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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1867(3): 130290, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529243

RESUMO

Anserine and carnosine represent histidine-containing dipeptides that exert a pluripotent protective effect on human physiology. Anserine is known to protect against oxidative stress in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Human carnosinases (CN1 and CN2) are dipeptidases involved in the homeostasis of carnosine. In poikilothermic vertebrates, the anserinase enzyme is responsible for hydrolyzing anserine. However, there is no specific anserine hydrolyzing enzyme present in humans. In this study, we have systematically investigated the anserine hydrolyzing activity of human CN1 and CN2. A targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based approach was employed for studying the enzyme kinetics of CN1 and CN2 using carnosine and anserine as substrates. Surprisingly, both CN1 and CN2 can hydrolyze anserine effectively. The observed catalytic turnover rate (Vmax/[E]t) was 21.6 s-1 and 2.8 s-1 for CN1 and CN2, respectively. CN1 is almost eight-fold more efficient in hydrolyzing anserine compared to CN2, which is comparable to the efficiency of the carnosine hydrolyzing activity of CN2. The Michaelis constant (Km) value for CN1 (1.96 mM) is almost three-fold lower compared to CN2 (6.33 mM), representing higher substrate affinity for anserine-CN1 interactions. Molecular docking studies showed that anserine binds at the catalytic site of the carnosinases with an affinity similar to carnosine. Overall, the present study elucidated the inherent promiscuity of human carnosinases in hydrolyzing anserine using a sensitive LC-MS/MS approach.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Dipeptidases , Animais , Humanos , Anserina/metabolismo , Carnosina/metabolismo , Dipeptidases/química , Dipeptidases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364267

RESUMO

Skin hyperpigmentation is an aesthetic problem that leads to psychosocial issues. Thus, skin whitening agents from agro- and poultry-industrial co-products are considered high economic value ingredients of interest for sustainable application. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cosmeceutical potential of anserine/carnosine-rich chicken extract (ACCE) from the Thai native chicken Pradu Hang Dam Mor Kor 55 (PD) meat. The chemical composition was identified and quantified using the HPLC-UV method. Then, the antioxidation potential of the extract was compared to that of L-anserine and L-carnosine, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and shikonin-induced production of reactive oxygen species in CCD-986Sk cell models, and the anti-melanogenesis effect in the MNT-1 melanoma cell line model was investigated. Furthermore, related mechanisms were identified using colorimetric tyrosinase assay and the Western blot technique. The ACCE was composed of L-anserine and L-carnosine as two major constituents. In a dose-dependent manner, ACCE, L-anserine, and L-carnosine manifested significant antioxidation potential and significant reduction of melanin production. Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and inhibition of tyrosinase activity of ACCE were demonstrated as the mechanisms of the anti-melanogenesis effect. In conclusion, ACCE has been revealed as a potential cosmeceutical agent due to its antioxidation and anti-melanogenic activity in association with L-anserine and L-carnosine composition and biomolecular regulating ability. Therefore, further studies and development should be considered to support the utilization of anserine/carnosine-rich chicken extract in the cosmetic industry for economic value creation and sustainability.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Cosmecêuticos , Animais , Anserina/química , Carnosina/química , Galinhas/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Tailândia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111859, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192983

RESUMO

Poultry products are an essential animal source of protein for humans. Many factors could destroy the balance of the poultry production chain and cause an overstock of products, which need to be stored in the frozen storage warehouse for a long time. The long-term frozen storage may affect the quality of meat products. In this study, the changes of small molecular substances were revealed in duck meat during long-term storage using non-targeted metabolomics. The results showed that compared with fresh meat, even if the meat is stored under frozen storage conditions, the number of differential metabolites of frozen storage meat continues to increase with the prolongation of storage time, indicating that the meat composition has changed significantly with the storage time increased. With the increase in storage time, the nitrogen-containing small molecular compounds in duck meat increased (carnosine and anserine, aspartic acid, and tyrosine, 1H-indole-3-acetamide, 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine, 2-Naphylamine, allocystathionine, and O-phosphoethanolamine), the nucleotides decomposition process strengthened (IMP and AMP, GMP and UMP), and the content of organic acid increased (5-hydroxy indole acetic acid, 5-hydroxypentanoic acid and phenylacetate, taurine) and carbohydrate (1-O-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucose, 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-d-mannose, and alpha-d-glucose). These small molecular substances can be used as biomarkers to detect long-term stored duck meat deterioration. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that protein catabolism, nucleotide catabolism, fat decomposition and oxidation, and carbohydrate decomposition were the main metabolic processes of meat deterioration during the long-term storage of duck meat. In addition, Non-target metabolome technology is a powerful tool to reveal the meat deterioration process during long-term storage systematically. This study provided a reference for optimizing domestic poultry meat storage methods and ensuring food safety.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxifenetilamina , Carnosina , 2-Hidroxifenetilamina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Carnosina/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenilacetatos/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234802

