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1.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 36, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional veterinary medicine (TVM) or ethnoveterinary medicine comprises knowledge, practices, and beliefs about farm animals. Its study serves to offer ecologically and culturally appropriate strategies for the management of animals and their health in a context marked by the increased use of synthetic pharmaceuticals, social-environmental degradation, pollution, and climate change. In this study, we examine the TVM that Mapuche and non-Mapuche campesinos in the southern Andes have about the management of animals and their health. In addition, we investigate the main factors influencing the current use of TVM. METHODS: Between December 2020 and March 2021, we undertook participant observation and conducted 60 semi-structured and informal interviews with Mapuche and non-Mapuche campesinos from the Pucón and Curarrehue municipal districts in the southern Andes of Chile. RESULTS: We identified a set of knowledge about cycles and manifestations of nature used in planning 14 animal management practices related to a Mapuche kosmos expressed in living with respect for and in dialogue with non-human elements. On health management, we recorded knowledge about 30 plant species, whose use for different categories of wounds and parasites has the highest informant consensus factors. The use of these plant species is governed by a kosmos associated with respect and reciprocity in their gathering. Nonetheless, 70% of the campesinos interviewed prefer to use synthetic pharmaceuticals. We found that the growing use of synthetic pharmaceuticals, the processes of reduction and change in the structure of land ownership, and climate change are perceived as the main factors behind processes of assimilation of new praxis and hybridization as well as the reduction and/or loss of the use of TVM. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal the presence of ethnoveterinary knowledge, practices, and beliefs that are safeguarded by Mapuche and non-Mapuche campesinos in the southern Andes. However, in the context of different social-environmental changes, it is imperative to document, visibilize, and revitalize TVM since it provides new perspectives for bioculturally diverse and sustainable animal production.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Medicina Tradicional , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 154, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359163

RESUMO

In this changing climate scenario, the availability of potable water has become scarce for both humans and animals in many parts of the world. Continuous supply of water is crucial for animals' life as well as different body and sanitary maintenance needs. Water availability has a direct and indirect role in clenching thirst, feeding, cleaning of animals and their environment, and other dairy operations. Water intake by dairy animals is affected by several factors including body weight of animals, genetic makeup, dry matter intake, mineral content of feed offered, milk productivity, environmental conditions, and water temperature. Behavioral patterns of dairy animals are adversely affected by restriction of water supply to them. Researchers have recommended that ad libitum water supply should be assured to the farm animals to avoid any negative effect on their health and performances. In the recent years, there is growing interest in quantifying the effects of restricted water supply to dairy animals. Many studies have demonstrated that the availability of potable water for animals will be a great challenge soon. Therefore, the present review paper has been formulated to gain better understanding of the factors affecting water intake in dairy animals and management strategies to ensure availability of water resources essential for their health, production, and well-being.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Água , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Peso Corporal , Bovinos
3.
J Parasitol ; 108(2): 180-191, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377438

RESUMO

Dioctophyme renale has a worldwide distribution and has been diagnosed in several wild and domestic animals as well as in humans. As numerous reports in the literature exist concerning the presence of D. renale in different animal species, as well as its diagnosis, treatment, and confirmation in new geographic areas, we reviewed existing information to contribute to the knowledge of the etiology, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of D. renale. Results of dioctophymosis may range from asymptomatic infection to even death of the host. Diagnosis is based on data from morphology, imaging, and antibody testing, with surgical treatment being the most effective. A high potential for infection of pets exists when there is overlap with wild parasitized animals; given common risk factors for infections in humans, D. renale should be considered as having zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Dioctophymatoidea , Infecções por Enoplida , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Biologia , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/terapia , Fatores de Risco
4.
STAR Protoc ; 3(2): 101326, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479115

