
J Anim Sci ; 100(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275597

RESUMO

Keel bone damage (KBD) is more prevalent in alternative laying hen housing systems than in conventional cages, and its incidence differs from strain to strain. However, the information of KBD in Lindian chickens, a native Chinese strain, is limited. To investigate the effect of KBD on fearfulness and physiological indicators of stress in Lindian chickens and commercial laying hens, a total of two hundred 25-wk-old chickens (100 Hy-line Brown and 100 Lindian chickens) were studied for 7 wk. The birds were housed in furnished cages with 10 birds per cage for each strain. At 32-wk of age, the birds in each strain were divided into normal (NK), deviated (DK), and fractured (FK) hens according to the keel bone status. Ten birds in each keel bone status per strain were subsequently selected to collect blood for the determination of stress and fear-related indicators, including corticosterone, serotonin, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6, and measure fear responses, including novel object test (NOT), human approach test (HAT), and tonic immobility (TI) test. The results showed that egg production was lower and the incidence of keel bone fractures was higher in Lindian chickens than in Hy-line Brown hens (P < 0.05). Lindian chickens showed a significantly increased whole blood serotonin content, NOT-latency, HAT-score, and TI induction times (P < 0.05) and decreased serum interleukin-6 content and TI-duration (P < 0.05) compared with Hy-line Brown hens. Additionally, FK hens had significantly elevated whole blood corticosterone, serum interleukin-1ß and interleukin-6 levels, TI-duration, and NOT-latency (P < 0.05), and a reduced whole blood serotonin content (P < 0.05) compared with NK and DK hens. Our results indicated that KBD affected stress and fear responses, and this impact was mainly reflected by FK hens compared with NK and DK hens. We suggest that keel bone fractures are the main factor impairing hen welfare. Besides, the incidence of keel bone fractures and stress and fear responses of Lindian chickens are more severe than Hy-line Brown laying hens, indicating that the strain type can affect the health and welfare of laying hens.


Keel bone damage (KBD) impairs production performance, welfare, and health in laying hens. This study aimed to compare the incidence of KBD and investigate the effects of KBD on stress and fear in two strains of laying hens. The results showed that commercial Hy-line Brown laying hens had high egg production and low incidence of KBD compared with Lindian chickens, a Chinese native breed. Besides, Lindian chickens had higher blood serotonin content and fear responses to human approach test and novel object test than Hy-line Brown laying hens. In addition, laying hens with keel bone fractures had elevated concentrations of blood corticosterone, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6, and had a longer duration of tonic immobility and latency to approach a novel object, as well as reduced blood serotonin content compared with laying hens with normal and deviated keel bone. Overall, keel bone fractures caused stress and fear responses, impairing hen welfare; and behavioral and physiological responses in relation to stress and fear differed between strains of hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Fraturas Ósseas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Corticosterona , Medo , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Interleucina-1beta , Interleucina-6 , Serotonina
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3508, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241716

RESUMO

Systems-level studies aimed at determining how soil properties are linked to plant production and ultimately animal response spatially are lacking. This study aims to identify if grazing pressure is linked to soil properties, terrain attributes, and above-ground plant accumulation and nutritive value in a silvopastoral (or integrated tree-livestock) system. Overall, cattle prefer grazing native grasses (2.81 vs. 1.24 h ha-1 AU-1) and udic (dry) landscape positions compared to aquic (wet) areas (2.07 vs. 1.60 h ha-1 AU-1). Greater grazing frequency occurs in udic soils with greater phosphorus and potassium contents and with accumulated forage with less lignin (P ≤ 0.05), which correspond to reduced elevation and greater tree height and diameter (shade) during summer mob grazing. Combining spatial monitoring technologies (both soil and animal) with forage allowance can optimize grazing systems management and sustainability spatially and temporally.


Assuntos
Solo , Água , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Gado , Plantas , Poaceae , Árvores
16.
Poult Sci ; 101(4): 101754, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245804