RESUMO

In the current study, soil samples were gathered from different places where petrol and diesel filling stations were located for isolation of photosynthetic bacteria under anaerobic conditions using the paraffin wax-overlay pour plate method with Biebl and Pfennig's medium. The three isolated strains were named Rhodopseudomonas palustris SMR 001 (Mallapur), Rhodopseudomonas palustris NR MPPR (Nacahram) and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis N Raju MPPR (Karolbagh). The morphologies of the bacteria were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phylogenetic relationship between R. palustris strains was examined by means of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis using NCBI-BLAST search and a phylogenetic tree. The sequenced data for R. palustris were deposited with the National Centre for Biotechnology Research (NCBI). The total amino acids produced by the isolated bacteria were determined by HPLC. A total of 14 amino acids and their derivatives were produced by the R. palustris SMR 001 strain. Among these, carnosine was found in the highest concentration (8553.2 ng/mL), followed by isoleucine (1818.044 ng/mL) and anserine (109.5 ng/mL), while R. palustris NR MPPR was found to produce 12 amino acids. Thirteen amino acids and their derivatives were found to be produced from R. faecalis N Raju MPPR, for which the concentration of carnosine (21601.056 ng/mL) was found to be the highest, followed by isoleucine (2032.6 ng/mL) and anserine (227.4 ng/mL). These microbes can be explored for the scaling up of the process, along with biohydrogen and single cell protein production.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Carnosina , Aminoácidos/genética , Anserina , Isoleucina , Parafina , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rodopseudomonas , Solo
5.
Physiol Behav ; 256: 113952, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027984

RESUMO

γ-Glutamyl peptides, including glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly, GSH) and γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly), have been shown to increase the intensity of basic tastes, such as salty, sweet, and umami, and flavor, including mouthfulness, but had no taste themselves at the concentrations tested. Although the mechanisms of action of γ-glutamyl peptides currently remain unclear, the involvement of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) has been suggested. Since GSH and γ-Glu-Val-Gly increase the pungency of some spices, the present study investigated their effects on the pungency of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) using a sensory evaluation. GSH and γ-Glu-Val-Gly both significantly increased the pungency of AITC, while anserine, a peptide without CaSR activity, did not. GSH-induced increases in pungency were suppressed by NPS-2143, a CaSR inhibitor. Further, γ-Glu-Val-Gly significantly increased the pungency of piperine. The present results suggest that GSH and γ-Glu-Val-Gly increased the pungency by activating CaSR.


Assuntos
Anserina , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio , Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis , Glutationa , Isotiocianatos , Oligopeptídeos , Peptídeos , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/agonistas
6.
Food Funct ; 13(18): 9434-9442, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972268

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the anti-hyperuricemia effect and mechanism of anserine in hyperuricemic rats. Hyperuricemic rats were induced with a combination of 750 mg per kg bw d potassium oxazinate (PO) and 200 mg per kg bw d hypoxanthine for a week, and the rats were separately orally administered anserine (20, 40, 80 mg kg-1) and allopurinol (10 mg kg-1) for three weeks. The results show that the content of serum uric acid (SUA) decreased by approximately 40% and 60% after the intervention of anserine and allopurinol, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly decreased in the anserine groups. After the administration of anserine, the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were reduced in the kidney, and the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6ß, TNF-α and TGF-ß and inflammatory cell infiltration were reduced in both the liver and kidney. Moreover, the gene expressions of xanthine oxidase (XOD), renal urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter type 9 (GLUT9) were downregulated by anserine administration, and the gene expressions of ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) were upregulated at the same time. These findings suggest that hepatorenal injury was repaired by anserine, which further regulated the expression of hepatic XOD and renal URAT1, GLUT9, ABCG2, OAT1 and OAT3 to relieve hyperuricemia in rats.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Alopurinol/metabolismo , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Anserina/farmacologia , Creatinina , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Hipoxantinas/metabolismo , Hipoxantinas/farmacologia , Rim , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/farmacologia , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
7.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111504, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840213

