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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 178, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, multifactorial, polygenic disease. The rate of occurrence of COPD in the Kashi population (Uyghur) is significantly higher than that observed nationwide. The identification of COPD-related genes in the Chinese Uyghur population could provide useful insights that could help us understand this phenomenon. Our previous whole-exome sequencing study of three Uyghur families with COPD demonstrated that 72 mutations in 55 genes might be associated with COPD; these included rs15783G > A in the anoctamin 3 (ANO3) gene/mucin 15 (MUC15) gene, rs1800517G > A in the collagen type IV alpha 4 chain (COL4A4) gene, rs11960G > A in the ribosome binding protein 1 (RRBP1) gene, and rs5516C > G in the kallikrein 1 (KLK1) gene. This case-control study aimed to further validate the association of the four mutations with COPD in the Chinese Uyghur population. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was used for the genotyping of four polymorphisms (ANO3/MUC15 rs15783, COL4A4 rs1800517, RRBP1 rs11960, and KLK1 rs5516) in 541 unrelated Uyghur COPD patients and 534 Uyghur healthy controls. We then conducted stratified analyses based on the smoking status and airflow limitation severity, to explore the correlation between selected gene polymorphisms and COPD. RESULTS: ANO3/MUC15 rs15783 and KLK1 rs5516 polymorphisms could significantly reduce COPD risk (p < 0.05), but COL4A4 rs1800517 and RRBP1 rs11960 polymorphisms were not correlated with COPD in the entire population. In a stratified analysis of smoking status, non-smokers with the ANO3/MUC15 rs15783G/G genotype (OR = 0.63, p = 0.032) or COL4A4 rs1800517 allele G (OR = 0.80, p = 0.023) had a reduced risk of COPD. Smokers with the RRBP1 rs11960A/G genotype had a lower risk of COPD (OR = 0.41, p = 0.025). The KLK1 rs5516G > C polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of COPD (OR < 1, p < 0.05), irrespective of the smoking status of individuals. No significant association with COPD severity was observed in individuals with these four polymorphisms (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We identified four previously unreported mutations (ANO3/MUC15 rs15783, COL4A4 rs1800517, RRBP1 rs11960, and KLK1 rs5516) that might decrease the COPD risk in individuals with different smoking statuses in the Chinese Uyghur population. Our findings provide new light for the genetic risk factors associated with the occurrence of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Anoctaminas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Mucinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Calicreínas Teciduais/genética
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(6): 1815-1824, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hereditary myopathies with limb-girdle muscular weakness (LGW) are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, in which molecular diagnosis remains challenging. Our aim was to present a detailed clinical and genetic characterization of a large cohort of patients with LGW. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study included patients with LGW suspected to be associated with hereditary myopathies. Parameters associated with specific genetic aetiologies were evaluated, and we further assessed how they predicted the detection of causative variants by conducting genetic analyses. RESULTS: Molecular diagnoses were identified in 62.0% (75/121) of the cohort, with a higher proportion of patients diagnosed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) than by single-gene testing (77.3% vs. 22.7% of solved cases). The median (interquartile range) time from onset to genetic diagnosis was 8.9 (3.7-19.9) and 17.8 (7.9-27.8) years for single-gene testing and NGS, respectively. The most common diagnoses were myopathies associated with variants in CAPN3 (n = 9), FKRP (n = 9), ANO5 (n = 8), DYSF (n = 8) and SGCA (n = 5), which together accounted for 32.2% of the cohort. Younger age at disease onset (p = 0.043), >10× elevated creatine kinase activity levels (p = 0.024) and myopathic electromyography findings (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with the detection of causative variants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an earlier use of NGS in patients with LGW is needed to avoid long diagnostic delays. We further present parameters predictive of a molecular diagnosis that may help to select patients for genetic analyses, especially in centres with limited access to sequencing.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros , Anoctaminas/genética , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Pentosiltransferases/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163502