RESUMO

Management strategies can have positive effects on laying hen welfare, including prevention of damaging behavior, aggression, and fear, particularly by using environmental enrichment (EE). However, few studies have investigated the effects of the provision of EE in commercial aviary flocks. This knowledge gap is particularly significant considering the increasing numbers of non-beak trimmed hens worldwide kept in aviaries. The aim of this study was to survey and investigate the relationship between commercially applied EE and plumage condition and fearfulness in Norwegian flocks of loose-housed laying hens. Forty-five indoor multi-tiered aviary-system flocks of laying hens from across Norway were visited at the end of lay (range: 70-76 wk of age). The flocks consisted of either Lohmann LSL (n = 30) or Dekalb White (n = 15) non-beak-trimmed hens. During the visit, the researchers collected data on the farmers' use of the following five types of enrichment: pecking stones, gravel, oyster shells, grains scattered in the litter, and "toys". Feather loss was assessed individually in approximately 50 hens per flock and scores were awarded using a 3-point scale (0-2) for each of the following body parts: head, back/wings, breast, and tail. Finally, a novel object test was performed in 4 different locations in each house. The results showed that damage to the tail feathers was correlated positively to the first age of provision of toys (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.41; P = 0.051) and negatively to the amounts of gravel stones provided (Pearson correlation coefficient = -0.43, P = 0.02). No other associations between the welfare indicators and the provision of EE objects were found, likely because of the low variation of enrichment provision. The present study showed that the provision of EE objects such as toys and gravel stones can have significant benefits to the condition of laying hen plumage. This study also adds to the body of literature supporting the importance of early life experiences on the behavioral development of laying hens and on their welfare at older ages.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Agressão , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Medo , Plumas , Feminino
17.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(1): 61-72, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in molecular source tracking make answering questions from residents regarding their exposure to microbial contaminants from industrial hog operations (IHOs) possible. Associations between residential distance to IHOs and exposure can be addressed by measuring livestock-associated (Staphylococcus aureus) and pig-specific bacteria in the air, on household surfaces, and in participants' nasal and saliva swabs. OBJECTIVES: Here we assess the mechanics, feasibility, capacity-building, and lessons learned during a pilot study employing this novel technology in community-based participatory research of bacterial exposure and human health. METHODS: Together, our team of academics and community members designed a field- and laboratory-based pilot study. Air samples, surface and human swabs, and questionnaires from households at varying distances from IHOs were collected. Data were assessed for completeness and quality by two independent reviewers. These metrics were defined as: missingness (completeness), incorrect data type (validity), out of range (validity), and outliers (accuracy). LESSONS LEARNED: While critical field equipment was obtained, and knowledge exchange occurred, leading to an increased capacity for future work, after review, 38 of 49 households were deemed eligible for inclusion in the study. Of eligible participants, 98% of required electronic survey questions were complete and 100% were valid; an improvement over prior work which employed paper surveys. While all human microbial and air samples were collected from eligible households (n = 231), (5%) of environmental swabs were reported missing. CONCLUSIONS: Using community-appropriate sampling protocols, a pilot study of residential exposure to bacteria from IHOs was completed. While high-quality data was collected from those eligible, we learned the necessity of early and continual data review.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Suínos
18.
Poult Sci ; 101(5): 101788, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346497

RESUMO

The use of "omics" has become widespread across poultry production, from breeding to management to bird health to food safety and everywhere in between.  While the conventional poultry industry has become more exposed to the power and utility of "omic" technologies, smaller poultry flock producers typically do not have this same level of experience. Because smaller, nonconventional poultry production is a growing portion of the overall poultry market, it is important that they also have educational access to these research tools and the resultant data. While small flock producers are dedicated and knowledgeable farmers, their knowledge of these newer technologies may be limited at best, and it is the task of academic researchers to communicate the importance of these "omic" tools and how the omic data can improve a variety of different aspects of their operations. This review discusses ways to effectively communicate complex microbiota and microbial genome sequence data to small flock producers and transforming this data into meaningful and applicable information that they can utilize to inform beneficial management decisions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Aves Domésticas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Biologia Computacional , Fazendeiros , Humanos
19.
Vet Rec ; 190(5): 177, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244269
20.
Meat Sci ; 188: 108776, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245709

RESUMO

This research aimed to study the perception of French consumers on "cultured meat". The respondents (n = 5418) are characterised by an over-representation of young people, meat professional or scientists compared to the French population. Approximately 40-50% of them believed that animal husbandry faced ethical and environmental issues. Only 18-26% of them believed that "cultured meat" could solve these difficulties, a majority thought that it would not be healthy or tasty and that "cultured meat" is an "absurd and/or disgusting" idea. However, 23.9% and 16.9% thought it is a "fun and/or interesting" and a "promising and/or feasible" idea and 91.7% were not prepared to buy "cultured meat" at a higher price than meat. The respondents not familiar with "cultured meat", young people or women are more in support of it due to a greater sensitivity to issues related to livestock systems. Older men and meat professionals are the most reluctant. Thus, the "cultured meat" market would represent at best a niche market.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne , Adolescente , Idoso , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Células Musculares , Paladar
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