RESUMO

Relationships between overall liking scores for cooked lamb from Chinese (n = 158) and New Zealand (n = 156) consumers, and metabolite and lipid profiles were evaluated. Consumers assessed meat from 6 to 8-month-old lambs of composite genetics fed chicory (CHIC) or grass (GRASS), and from 12 month-old Merino lambs fed a mixed pasture (PMER). On average, Chinese consumers rated the overall liking of all types of lamb similarly, while New Zealand consumers preferred meat from CHIC over PMER. However, three clusters with similar preferences were obtained for both Chinese and New Zealand consumers based on their overall liking scores. In Cluster-1 with a preference for GRASS, overall liking for Chinese and NZ consumers was positively associated with umami compounds, ortho- and pyrophosphates (related to water holding capacity of meat), triglycerides (TG) with<50 carbons (C50) and phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); but negatively associated with amino acids and TG with > C50 with saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. In Cluster-2 with a preference for CHIC, overall liking for both types of consumers was positively associated with TG with > C50 with PUFA, and phospholipids with PUFA, but negatively associated with umami compounds, ortho- and pyrophosphates and L-anserine. In Cluster-3 with a preference for PMER, overall liking for Chinese and NZ consumers was positively associated with amino acids, ortho- and pyrophosphates, L-anserine, umami compounds, TG with > C50 with SFA and MUFA and phospholipids that contain C16:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1; but negatively associated with phospholipids with PUFA and TG with < C50 that contain PUFA. Overall, the liking of lamb meat between Chinese and New Zealand consumers differed, but similar clusters were generated based on their overall liking scores. The clusters were characterized by different associations of the consumer overall liking scores with cooked meat metabolome and lipidome profiles.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Carne Vermelha , Aminoácidos , Animais , Anserina , China , Difosfatos , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Nova Zelândia , Poaceae , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carneiro Doméstico
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 612: 22-29, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500438

RESUMO

Carnosine and anserine are abundant peptides found in the skeletal muscle and nervous system in many vertebrates. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrate that exogenously administered carnosine improves exercise performance. Furthermore, carnosine is an antioxidant and antifatigue supplement. However, the physiological functions of endogenous carnosine and its related histidine-containing dipeptides in a living organism remain unclear. We aimed to clarify the physiological roles of endogenous carnosine by investigating the characteristics of carnosine synthase gene-deficient mice and the effects of carnosine on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. We discovered that carnosine and anserine were undetectable in the skeletal muscle of carnosine synthase knockout mice. We also quantified protein gene expression and enzyme levels in muscle protein metabolism. Gene and protein levels of the muscle protein synthesizer insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and the degrading enzyme cathepsin B were markedly lower in carnosine synthase gene-deficient mice than those in wild-type mice. The amount of 3-methylhistidine (a marker for muscle proteolysis) in forced exercise and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle were considerably lower in carnosine synthase gene-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Consequently, we showed that carnosine deficiency affects weight maintenance and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that carnosine regulates skeletal muscle protein metabolism.