RESUMO

The TMEM16A/anoctamin-1 calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) contributes to a range of vital functions, such as the control of vascular tone and epithelial ion transport. The channel is a founding member of a family of 10 proteins (TMEM16x) with varied functions; some members (i.e., TMEM16A and TMEM16B) serve as CaCCs, while others are lipid scramblases, combine channel and scramblase function, or perform additional cellular roles. TMEM16x proteins are typically activated by agonist-induced Ca2+ release evoked by Gq-protein-coupled receptor (GqPCR) activation; thus, TMEM16x proteins link Ca2+-signalling with cell electrical activity and/or lipid transport. Recent studies demonstrate that a range of other cellular factors-including plasmalemmal lipids, pH, hypoxia, ATP and auxiliary proteins-also control the activity of the TMEM16A channel and its paralogues, suggesting that the TMEM16x proteins are effectively polymodal sensors of cellular homeostasis. Here, we review the molecular pathophysiology, structural biology, and mechanisms of regulation of TMEM16x proteins by multiple cellular factors.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/metabolismo , Anoctaminas/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Animais , Anoctaminas/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
4.
Brain ; 145(2): 555-568, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022648

RESUMO

Febrile seizures represent the most common type of pathological brain activity in young children and are influenced by genetic, environmental and developmental factors. In a minority of cases, febrile seizures precede later development of epilepsy. We conducted a genome-wide association study of febrile seizures in 7635 cases and 83 966 controls identifying and replicating seven new loci, all with P < 5 × 10-10. Variants at two loci were functionally related to altered expression of the fever response genes PTGER3 and IL10, and four other loci harboured genes (BSN, ERC2, GABRG2, HERC1) influencing neuronal excitability by regulating neurotransmitter release and binding, vesicular transport or membrane trafficking at the synapse. Four previously reported loci (SCN1A, SCN2A, ANO3 and 12q21.33) were all confirmed. Collectively, the seven novel and four previously reported loci explained 2.8% of the variance in liability to febrile seizures, and the single nucleotide polymorphism heritability based on all common autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms was 10.8%. GABRG2, SCN1A and SCN2A are well-established epilepsy genes and, overall, we found positive genetic correlations with epilepsies (rg = 0.39, P = 1.68 × 10-4). Further, we found that higher polygenic risk scores for febrile seizures were associated with epilepsy and with history of hospital admission for febrile seizures. Finally, we found that polygenic risk of febrile seizures was lower in febrile seizure patients with neuropsychiatric disease compared to febrile seizure patients in a general population sample. In conclusion, this largest genetic investigation of febrile seizures to date implicates central fever response genes as well as genes affecting neuronal excitability, including several known epilepsy genes. Further functional and genetic studies based on these findings will provide important insights into the complex pathophysiological processes of seizures with and without fever.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Convulsões Febris , Anoctaminas/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/genética , Febre/complicações , Febre/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Convulsões Febris/genética
5.
J Mol Diagn ; 24(3): 262-273, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041927

RESUMO

Dystonia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous movement disorder. However, genetic causes of dystonia remain largely unknown in Asian subjects. To address this, we applied an integrated two-step approach that included gene dosage analysis and a next-generation sequencing panel containing 72 known genes causative for dystonia and related movement disorders to 318 Taiwanese patients with isolated or combined dystonia. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for one multiplex family with no known causative variant. The panel confirmed the genetic diagnosis in 40 probands (12.6%). A genetic diagnosis was more likely with juvenile onset compared with adult onset (24.2% vs 10.8%; P = 0.03) and those with combined features, especially with myoclonus, compared with isolated dystonia (35.3% vs 10.5%; P = 0.004). The most common causative genes were SGCE followed by GCH1, TH, CACNA1B, PRRT2, MR1, CIZ1, PLA2G6, and PRKN. Genetic causes were identified from single cases in TOR1A, TUBB4A, THAP1, ATP1A3, ANO3, GNAL, KMT2B, SLC6A3, ADCY5, CYP27A1, PANK2, C19orf12, and SPG11. The whole-genome sequencing analysis identified a novel intragenic deletion in OPHN1 in a multiplex family with X-linked dystonia and intellectual delay. Our findings delineate the genetic architecture and clinical spectrum of dystonia-causing pathogenic variants in an Asian population.