RESUMO

Frequent monitoring of laboratory animals is critical for ensuring animal welfare and experimental data collection. To minimize the adverse and confounding effects caused by current monitoring protocols and human presence, we developed a low-cost, non-invasive, remotely accessible, extensible infrared video monitoring system. This protocol describes the construction and operation of the system, followed by applying deep-learning neural networks to track group-housed, unmarked mice for objective behavioral quantification. This system can be adapted to a variety of home-cage environments and species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Camundongos , Movimento
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 29: 100688, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256116

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infects warm-blooded animals, including humans, and the ingestion of undercooked meat of infected animals is an important source of infection. We investigated the presence of T. gondii by PCR and histopathology in tissues of 25 seropositive sheep slaughtered for human consumption in Rio de Janeiro and assessed the suitability of different tissues for molecular detection of the parasite. The animals were first screened for T. gondii antibodies by MAT (Modified Agglutination Test), and tissues of seropositive sheep (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and diaphragm) were subjected to molecular and histological examination. A nested-PCR targeting the P43 gene of T. gondii was performed, and kappa Coefficient was used to assess PCR results among tissues. DNA of the parasite was detected in 60 % (9 of 15) of the animals. and tissue pairs of lungs/heart, lungs/diaphragm or heart/diaphragm had substantial agreement with the global status of the animals. The combination between these three tissues leads to an almost perfect agreement with global status results. Sheep slaughtered for human consumption in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are infected with T. gondii, and pairs of fragments of lungs and heart, lungs and diaphragm or heart and diaphragm could be used for molecular identification of T. gondii in sheep with substantial agreement with the global status of the animals.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ovinos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 29: 100691, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256119

RESUMO

A total of 3311 tick specimens were randomly collected from domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, and dogs from Lesotho districts namely, Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing and Thaba Tseka. Tick species were identified morphologically and verified by amplification and sequencing of the CO1 and 18S rRNA genes. Nine species were identified under different genera namely, Haemaphysalis elliptica 0.1% (n = 2), Hyalomma rufipes 2.6% (n = 87), Hy. truncatum 1.2% (n = 41), Otobius megnini 13.6% (n = 451), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 0.1% (n = 3), Rhipicephalus decoloratus 9.3% (n = 308), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi 65.1% (n = 2156), Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum 1.3% (n = 43) and Rhipicephalus microplus 6.6% (n = 220). There was a significant difference at p = 6.2E-06 (ꭓ2 = 1.923, df = 7) in the distribution of tick species and their abundance p = 0.04 (ꭓ2 = 1.923, df = 7) from each population. The CO1 and 18S rRNA sequences matched the morphological determinations on the NCBI database and clustered with relevant species on the phylogenetic tree. Genetic analysis of CO1 and 18S rRNA provided very strong support for monophyly of the Rhipicephalinae and Ornithodorinae complexes. Both CO1 and 18S rRNA are useful genetic markers for the specific and generic characterization of tick species in Lesotho and elsewhere. This is the first scientific publication of tick species occurring in Lesotho.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos , Ixodidae , Rhipicephalus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , Cães , Cavalos , Lesoto , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Rhipicephalus/genética , Ovinos , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264439, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294479