Assuntos
Anserina , Carnosina , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Animais , Carnosina/química , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
9.
Magn Reson Med ; 88(3): 1314-1323, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To detect carnosine, anserine and homocarnosine in vivo with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) at 17.2 T. METHODS: CEST MR acquisitions were performed using a CEST-linescan sequence developed in-house and optimized for carnosine detection. In vivo CEST data were collected from three different regions of interest (the lower leg muscle, the olfactory bulb and the neocortex) of eight rats. RESULTS: The CEST effect for carnosine, anserine and homocarnosine was characterized in phantoms, demonstrating the possibility to separate individual contributions by employing high spectral resolution (0.005 ppm) and low CEST saturation power (0.15 µ$$ \mu $$ T). The CEST signature of these peptides was evidenced, in vivo, in the rat brain and skeletal muscle. The presence of carnosine and anserine in the muscle was corroborated by in vivo localized spectroscopy (MRS). However, the sensitivity of MRS was insufficient for carnosine and homocarnosine detection in the brain. The absolute amounts of carnosine and derivatives in the investigated tissues were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using isotopic dilution standard methods and were in agreement with the CEST results. CONCLUSION: The robustness of the CEST-linescan approach and the favorable conditions for CEST at ultra-high magnetic field allowed the in vivo CEST MR detection of carnosine and related peptides. This approach could be useful to investigate noninvasively the (patho)-physiological roles of these molecules.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Animais , Anserina/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carnosina/análise , Carnosina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ratos
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 19(1): 70-91, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599917

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies suggest that acute-combined carnosine and anserine supplementation has the potential to improve the performance of certain cycling protocols. Yet, data on optimal dose, timing of ingestion, effective exercise range, and mode of action are lacking. Three studies were conducted to establish dosing and timing guidelines concerning carnosine and anserine intake and to unravel the mechanism underlying the ergogenic effects. Methods: First, a dose response study A was conducted in which 11 men randomly received placebo, 10, 20, or 30 mg.kg-1 of both carnosine and anserine. They performed 3x maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC), followed by a 5 x 6 s repeated cycling sprint ability test (RSA), once before the supplement and 30 and 60 minutes after. In a second study, 15 men performed 3x MVCs with femoral nerve electrical stimulation, followed by an RSA test, once before 30 mg.kg-1 carnosine and anserine and 60 minutes after. Finally, in study C, eight men performed a high intensity cycling training after randomly ingesting 30 mg.kg-1 of carnosine and anserine, a placebo or antihistamines (reduce post-exercise blood flow) to investigate effects on muscle perfusion. Results: Study A showed a 3% peak power (p = 0.0005; 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.27; ES = 0.91) and 4.5% peak torque (p = 0.0006; 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.50; ES = 0.87) improvement on RSA and MVC, with 30 mg.kg-1 carnosine + anserine ingestion 60 minutes before the performance yielding the best results. Study B found no performance improvement on group level; however, a negative correlation (r = -0.54; p = 0.0053; 95% CI = -0.77 to -0.19) was found between carnosinase enzyme activity (responsible for carnosine and anserine breakdown) and performance improvement. No effect of the supplement on neuromuscular function nor on muscle perfusion was found. Conclusions: These studies reveal that acute ingestion of 30 mg.kg-1 of both carnosine and anserine, 60 minutes before a high intensity exercise, can potentially improve performance, such as short cycling sprints or maximal muscle contractions. Subjects with lower carnosinase activity, and thus a slower breakdown of circulating dipeptides, appear to benefit more from this ergogenic effect. Finally, neither the involvement of a direct effect on neuromuscular function, nor an indirect effect on recovery through increased muscle perfusion could be confirmed as potential mechanism of action. The ergogenic mechanism therefore remains elusive.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho , Anserina/farmacologia , Carnosina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 101(5): 101776, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303689

RESUMO

Carnosine enrichment of slow-growing Korat chicken (KRC) meat helps differentiate KRC from mainstream chicken. We aimed to investigate the effects of ß-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine synthesis in and quality and secondary structure of proteins in slow-growing KRC meat. Four hundred 21-day-old female KRC were used, and a completely randomized design was applied. The chickens were divided into 4 experimental groups: basal diet (A), basal diet supplemented with 1.0% ß-alanine (B), 0.5% L-histidine (C), and 1.0% ß-alanine combined with 0.5% L-histidine (D). Each group consisted of 5 replicates (20 chickens per replicate). On d 70, 2 chickens per replicate were slaughtered, and the levels of carnosine, anserine, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were analyzed. Biochemical changes were monitored using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy; 5 chickens per replicate were slaughtered, and the meat quality was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA). Group D chickens exhibited the highest carnosine meat content, followed by those in groups B and C. However, amino acid supplementation did not affect anserine content and growth performance. Higher carnosine levels correlated with increasing pH45 min and decreasing drip loss, cooking loss, shear force, and lipid oxidation. PCA revealed that supplementation with only ß-alanine or L-histidine was related to increased content of ß-sheets, ß-turns, and aliphatic bending groups and decreased content of α-helix groups. This study is the first to report such findings in slow-growing chicken. Our findings suggest that KRC can synthesize the highest carnosine levels after both ß-alanine and L-histidine supplementation. Higher carnosine contents do not adversely affect meat quality, improve meat texture, and alter the secondary structures of proteins. The molecular mechanism underlying carnosine synthesis in chickens needs further study to better understand and reveal markers that facilitate the development of nutrient selection programs.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Animais , Anserina/análise , Carnosina/análise , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Histidina/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , beta-Alanina/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3555, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241766