Assuntos
Distonia , Distúrbios Distônicos , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária , Adulto , Anoctaminas , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Distonia/diagnóstico , Distonia/genética , Distúrbios Distônicos/diagnóstico , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Taiwan , Tubulina (Proteína) , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 322(2): C283-C295, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020501

RESUMO

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy R12 (LGMD-R12) is caused by recessive mutations in the Anoctamin-5 gene (ANO5, TMEM16E). Although ANO5 myopathy is not X-chromosome linked, we performed a meta-analysis of the research literature and found that three-quarters of patients with LGMD-R12 are males. Females are less likely to present with moderate to severe skeletal muscle and/or cardiac pathology. Because these sex differences could be explained in several ways, we compared males and females in a mouse model of LGMD-R12. This model recapitulates the sex differences in human LGMD-R12. Only male Ano5-/- mice had elevated serum creatine kinase after exercise and exhibited defective membrane repair after laser injury. In contrast, by these measures, female Ano5-/- mice were indistinguishable from wild type. Despite these differences, both male and female Ano5-/- mice exhibited exercise intolerance. Although exercise intolerance of male mice can be explained by skeletal muscle dysfunction, echocardiography revealed that Ano5-/- female mice had features of cardiomyopathy that may be responsible for their exercise intolerance. These findings heighten concerns that mutations of ANO5 in humans may be linked to cardiac disease.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/deficiência , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Anoctaminas/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
7.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(3): 515-530, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841576

RESUMO

Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by the osteosclerosis of tubular bones and the formation of cemento-osseous lesions in mandibles. Although genetic mutations for GDD have been identified in the ANO5/TMEM16E gene, the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of GDD remain unclear. Here, we generated the first knock-in mouse model for GDD with the expression of human mutation p.Cys360Tyr in ANO5. Homozygous Ano5 knock-in mice (Ano5KI/KI ) replicated GDD-like skeletal features, including massive jawbones, bowing tibia, bone fragility, sclerosis, and cortical thickening of the femoral and tibial diaphysis. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were elevated in Ano5KI/KI mice as in GDD patients with p.Cys360Tyr mutation. Calvaria-derived Ano5KI/KI osteoblast cultures showed increased osteoblastogenesis, including hypermineralized bone matrix and enhanced bone formation-related factors expression. Interestingly, Ano5KI/KI bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures showed decreased osteoclastogenesis, and Ano5KI/KI osteoclasts exhibited disrupted actin ring formation, which may be associated with some signaling pathways. In conclusion, this new mouse model may facilitate elucidation of the pathogenesis of GDD and shed more light on its treatment. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Anoctaminas , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Animais , Anoctaminas/genética , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/patologia
8.
Bone ; 155: 116293, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by increased bone fragility and deformities. Although most patients with OI have heterozygous mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2, 17 genes have been reported to cause OI, most of which are autosomal recessive (AR) inherited, during the last years. The aim of this study is to determine the mutation spectrum in Turkish OI cohort and to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: 150 patients from 140 Turkish families with OI phenotype were included in this study. Mutations in OI-related genes were identified using targeted gene panel, MLPA analysis for COL1A1 and whole exome sequencing. 113 patients who had OI disease-causing variants were followed for 1-20 years. RESULTS: OI disease-causing variants were detected in 117 families, of which 62.4% in COL1A1/A2, 35.9% in AR-related genes. A heterozygous variant in IFITM5 and a hemizygous in MBTPS2 were also described, one in each patient. Eighteen biallelic variants (13 novel) were identified in nine genes (FKBP10, P3H1, SERPINF1, TMEM38B, WNT1, BMP1, CRTAP, FAM46A, MESD) among which FKBP10, P3H1 and SERPINF1 were most common. The most severe phenotypes were in patients with FKBP10, SERPINF1, CRTAP, FAM46A and MESD variants. P3H1 patients had moderate, while BMP1 had the mild phenotype. Clinical phenotypes were variable in patients with WNT1 and TMEM38B mutations. We also found mutations in ten genes (PLS3, LRP5, ANO5, SLC34A1, EFEMP2, PRDM5, GORAB, OCRL1, TNFRSF11B, DPH1) associated with diseases presenting clinical features which overlap OI, in eleven families. CONCLUSION: We identified disease-causing mutations in 83.6% in a large Turkish pediatric OI cohort. 40 novel variants were described. Clinical features and long-term follow-up findings of AR inherited OI types and especially very rare biallelic variants were presented for the first time. Unlike previously reported studies, the mutations that we found in P3H1 were all missense, causing a moderate phenotype.