RESUMO

Conserved IncI1 and IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 have been found circulating in chickens and horses from continental Europe, respectively. In Canada, blaCTX-M-1 is overwhelmingly the most common blaCTX-M variant found in Escherichia coli from chicken and horses and can be recovered at lower frequencies in swine, cattle, and dogs. Whole-genome sequencing has identified a large genetic diversity of isolates carrying this variant, warranting further investigations into the plasmids carrying this gene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the genetic profiles of blaCTX-M-1 plasmids circulating in E. coli from Canadian domestic animals and compare them to those recovered in animals in Europe. Fifty-one blaCTX-M-1 positive E. coli isolates from chicken (n = 14), horses (racetrack horses n = 11; community horses n = 3), swine (n = 7), turkey (n = 6), dogs (n = 5), beef cattle (n = 3), and dairy cattle (n = 2) were selected for plasmid characterization. Sequences were obtained through both Illumina and Oxford Nanopore technologies. Genomes were assembled using either Unicycler hybrid assembly or Flye with polishing performed using Pilon. blaCTX-M-1 was found residing on a plasmid in 45 isolates and chromosomally located in six isolates. A conserved IncI1/ST3 plasmid was identified among chicken (n = 12), turkey (n = 4), swine (n = 6), dog (n = 2), and beef cattle (n = 2) isolates. When compared against publicly available data, these plasmids showed a high degree of similarity to those identified in isolates from poultry and swine in Europe. These results suggest that an epidemic IncI1/ST3 plasmid similar to the one found in Europe is contributing to the spread of blaCTX-M-1 in Canada. A conserved IncHI1/FIA(HI1)/ST2 plasmid was also recovered from nearly all racetrack horse isolates (n = 10). Although IncHI1/ST2 plasmids have been reported among European horse isolates, IncHI1/ST9 plasmids appear to be more widespread. Further studies are necessary to understand the factors contributing to these plasmids' success in their respective populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Antibacterianos , Canadá , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , Cães , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Cavalos/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , beta-Lactamases/genética
8.
Acta Trop ; 230: 106416, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317999

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have developed strategies to control trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in endemic areas. These require a better understanding of the distribution of different Trypanosoma species and improved predictions of where they might appear in the future, based on accurate diagnosis and robust surveillance systems. Here, we describe a metabarcoding deep amplicon sequencing method to identify and determine the Trypanosoma species in co-infecting communities. First, four morphological verified Trypanosoma species (T. brucei, T. congolense, T. vivax and T. theileri) were used to prepare test DNA pools derived from different numbers of parasites to evaluate the method's detection threshold for each of the four species and to assess the accuracy of their proportional quantification. Having demonstrated the accurate determination of species composition in Trypanosoma communities, the method was applied to determine its detection threshold using blood samples collected from cattle with confirmed Trypanosoma infections based on a PCR assay. Each sample showed a different Trypanosoma species composition based on the proportion of MiSeq reads. Finally, we applied the assay to field samples to develop new insight into the species composition of Trypanosoma communities in cattle, camels, buffalo, horses, sheep, and goat in endemically infected regions of Pakistan. We confirmed that Trypanosoma evansi is the major species in Pakistan and for the first time showed the presence of Trypanosoma theileri. The metabarcoding deep amplicon sequencing method and bioinformatics pathway have several potential applications in animal and human research, including evaluation of drug treatment responses, understanding of the emergence and spread of drug resistance, and description of species interactions during co-infections and determination of host and geographic distribution of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Trypanosoma , Tripanossomíase , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Gado , Ovinos , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária
9.
Animal ; 16(4): 100495, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338903

RESUMO

Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is used as an indicator of long-term stress or pathologies in humans and increasingly in animals. Although the main mechanism for the incorporation of cortisol into the hair shaft is by diffusion from blood, cortisol may also be incorporated from external sources by contamination of the hair surface. In farm animals under conventional husbandry conditions and trapped animals, contamination of hair with cortisol-containing body fluids, especially with urine, was shown to be a considerable confounding factor when studying HCCs. We recently found that cattle and pigs exhibit elevated HCCs in distal hair segments and assume that the incorporation of external cortisol is facilitated in these older hair segments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of urine contamination on HCC in different hair segments of pigs and cattle, and to determine whether different cleaning protocols can prevent contamination effects. In an in vivo experiment in pigs (n = 18) and an in vitro experiment in cattle (n = 12), hairs were repeatedly contaminated with urine of the respective species and then shaved or cut in segments. Cortisol concentrations in hair segments were analysed by enzyme immunoassay after washing with isopropanol and extraction with methanol. Results were compared with HCCs in untreated hairs or hairs treated with water. Moreover, additional bovine hair samples contaminated with urine were subjected to two further cleaning procedures. Contamination with urine generally increased HCCs, and it was demonstrated for the first time that this effect is more pronounced in distal compared to proximal hair segments in both species. The immersion of bovine hair in vitro in water caused a washout of cortisol, which was also more pronounced in distal hair segments. In general, the different cleaning protocols for cattle hair did not prevent contamination effects, so we assume that external cortisol not only adheres but is incorporated into the hair shaft. Structural damage of older, distal hair segments may facilitate permeability of the hair matrix and diffusion of cortisol from and into aqueous solutions. Thus, the validity of HCC as a marker of stress is compromised in animals where soiling of hair with body fluids is a risk factor. Therefore, hair samples should be collected from clean body regions and, if possible, using proximal hair segments.