RESUMO

Kadaknath, the only black chicken indigenous to India, faces the threat of extinction due to declining numbers. Its meat is used in tribal medicine for invigorating and health-promoting properties. Expectations of immune-boosting and therapeutic properties in its meat are creating a buzz these days. Thus, Kadaknath meat was explored and further compared with the commercial Cobb 400 broiler (Cobb) for the functional traits that might be contributing towards proclaimed pharmacological benefits. Birds (n = 20/ group) were raised under similar management conditions and the two primal chicken meat cuts (breast and thigh) were collected at the marketing age. Kadaknath meat was found to be an enriched source of functional biomolecules (carnosine, anserine, creatine). Its breast meat carnosine content was more than double of the Cobb broiler, 6.10 ± 0.13 and 2.73 ± 0.1 mg/ g of wet tissue, respectively. Similarly, the thigh meat of Kadaknath was a significantly (P < 0.05) richer source of carnosine. The genetic background was a key determinant for muscle carnosine content as a significant abundance of CARNS1 and SLC36A1 expression was identified in the Kadaknath breast. The superior functional property of Kadaknath meat was established by the antioxidant capacity established by the Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and a stronger ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The identification of fairly unknown nutritional and functional advantages of Kadaknath meat could potentially change the paradigm with its meat consumption. It will help in developing a brand name for Kadaknath products that will propel an increase in its market share and ultimately conservation of this unique but endangered poultry germplasm.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Galinhas , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Carnosina/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Carne/análise , Aves Domésticas
14.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 9030-9042, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382991

RESUMO

Hyperuricaemia is a disease associated with elevated serum uric acid content, which has emerged rapidly in recent decades. The drugs used to treat clinical hyperuricaemia have side effects, and their safety is poor. However, anserine is a natural carnosine derivative that shows an anti-hyperuricaemic effect. A previous study demonstrated that anserine inhibits uric acid synthesis and promotes uric acid excretion, but there is no evidence regarding the effect of anserine from the perspective of the gut microbiota. In this study, the anti-hyperuricaemic and anti-inflammatory effects of anserine were explored in a diet-induced hyperuricaemic mouse model. Anserine alleviated hyperuricaemia and renal inflammation phenotypes, inhibited uric acid biosynthesis, promoted uric acid excretion, and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway activation. The results showed that the anti-hyperuricaemic effect of anserine was dependent on the gut microbiota in the germ-free mice experiment. Furthermore, anserine treatment reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis, repaired the intestinal epithelial barrier and increased short-chain fatty acid production. Moreover, the anti-hyperuricaemic effect of anserine was transmissible by transplanting the faecal microbiota from anserine-treated mice, indicating that the protective effects were at least partially mediated by the gut microbiota. Thus, we identified a new and safe prebiotic material to alleviate hyperuricaemia and provided ideas for the development of oligopeptides.