Assuntos
/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Anoctaminas/genética , Criança , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Fenótipo
9.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 63-72, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical diagnostics in adults with hereditary neurological diseases is complicated by clinical and genetic heterogeneity, as well as lifestyle effects. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of exome sequencing and clinical costs in our difficult-to-diagnose adult patient cohort. Additionally, we expand the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of hereditary neurological disorders in Finland. METHODS: We performed clinical exome sequencing (CES) to 100 adult patients from Finland with neurological symptoms of suspected genetic cause. The patients were classified as myopathy (n = 57), peripheral neuropathy (n = 16), ataxia (n = 15), spastic paraplegia (n = 4), Parkinsonism (n = 3), and mixed (n = 5). In addition, we gathered the costs of prior diagnostic work-up to retrospectively assess the cost-effectiveness of CES as a first-line diagnostic tool. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield of CES was 27%. Pathogenic variants were found for 14 patients (in genes ANO5, CHCHD10, CLCN1, DES, DOK7, FKBP14, POLG, PYROXD1, SCN4A, TUBB3, and TTN) and likely pathogenic previously undescribed variants for 13 patients (in genes ABCD1, AFG3L2, ATL1, CACNA1A, COL6A1, DYSF, IRF2BPL, KCNA1, MT-ATP6, SAMD9L, SGCB, and TPM2). Age of onset below 40 years increased the probability of finding a genetic cause. Our cost evaluation of prior diagnostic work-up suggested that early CES would be cost-effective in this patient group, in which diagnostic costs increase linearly with prolonged investigations. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, CES is a cost-effective, powerful first-line diagnostic tool in establishing the molecular diagnosis in adult neurological patients with variable symptoms. Importantly, CES can markedly shorten the diagnostic odysseys of about one third of patients.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Proteases Dependentes de ATP , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Adulto , Anoctaminas , Proteínas de Transporte , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4 , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares , Peptidilprolil Isomerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6913, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824283

RESUMO

Tweety homologs (TTYHs) comprise a conserved family of transmembrane proteins found in eukaryotes with three members (TTYH1-3) in vertebrates. They are widely expressed in mammals including at high levels in the nervous system and have been implicated in cancers and other diseases including epilepsy, chronic pain, and viral infections. TTYHs have been reported to form Ca2+- and cell volume-regulated anion channels structurally distinct from any characterized protein family with potential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and developmental signaling. To provide insight into TTYH family structure and function, we determined cryo-EM structures of Mus musculus TTYH2 and TTYH3 in lipid nanodiscs. TTYH2 and TTYH3 adopt a previously unobserved fold which includes an extended extracellular domain with a partially solvent exposed pocket that may be an interaction site for hydrophobic molecules. In the presence of Ca2+, TTYH2 and TTYH3 form homomeric cis-dimers bridged by extracellularly coordinated Ca2+. Strikingly, in the absence of Ca2+, TTYH2 forms trans-dimers that span opposing membranes across a ~130 Å intermembrane space as well as a monomeric state. All TTYH structures lack ion conducting pathways and we do not observe TTYH2-dependent channel activity in cells. We conclude TTYHs are not pore forming subunits of anion channels and their function may involve Ca2+-dependent changes in quaternary structure, interactions with hydrophobic molecules near the extracellular membrane surface, and/or association with additional protein partners.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/química , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Dimerização , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Anoctaminas/química , Transporte Biológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Tamanho Celular , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Dor Crônica , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Eucariotos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Receptor EphB2 , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(6): e003460, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin levels in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Cardiac troponin levels are heritable, but their genetic architecture remains elusive. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association analysis on high-sensitivity cTnT (cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cTnI (cardiac troponin I; hs-cTnI) levels in 24 617 and 14 336 participants free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 6 population-based cohorts, followed by a series of bioinformatic analyses to decipher the genetic architecture of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: We identified 4 genome-wide significant loci for hs-cTnT including a novel locus rs3737882 in PPFIA4 and 3 previously reported loci at NCOA2, TRAM1, and BCL2. One known locus at VCL was replicated for hs-cTnI. One copy of C allele for rs3737882 was associated with a 6% increase in hs-cTnT levels (minor allele frequency, 0.18; P=2.80×10-9). We observed pleiotropic loci located at BAG3 and ANO5. The proportions of variances explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 10.15% and 7.74% for hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were colocalized with BCL2 expression in heart tissues and hs-cTnT and with ANO5 expression in artery, heart tissues, and whole blood and both troponins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that genetically increased hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels were associated with higher odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.25-1.54] for hs-cTnT and 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06-1.37] for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic locus associated with hs-cTnT in a multiethnic population and found that genetically regulated troponin levels were associated with atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Troponina T , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Anoctaminas , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Biomarcadores , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Troponina I/genética , Troponina T/genética
12.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 8(s2): S243-S255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633328