Assuntos
Cabelo , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Bovinos , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Suínos , Água/metabolismo
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 108, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, ixodid ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are of great importance from both a veterinary and public health point of view. This review aimed at compiling available published data on the distribution of ixodid tick species and TBPs in the country. METHODS: A standard review approach was employed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Published peer-reviewed articles and theses/dissertations reporting on ixodid ticks and TBPs in Ethiopia were searched using different keywords in many electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, African Journals OnLine, and institutional repositories. Articles were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria using the PRISMA flowchart. Data were retrieved from eligible articles and recorded in a preformed data record sheet. Descriptive statistics were employed to present data using graphs. QGIS (Quantum GIS) software version 3.4.5 was used to show the distribution of ixodid tick species and TBPs. RESULTS: Overall, 35 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review. Of these, 24 articles report only on ixodid ticks of domestic animals, six articles report only on TBPs in livestock or ticks, and five articles report on both ticks and TBPs in either animals or ticks. Of these studies, 54% were in the Oromia region, while only 3% of studies were in the Benishangul-Gumuz region. The Gambela region lacked studies on ticks and TBPs. At least 19 ixodid tick species have been recorded from different domestic animals including cattle, small ruminants, donkeys, horses, camels, dogs, and cats. Morphological characterization appears to be the sole method of tick species identification in the country. The distribution and abundance of specific tick species depend on geographical locations and agroecological factors. Sixteen molecularly confirmed TBPs have been identified in animal and tick tissue using molecular methods from only four administrative regions, despite the wide distribution of ticks. Among TBPs, five Anaplasma, two Ehrlichia, two Rickettsia, five Theileria, two Babesia, and one Coxiella species are the major pathogens in both livestock and humans. CONCLUSIONS: Many ixodid ticks circulate in a wide geographical zone of Ethiopia. However, the limited reports on TBPs at the country level in general, and the absence of either tick or TBP reports around the border region with neighboring countries in particular, highlights the need for further study.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/microbiologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 86, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are important vectors of various pathogenic protozoa, bacteria and viruses that cause serious and life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals worldwide. Estimating tick-borne pathogen prevalence in tick populations is necessary to delineate how geographical differences, environmental variability and host factors influence pathogen prevalence and transmission. This study identified ticks and tick-borne pathogens in samples collected from June 2016 to December 2017 at seven sites within the Coastal, Sudan and Guinea savanna ecological zones of Ghana. METHODS: A total of 2016 ticks were collected from domestic animals including cattle, goats and dogs. Ticks were morphologically identified and analysed for pathogens such as Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii using polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and sequence analysis. RESULTS: Seven species were identified, with Amblyomma variegatum (60%) most frequently found, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21%), Rhipicephalus spp. (9%), Hyalomma truncatum (6%), Hyalomma rufipes (3%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (1%) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp. (0.1%). Out of 912 pools of ticks tested, Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA was found in 45.6% and 16.7% of pools, respectively, whereas no CCHFV or AHFV RNA were detected. Co-infection of bacterial DNA was identified in 9.6% of tick pools, with no statistical difference among the ecozones studied. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data, humans and animals in these ecological zones are likely at the highest risk of exposure to rickettsiosis, since ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. displayed the highest rates of infection and co-infection with C. burnetii, compared to other tick-borne pathogens in Ghana.