Assuntos
Anserina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anserina/administração & dosagem , Anserina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Alimento Funcional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fitoterapia , Ácido Úrico/sangue
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13828, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226581

RESUMO

A new generation of plant-based meat alternatives-formulated to mimic the taste and nutritional composition of red meat-have attracted considerable consumer interest, research attention, and media coverage. This has raised questions of whether plant-based meat alternatives represent proper nutritional replacements to animal meat. The goal of our study was to use untargeted metabolomics to provide an in-depth comparison of the metabolite profiles a popular plant-based meat alternative (n = 18) and grass-fed ground beef (n = 18) matched for serving size (113 g) and fat content (14 g). Despite apparent similarities based on Nutrition Facts panels, our metabolomics analysis found that metabolite abundances between the plant-based meat alternative and grass-fed ground beef differed by 90% (171 out of 190 profiled metabolites; false discovery rate adjusted p < 0.05). Several metabolites were found either exclusively (22 metabolites) or in greater quantities in beef (51 metabolites) (all, p < 0.05). Nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid (ω-3), niacinamide (vitamin B3), glucosamine, hydroxyproline and the anti-oxidants allantoin, anserine, cysteamine, spermine, and squalene were amongst those only found in beef. Several other metabolites were found exclusively (31 metabolites) or in greater quantities (67 metabolites) in the plant-based meat alternative (all, p < 0.05). Ascorbate (vitamin C), phytosterols, and several phenolic anti-oxidants such as loganin, sulfurol, syringic acid, tyrosol, and vanillic acid were amongst those only found in the plant-based meat alternative. Large differences in metabolites within various nutrient classes (e.g., amino acids, dipeptides, vitamins, phenols, tocopherols, and fatty acids) with physiological, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunomodulatory roles indicate that these products should not be viewed as truly nutritionally interchangeable, but could be viewed as complementary in terms of provided nutrients. The new information we provide is important for making informed decisions by consumers and health professionals. It cannot be determined from our data if either source is healthier to consume.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Metabolômica , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Paladar , Ração Animal , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Humanos , Nutrientes/isolamento & purificação , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Vermelha/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 364: 130343, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246912

RESUMO

Balenine (Bal) in opah muscle was extracted using hot water and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and recrystallization to provide 41 g of over 95% pure Bal from 1 kg of opah muscle. The structure of purified Bal was identical to that of an authentic Bal standard by NMR analysis. The antioxidant (ORAC and HORAC values) and Fe(II) ion-chelating abilities of purified Bal were examined by comparison with two major imidazole dipeptides, carnosine (Car) and anserine (Ans). Opah-derived Bal showed significantly higher ORAC and HORAC values and Fe(II) ion-chelating ability at 0.3 mM. In silico molecular simulation revealed that Bal and Car formed hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen atom of the imidazole imino group and the carboxyl carbonyl oxygen, whereas Ans did not. The proposed method for extracting and purifying Bal from opah muscle suggests that opah can be utilized as a functional food or Bal resource.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carnosina , Dipeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Músculos/química , Animais , Anserina , Peixes , Imidazóis , Quelantes de Ferro
17.
Amino Acids ; 53(8): 1269-1277, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264387

RESUMO

Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide present in an omnivorous diet, has been shown to ameliorate the development of metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes (T2D) and early- and advanced-stage diabetic nephropathy in different rodent models. Anserine, its methylated analogue, is more bio-available in humans upon supplementation without affecting its functionality. In this work, we investigated the effect of oral supplementation with anserine or carnosine on circulating and tissue anserine and carnosine levels and on the development of T2D and diabetic nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob mice. BTBR ob/ob mice were either supplemented with carnosine or anserine in drinking water (4 mM) for 18 weeks and compared with non-supplemented BTBR ob/ob and wild-type (WT) mice. Circulating and kidney, but not muscle, carnosine, and anserine levels were enhanced by supplementation with the respective dipeptides in ob/ob mice compared to non-treated ob/ob mice. The evolution of fasting blood glucose, insulin, fructosamine, triglycerides, and cholesterol was not affected by the supplementation regimens. The albumin/creatine ratio, glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix expansion were aggravated in ob/ob vs. WT mice, but not alleviated by supplementation. To conclude, long-term supplementation with anserine elevates circulating and kidney anserine levels in diabetic mice. However, anserine supplementation was not able to attenuate the development of T2D or diabetic nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob mice. Further research will have to elucidate whether anserine can attenuate milder forms of T2D or metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Anserina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Anserina/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carnosina/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética
18.
Food Chem ; 362: 130207, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090047