RESUMO

Mutations in the Anoctamin 5 (Ano5) gene that result in the lack of expression or function of ANO5 protein, cause Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) 2L/R12, and Miyoshi Muscular Dystrophy (MMD3). However, the dystrophic phenotype observed in patient muscles is not uniformly recapitulated by ANO5 knockout in animal models of LGMD2L. Here we describe the generation of a mouse model of LGMD2L generated by targeted out-of-frame deletion of the Ano5 gene. This model shows progressive muscle loss, increased muscle weakness, and persistent bouts of myofiber regeneration without chronic muscle inflammation, which recapitulates the mild to moderate skeletal muscle dystrophy reported in the LGMD2L patients. We show that these features of ANO5 deficient muscle are not associated with a change in the calcium-activated sarcolemmal chloride channel activity or compromised in vivo regenerative myogenesis. Use of this mouse model allows conducting in vivo investigations into the functional role of ANO5 in muscle health and for preclinical therapeutic development for LGMD2L.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/genética , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Animais , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Mutação , Fenótipo
13.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(6): 743-748, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Mutations in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene are a common cause of muscular dystrophy. We aimed to investigate whether inflammatory changes in muscle are present in patients with ANO5 myopathy when assessed by muscle biopsy and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Adults with pathogenic variations in ANO5 known to cause muscular dystrophy were included in our study. Muscle biopsies of pelvic and lower extremity muscles were reviewed retrospectively. Muscle MR short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images of a subset of these patients were obtained prospectively. RESULTS: Muscle biopsies from 24 patients were reviewed. MR STIR images were performed in 17 of these patients. We found inflammatory changes in muscle biopsies of three patients and MRI revealed hyperintense signals on STIR images in 14 of 17 patients. DISCUSSION: In this study, we found that muscle edema is very common in patients with ANO5 myopathy and that some patients have inflammatory changes in muscle biopsies. Further studies are needed to determine whether the STIR+ lesions reflect inflammation.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas , Doenças Musculares , Adulto , Anoctaminas/genética , Biópsia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculos , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mutação/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Channels (Austin) ; 15(1): 569-603, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488544

RESUMO

Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) perform a multitude of functions including the control of cell excitability, regulation of cell volume and ionic homeostasis, exocrine and endocrine secretion, fertilization, amplification of olfactory sensory function, and control of smooth muscle cell contractility. CaCCs are the translated products of two members (ANO1 and ANO2, also known as TMEM16A and TMEM16B) of the Anoctamin family of genes comprising ten paralogs. This review focuses on recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ANO1 by cytoplasmic Ca2+, post-translational modifications, and how the channel protein interacts with membrane lipids and protein partners. After first reviewing the basic properties of native CaCCs, we then present a brief historical perspective highlighting controversies about their molecular identity in native cells. This is followed by a summary of the fundamental biophysical and structural properties of ANO1. We specifically address whether the channel is directly activated by internal Ca2+ or indirectly through the intervention of the Ca2+-binding protein Calmodulin (CaM), and the structural domains responsible for Ca2+- and voltage-dependent gating. We then review the regulation of ANO1 by internal ATP, Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-(CaMKII)-mediated phosphorylation and phosphatase activity, membrane lipids such as the phospholipid phosphatidyl-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2), free fatty acids and cholesterol, and the cytoskeleton. The article ends with a survey of physical and functional interactions of ANO1 with other membrane proteins such as CLCA1/2, inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, several members of the TRP channel family, and the ancillary Κ+ channel ß subunits KCNE1/5.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Canais de Cloreto , Anoctamina-1 , Anoctaminas , Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina , Canais de Cloreto/genética
15.
Blood Adv ; 5(20): 4265-4277, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478523