Assuntos
Rhipicephalus , Rickettsia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , Cães , Gana/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rickettsia/genética
12.
Yi Chuan ; 44(3): 216-229, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307645

RESUMO

The horse (Equus caballus) was domesticated thousands of years after dog, cattle, pig, sheep, and goat. Importantly, it represents the domestic animal that mostly impacted the development of human civilization. Its excellent loading and moving ability prompted the changes from fixed farming mode into mobile sharing mode. Accordingly, its domestication history deserves considerable attention. So far, many issues have long been controversial, due to the extinction of the closest wild relatives and the dramatic reduction of genetic diversity. With the continuous development of sequencing technology and the utilization of ancient samples, we got more clues to the origin and domestication process. In this review, we summarize 1) current progresses on the domestication history revealed by nuclear genes, mtDNA, Y chromosome, and ancient DNA, 2) the characteristics of population structure and diversification among modern breeds, 3) the genetic basis of important phenotypes, such as coat color, speed, and body size. The overall aim of the review is to provide in-depth insights into the studies of horse domestication, the preservation and utilization of genetic resources, the direction of breeding improvement, and the development of modern horse industry in future.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Domesticação , Cavalos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cavalos/genética , Filogenia
13.
J Anim Sci ; 100(3)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137116

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most functionally important epigenetic modification in RNA. The m6A modification widely exists in mRNA and noncoding RNA, influences the mRNA processing, and regulates the secondary structure and maturation of noncoding RNA. Studies showed the important regulatory roles of m6A modification in animal's complex traits, such as development, immunity, and reproduction-related traits. As an important intermediate stage from animal genome to phenotype, the function of m6A in the complex trait formation of domestic animals cannot be neglected. This review discusses recent research advances on m6A modification in well-studied organisms, such as human and model organisms, and introduces m6A detection technologies, small-molecule inhibitors of m6A-related enzymes, interaction between m6A and other biological progresses, and the regulation mechanisms of m6A in domesticated animals' complex traits.


N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant RNA modification in eukaryotes. Current studies showed that the m6A modification widely regulates a series of life processes, such as biological metabolism, growth and development, inflammation, and cancer. Understanding the m6A process of domestic animals can provide a new breakthrough for further promoting animal production performance and improving reproduction and disease resistance. Thus, this review briefly introduces m6A-related enzymes, m6A detection technologies, small-molecule inhibitors of m6A-related enzymes, and interaction between m6A and other biological progresses. In addition, the regulation mechanisms of m6A in domesticated animals' complex traits are elaborated and discussed.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Herança Multifatorial , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética
14.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(2): 69-75, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175137