RESUMO

During the five stages of smoked dry-cured ham processing, proteolysis and protein oxidation were simultaneously detected in the Biceps femoris (BF) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Proteolysis was more advanced in BF than in SM throughout the process of production. The total FAA increased significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the processing, resulting in higher total FAA content in BF than in SM muscle. SDS-PAGE revealed progressive degradation of sarcoplasmic proteins of investigated muscles, with the pronounced changes for the 69.9-41.7 kDa region. SDS-PAGE of BF showed more intense degradation of myofibrillar proteins due to greater proteolysis in BF. Electrophoresis of myofibrillar proteins evidenced the marked degradation of 130 kDa, 96.7 kDa and 27-20.7 kDa bands in both muscles. A similar trend was observed for protein oxidation in BF and SM, with the final values of 26.36 and 23.7 nmol carbonyls/mg proteins, respectively. The Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship between protein oxidation and proteolysis.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Carne/química , Carne de Porco/análise , Animais , Anserina/análise , Carnosina/análise , Músculos Isquiossurais/química , Proteínas de Carne/análise , Oxirredução , Carbonilação Proteica , Proteólise , Suínos
19.
Redox Biol ; 44: 102016, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038814

RESUMO

Histidine-containing dipeptides (HCDs) are abundantly expressed in striated muscles. Although important properties have been ascribed to HCDs, including H+ buffering, regulation of Ca2+ transients and protection against oxidative stress, it remains unknown whether they play relevant functions in vivo. To investigate the in vivo roles of HCDs, we developed the first carnosine synthase knockout (CARNS1-/-) rat strain to investigate the impact of an absence of HCDs on skeletal and cardiac muscle function. Male wild-type (WT) and knockout rats (4 months-old) were used. Skeletal muscle function was assessed by an exercise tolerance test, contractile function in situ and muscle buffering capacity in vitro. Cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiography and cardiac electrical activity by electrocardiography. Cardiomyocyte contractile function was assessed in isolated cardiomyocytes by measuring sarcomere contractility, along with the determination of Ca2+ transient. Markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function and expression of proteins were also evaluated in cardiac muscle. Animals were supplemented with carnosine (1.8% in drinking water for 12 weeks) in an attempt to rescue tissue HCDs levels and function. CARNS1-/- resulted in the complete absence of carnosine and anserine, but it did not affect exercise capacity, skeletal muscle force production, fatigability or buffering capacity in vitro, indicating that these are not essential for pH regulation and function in skeletal muscle. In cardiac muscle, however, CARNS1-/- resulted in a significant impairment of contractile function, which was confirmed both in vivo and ex vivo in isolated sarcomeres. Impaired systolic and diastolic dysfunction were accompanied by reduced intracellular Ca2+ peaks and slowed Ca2+ removal, but not by increased markers of oxidative stress or impaired mitochondrial respiration. No relevant increases in muscle carnosine content were observed after carnosine supplementation. Results show that a primary function of HCDs in cardiac muscle is the regulation of Ca2+ handling and excitation-contraction coupling.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Dipeptídeos , Animais , Anserina , Histidina , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Miócitos Cardíacos , Ratos
20.
Neurochem Int ; 147: 105045, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887379

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal with cytotoxicity, can activate autophagy. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of Potentilla anserine L. polysaccharide (PAP) on autophagy in N2a cells, primary neurons, and the brain of BALB/c mice exposed to Cd. The CCK-8 assay results showed that the cell viability decreased and the number of acidic vesicular organelles, autophagic vacuoles, lysosomes, and dysfunctional mitochondria increased in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed N2a cells and primary neurons, as revealed by acridine orange staining, monodansylcadaverine staining, and transmission electron microscopy. PAP mitigated Cd-induced neuronal death and characteristic changes in autophagy. The expression of LC3 IILC3 II, Bcl-2, p62, Beclin-1, and PI3K class III was examined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 or 3-MA) and/or PAP reversed the Cd-induced upregulated expression of LC3 II, Beclin-1, and PI3K class III, with a synergy between PI3K inhibitor and PAP against Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggested that PAP partially prevented Cd-induced autophagic cell death in neurons by inhibiting the PI3K class III/Beclin-1 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Potentilla/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Potentilla/metabolismo
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