RESUMO

Sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) contributes to the generation of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) and affects SM-mediated physiological functions. Here, we describe the hematologic phenotypes, such as reduced circulating platelets and dysfunctional hemostasis, in SMS1-deficient (SMS1-KO) mice. SMS1-KO mice display pathologic manifestations related to idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), including relatively high amounts of peripheral blood reticulated platelets, enhanced megakaryopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen, and splenomegaly. Deficiency of SMS1, but not SMS2, prevented SM production and enhanced phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization on the plasma membranes of platelets and megakaryocytes. Consequently, SMS1-KO platelets were excessively cleared by macrophages in the spleen. Multimer formation in the plasma membrane of TMEM16F, a known calcium (Ca2+)-activated nonselective ion channel and Ca2+-dependent PS scramblase, was enhanced; the result was PS externalization to outer leaflets through increased Ca2+ influx in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts established from SMS1-KO mice (SMS1-KO tMEFs), as seen with SMS1-KO platelets. Thus, SMS1 deficiency changed the TMEM16F distribution on the membrane microdomain, regulating Ca2+ influx-dependent PS exposure. SMS1-KO tMEFs in which TMEM16F was knocked out by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system lacked both the Ca2+ influx and excess PS exposure seen in SMS1-KO tMEFs. Therefore, SM depletion on platelet membrane microdomains due to SMS1 deficiency enhanced PS externalization via a Ca2+ influx through TMEM16F activation, leading to elevated platelet clearance and causing hemostasis dysfunction through thrombocytopenia. Our current findings show that the SM-rich microdomain generated by SMS1 is a potent regulator of thrombocytopenia through TMEM16F, suggesting that its dysfunction may be a novel additional mechanism of ITP.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilserinas , Trombocitopenia , Animais , Anoctaminas , Fibroblastos , Camundongos , Trombocitopenia/genética , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/genética
16.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21808, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390515

RESUMO

The link between serum uric acid (SUA) and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well established. Recent data suggested a causative role of UA in endothelial cells (ECs) dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanism of high UA on thrombogenesis is unknown. We investigate whether high UA induce phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and microparticle (MP) shedding in cultured EC, and contribute to UA-induced hypercoagulable state. In the present study, we demonstrate that UA induces PS exposure and EMP release of EC in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which enhances the procoagulant activity (PCA) of EC and inhibited over 90% by lactadherin in vitro. Furthermore, hyperuricemic rat model was used to evaluate the development of thrombi following by flow stasis in the inferior vena cava (IVC). Hyperuricemia group is more likely to form large and hard thrombi compared with control. Importantly, we found that TMEM16F expression is significantly upregulated in UA-treated EC, which is crucial for UA-induced PS exposure and MP formation. Additionally, UA increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in EC, which might contribute to increased TMEM16F expression. Using confocal microscopy, we also observed disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that depolymerization of actin filaments might be required for TMEM16F activation and followed by PS exposure and membrane blebbing in UA-treated EC. Our results demonstrate a thrombotic role of EC in hyperuricemia through TMEM16F-mediated PS exposure and MPs release.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/metabolismo , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
17.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(11): 5772-5789, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406600

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) in nociceptive neurons is an important molecular component contributing to peripheral pain transduction. The present study aimed to evaluate the role and mechanism of TMEM16A in chronic nociceptive responses elicited by spared nerve injury (SNI). In this study, SNI was used to induce neuropathic pain. Drugs were administered intrathecally. The expression and cellular localization of TMEM16A, the ERK pathway, and NK-1 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence. Behavioral tests were used to evaluate the role of TMEM16A and p-ERK in SNI-induced persistent pain and hypersensitivity. The role of TMEM16A in the hyperexcitability of primary nociceptor neurons was assessed by electrophysiological recording. The results show that TMEM16A, p-ERK, and NK-1 are predominantly expressed in small neurons associated with nociceptive sensation. TMEM16A is colocalized with p-ERK/NK-1 in DRG. TMEM16A, the MEK/ERK pathway, and NK-1 are activated in DRG after SNI. ERK inhibitor or TMEM16A antagonist prevents SNI-induced allodynia. ERK and NK-1 are downstream of TMEM16A activation. Electrophysiological recording showed that CaCC current increases and intrathecal application of T16Ainh-A01, a selective TMEM16A inhibitor, reverses the hyperexcitability of DRG neurons harvested from rats after SNI. We conclude that TMEM16A activation in DRG leads to a positive interaction of the ERK pathway with activation of NK-1 production and is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after SNI. Also, the blockade of TMEM16A or inhibition of the downstream ERK pathway or NK-1 upregulation may prevent the development of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/fisiologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/fisiologia , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Nervo Fibular/lesões , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Nervo Tibial/lesões , Animais , Anoctaminas/antagonistas & inibidores , Butadienos/farmacologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Ligadura , Masculino , Neuralgia/etiologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tiazóis/farmacologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4990, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404808