RESUMO

In pre-Hispanic Mexico, dogs were not identified as an important source of rabies. We know from codexes and chronicles of the conquerors that at that time, rabies cases in humans and domestic animals were caused by local wildlife species such as bats. Canine-rabies virus variant seems to have arrived with Europeans. The first documented case of canine rabies in the Americas is found in Mexico in the Annals of the Holy Inquisition (16th century). During Mexico's independence, cases were frequently reported. In the 19th century the first attempts to control human rabies were made through sanitary measures such as elimination of rabid dogs and applying postexposure vaccination. During the first half of the 20th century, the efficacy of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies was established. However, in Mexico, despite reports of numerous human cases (>70/year), canine vaccination did not have enough coverage. It was only during the 1990s that Mexico made a serious commitment to eliminate dog-transmitted human rabies. Since the beginning, vaccination campaigns have been free and massive. Coverage increased from 7,100,000 doses in 1990 to more than 18,000,000 since 2017. This culminated in the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies cases since 2006. Subsequently, the epidemiology of rabies had changed. Nowadays, it is wildlife species (mainly bats and skunks) that are the source of human rabies. As a mega-biodiverse country Mexico has numerous wildlife species with potential to transmit rabies virus. Thus it is paramount to remain vigilant with respect to canine vaccination campaigns and to promote rabies research in wildlife.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Mephitidae , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Estados Unidos
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(3): e398-e408, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Each year, 2 million people worldwide are bitten by snakes, resulting in an estimated 81 000-138 000 deaths. WHO has added snakebite envenoming to the list of neglected tropical diseases, highlighting the need for stronger epidemiological evidence in endemic countries, such as Nepal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in villages randomly geospatially selected from aerial images from across the Nepal's Terai lowlands region (excluding towns and cities). We collected data between Nov 30, 2018 and May 7, 2019, and analysed snakebite incidence rates and outcomes in humans and domestic animals. FINDINGS: Among 63 454 human participants living in 13 879 households (249 villages), 166 were bitten by a snake over the previous 12 months; 48·8% were envenomed and 7·8% died. This corresponded to an annual crude incidence rate of 262 snakebites (adjusted incidence of 251·1 [95% CI 201·7-312·6]) and 20 deaths (22·4 [11·9-42·1]) per 100 000 people, extrapolating to 26 749-37 661 yearly bitten people and 2386-3225 deaths. Bitten people had a median age of 30 years (IQR 20-45) and with available data, 64% were female. Children younger than 15 years (n=6; 46%) and females (n=10; 77%) were disproportionately affected among the 13 people who died. The incidence was higher in the Eastern region, and mortality was higher in the Central region. Of 183 949 animals, owners reported 144 snakebites, with an annual incidence rate of 42-202 per 100 000 and mortality of 79-100%, varying by animal type. Spatial and seasonal incidence were similar in humans and in animals. INTERPRETATION: This study provides the first epidemiological estimates of snakebite envenoming in humans and domestic animals across Nepal's Terai lowlands. It was also the first to use a community-based, transdisciplinary, and One Health design. These findings call for a strengthening of preventive measures and better access to life-saving treatments. FUNDING: Swiss National Science Foundation project 315130_176271 (SNAKE-BYTE).


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Meat Sci ; 187: 108747, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121336

RESUMO

Consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare (FAW) are not a one-dimensional phenomenon; they entail various attitudinal and social dimensions related to ethnicity, agri-food culture, ethics, purchasing power and beliefs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify segments of South American consumers of animal products according to their attitudes towards FAW. An online survey was carried out among participants from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (n = 2852). A factor analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis identified four consumers' segments based on their attitudes towards FAW. The first corresponds to consumers ethically committed to FAW (n = 1323), the second to those committed to farmers and interested in labels (n = 215), the third to consumers interested in FAW and farmers and their efforts towards FAW (n = 993), and the fourth, associated with apathetic consumers (n = 321). Although FAW is a relatively new commercial phenomenon in South America, our results showed that concern for animals may be a universal human value, which can overcome traditional dichotomies between rich-poor or developed-undeveloped countries.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais Domésticos , Animais , Argentina , Atitude , Bolívia , Chile , Colômbia , Equador , Fazendas , Peru
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2866, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190565

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the named "acidic sterolbiome" and in the genetic potential of the gut microbiome (GM) to modify bile acid (BA) structure. Indeed, the qualitative composition of BAs in feces correlates with the bowel microorganisms and their collective genetic material. GM is responsible for the production of BA metabolites, such as secondary and oxo-BAs. The specific BA profiles, as microbiome-host co-metabolic products, could be useful to investigate the GM-host interaction in animals under physiological conditions, as well as in specific diseases. In this context, we developed and validated an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of up to 21 oxo-BAs and their 9 metabolic precursors. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 7 min with adequate analytical performance in terms of selectivity, sensitivity (LOQ from 0.05 to 0.1 µg/mL), accuracy (bias% < 5%), precision (CV% < 5%) and matrix effect (ME% < 10%). A fast solvent extraction protocol has been fine-tuned, achieving recoveries > 90%. In parallel, the gut microbiota assessment in farming animals was evaluated by 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing, and the correlation with the BA composition was performed by multivariate analysis, allowing to reconstruct species-specific associations between the BA profile and specific GM components.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Acta Trop ; 229: 106361, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149041