RESUMO

Cells can expand their plasma membrane laterally by unfolding membrane undulations and by exocytosis. Here, we describe a third mechanism involving invaginations held shut by the membrane adapter, dynamin. Compartments open when Ca activates the lipid scramblase, TMEM16F, anionic phospholipids escape from the cytoplasmic monolayer in exchange for neutral lipids, and dynamins relax. Deletion of TMEM16F or dynamins blocks expansion, with loss of dynamin expression generating a maximally expanded basal plasma membrane state. Re-expression of dynamin2 or its GTPase-inactivated mutant, but not a lipid binding mutant, regenerates reserve compartments and rescues expansion. Dynamin2-GFP fusion proteins form punctae that rapidly dissipate from these compartments during TMEM16F activation. Newly exposed compartments extend deeply into the cytoplasm, lack numerous organellar markers, and remain closure-competent for many seconds. Without Ca, compartments open slowly when dynamins are sequestered by cytoplasmic dynamin antibodies or when scrambling is mimicked by neutralizing anionic phospholipids and supplementing neutral lipids. Activation of Ca-permeable mechanosensitive channels via cell swelling or channel agonists opens the compartments in parallel with phospholipid scrambling. Thus, dynamins and TMEM16F control large plasma membrane reserves that open in response to lateral membrane stress and Ca influx.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Anoctaminas/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citoplasma , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Membranas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445284

RESUMO

TMEM16F is involved in several physiological processes, such as blood coagulation, bone development and virus infections. This protein acts both as a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase and a Ca2+-activated ion channel but several studies have reported conflicting results about the ion selectivity of the TMEM16F-mediated current. Here, we have performed a detailed side-by-side comparison of the ion selectivity of TMEM16F using the whole-cell and inside-out excised patch configurations to directly compare the results. In inside-out configuration, Ca2+-dependent activation was fast and the TMEM16F-mediated current was activated in a few milliseconds, while in whole-cell recordings full activation required several minutes. We determined the relative permeability between Na+ and Cl¯ (PNa/PCl) using the dilution method in both configurations. The TMEM16F-mediated current was highly nonselective, but there were differences depending on the configuration of the recordings. In whole-cell recordings, PNa/PCl was approximately 0.5, indicating a slight preference for Cl¯ permeation. In contrast, in inside-out experiments the TMEM16F channel showed a higher permeability for Na+ with PNa/PCl reaching 3.7. Our results demonstrate that the time dependence of Ca2+ activation and the ion selectivity of TMEM16F depend on the recording configuration.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Ânions/metabolismo , Anoctaminas/genética , Cátions/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Transporte de Íons , Camundongos , Permeabilidade , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Sódio/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207150

RESUMO

P2X7 receptors (P2X7) are cationic channels involved in many diseases. Following their activation by extracellular ATP, distinct signaling pathways are triggered, which lead to various physiological responses such as the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines or the modulation of cell death. P2X7 also exhibit unique behaviors, such as "macropore" formation, which corresponds to enhanced large molecule cell membrane permeability and current facilitation, which is caused by prolonged activation. These two phenomena have often been confounded but, thus far, no clear mechanisms have been resolved. Here, by combining different approaches including whole-cell and single-channel recordings, pharmacological and biochemical assays, CRISPR/Cas9 technology and cell imaging, we provide evidence that current facilitation and macropore formation involve functional complexes comprised of P2X7 and TMEM16, a family of Ca2+-activated ion channel/scramblases. We found that current facilitation results in an increase of functional complex-embedded P2X7 open probability, a result that is recapitulated by plasma membrane cholesterol depletion. We further show that macropore formation entails two distinct large molecule permeation components, one of which requires functional complexes featuring TMEM16F subtype, the other likely being direct permeation through the P2X7 pore itself. Such functional complexes can be considered to represent a regulatory hub that may orchestrate distinct P2X7 functionalities.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Anoctaminas/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Modelos Biológicos , Oócitos , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/química
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