RESUMO

Trained immunity is a biological concept that has been demonstrated in different animal species, including human beings. Evidences indicate that innate immune cells can be trained and have a "memory". Under this concept, studies have shown that a first stimulus can potentiate immune responses upon a second one or protect upon homologous or heterologous pathogenic challenges. Research progress on trained innate immunity in mouse models and human beings has provided key information of this phenomenon. In domestic animals, this concept offers a heterologous protection against diseases. Recent studies in domestic animals have demonstrated that trained immunity is induced even by mucosal routes rather than only parenteral routes, as previously evidenced in mice and humans. This situation has led to a major breakthrough in the biotechnology field. Remarkably, the recent first proof-of-concept in calves and goats provides a reality beyond trained immunity as an affordable immunobiotechnological approach to control diseases. Currently, several responses to questions that have been deciphered in mouse and humans seem different in domestic animals; even these differences have been observed among animal species and breeds, which open new questions and challenges. The information of mechanistic studies in domestic animals based on the trained immunity paradigm has not been integrated before; therefore, it needs to be discussed and accurately presented. Moreover, prospects should be defined and biotechnological perspectives provided to promote research and development (R&D) to become a near reality in domestic animal, so this is the main objective of the review.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Memória Imunológica , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263276, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130282

RESUMO

In the context of studies on the effects of agricultural production diversity, there are debates in the scientific community as to the level of diversification appropriate for improving dietary diversity. In Tunisia, agriculture is a strategic sector for the economy and a critical pillar of its food sovereignty. Using instrumental variable methods to account for endogeneity, we have estimated the association between agricultural production diversity and women's dietary diversity among smallholder farming households in the Sidi Bouzid governorate (central Tunisia). Although we found a low level of agricultural production diversity and a fairly diversified diet among women, we observed a systematic weak positive association between five different indicators of agricultural production diversity and women's dietary diversity. We observed a stronger positive association between women's dietary diversity and women being more educated and households being wealthier. Neither diversity of food supplies in food markets nor market distance were associated with women's dietary diversity, whereas we observed a higher level of consumption of some products (dairy) when they were produced on the farm.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adulto , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribuição , Laticínios/provisão & distribuição , Dieta/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Características da Família , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263830, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148331

RESUMO

Neural crest cell genes control the migration of neural crest cells to multiple parts of developing vertebrate embryos. A recent hypothesis posits that the "domestication syndrome" characteristic of domesticated animals is driven by selection for tameness acting on neural crest cell genes, particularly those affecting cell migration. This is posited to explain why this syndrome involves many disparate phenotypic effects. These effects can be connected to deficits in neural crest cell migration. This hypothesis predicts that patterns of selection on these neural crest cell genes will differ between domesticated species and related wild species. Specifically, it predicts higher levels of positive selection on these genes in domesticated species, relative to closely related wild species. Here we test this prediction in a comparative framework. We obtained DNA sequences from a public database (NCBI) for eleven key neural crest cell genes from a set of thirty domesticated vertebrates and matched close relatives that remain wild. We used the program Contrast-FEL in the software suite HyPhy to compare the number of sites under positive selection (as measured by non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates across codons) between these two types of taxa in a phylogenetic framework. We found that domesticated lineages showed a consistently higher level of positive selection on these key genes, relative to their closely related wild counterparts. In addition, we found support for relaxation of selection and purifying selection. We argue that this result is consistent with an important role for these genes in the domestication syndrome.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Animais Selvagens/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Crista Neural/citologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Movimento Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Domesticação , Crista Neural/química , Seleção Genética , Mutação Silenciosa , Coluna Vertebral , Vertebrados
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