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2.
Nature ; 597(7876): 376-380, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471286

RESUMO

Pleistocene hominin dispersals out of, and back into, Africa necessarily involved traversing the diverse and often challenging environments of Southwest Asia1-4. Archaeological and palaeontological records from the Levantine woodland zone document major biological and cultural shifts, such as alternating occupations by Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. However, Late Quaternary cultural, biological and environmental records from the vast arid zone that constitutes most of Southwest Asia remain scarce, limiting regional-scale insights into changes in hominin demography and behaviour1,2,5. Here we report a series of dated palaeolake sequences, associated with stone tool assemblages and vertebrate fossils, from the Khall Amayshan 4 and Jubbah basins in the Nefud Desert. These findings, including the oldest dated hominin occupations in Arabia, reveal at least five hominin expansions into the Arabian interior, coinciding with brief 'green' windows of reduced aridity approximately 400, 300, 200, 130-75 and 55 thousand years ago. Each occupation phase is characterized by a distinct form of material culture, indicating colonization by diverse hominin groups, and a lack of long-term Southwest Asian population continuity. Within a general pattern of African and Eurasian hominin groups being separated by Pleistocene Saharo-Arabian aridity, our findings reveal the tempo and character of climatically modulated windows for dispersal and admixture.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Migração Humana/história , Animais , Antropologia , Arábia , Ásia , História Antiga , Paleontologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
3.
Rev Infirm ; 70(274): 22-24, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565531

RESUMO

Long relegated to the background of modern medicine, food is now a major public health issue echoing to the old idea that what we eat is potentially a cure, or a poison. But, beyond its nutritional dimension, food takes on a set of facets that make up our unique identities that should not be overlooked in the context of care.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Alimentos , Humanos , Saúde Pública
4.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(105): 149-158, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543045

RESUMO

The human being experiences in the depths of his being a longing for fulfilment. However, pain, disease and death accompany their existence. Transhumanism tries to overcome the limits of man through all a technological scientific development and ventures to predict the definitive triumph over death. In this study, we will analyse the meaning of vulnerability, limits, consciousness of finitude and death for both transhumanism and an anthropology focused on the human being. Transhumanism and this anthropology coincide in the desire to conquer death. The understanding of the concepts studied and the means to save humanity that are proposed differ in both approaches. We understand that in transhumanism there is a reductionism of the definition of person and therefore of the solution that is offered to respond to the deep longing inscribed each human being.


Assuntos
Humanismo , Ciências Humanas , Antropologia , Humanos
5.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(105): 183-193, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543048

RESUMO

Transhumanism-posthumanism is a current of thought that appears closely linked to the development of technoscience and its application to man. At the same time that this current must be subject to criticism, an anthropological and ethical paradigm must be illuminated that allows accepting or not the new technoscientific advances, making a discernment between them. Such discernment should lead us to weigh the goodness of these advances, rejecting only those that represent a degradation of the human being, and accepting those that help man to be more fully man. To do this, the article proposes starting the discernment from an ethical principle such as respect for the integrity of man. Together with him, it is necessary to act with caution regarding human health, considered in relation to his psychosomatic unity. It will also be necessary to avoid deriving the ethics of the advances from the same technoscience. Finally, discernment requires, ultimately, starting from an idea about what man is, proposing the need to do so from a dual rather than dualistic conception of the human person. Based on all of the above, various ethical criteria are indicated in the work that complete the principle of respect for human integrity indicated above: respect and promote human life in all its dimensions, use of technology at the service of human beings in a controlled manner and that report social benefit or value by each technique, not only from a therapeutic perspective, but also from the improvement of the human psychosomatic unit. In conclusion, it is necessary to recognize in man the uniqueness of him as he is a bodily being who knows and loves in freedom, whose ends are not limited to material or sensible things, but which are only achievable in and from his own material condition. Consequently, any techno-scientific intervention that substantially alters his body condition is inhuman, not instead when it repairs or enhances -without abolishing them- his own qualities.


Assuntos
Liberdade , Princípios Morais , Antropologia , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 161-164, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280059

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze whether fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) should be evaluated by chronological age and/or biological age and propose curves to classify the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed. Six hundred and forty-two soccer players between 13.0 and 18.9 years of age were recruited. Body mass, height, trunk-cephalic height, and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were evaluated. Biological maturation was determined using peak height velocity age (PHV) and the percentage of fat mass was estimated by regression equations. The reference percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. Results: The values of R2 were lower for chronological age (FM = 0.07% and FFM = 0.13%) than for biological age (FM = 0.31% and FFM = 0.50%). Eleven percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 and p97) were calculated for FFM and FM. Conclusion: Biological age (PHV) is a better predictor of FFM and FM than chronological age. The references proposed can be used to monitor the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Study .


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar si la masa grasa (MG) y la masa libre de grasa (MLG) deben ser evaluadas por la edad cronológica y/o por la edad biológica, y proponer curvas para clasificar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Métodos: Se elaboró un estudio descriptivo transversal. Fueron reclutados 642 futbolistas entre 13,0 y 18,9 años. Fueron medidas masa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular. La madurez biológica fue determinada por la edad de pico de velocidad de crecimiento (EPVC) y el porcentual de masa grasa fue estimado por ecuaciones de regresión. Los percentiles de referencia fueron calculados por el método LMS. Resultados: Los valores de R2 para edad cronológica fueron menores (MG=0,07% y MLG=0,13%) en comparación con los valores para la edad biológica (MG=0,31% y MLG=0,50%). Fueron calculados 11 percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 y p97) para la MLG y MG. Conclusión: La edad biológica (EPVC) es un predictor mejor de la MLG y de la MG que la edad cronológica. Las referencias propuestas pueden servir para monitorizar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio de diagnóstico .


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se a massa gorda (MG) e a massa livre de gordura (MLG) devem ser avaliadas pela idade cronológica e/ou pela idade biológica, e propor curvas para classificar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Métodos: Elaborou-se um estudo descritivo transversal. Foram recrutados 642 futebolistas entre 13,0 e 18,9 anos. Massa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular foram medidas. A maturação biológica foi determinada pela idade de pico de velocidade de crescimento (IPVC) e o percentual de massa gorda foi estimado por equações de regressão. Os percentis de referência foram calculados pelo método LMS. Resultados: Os valores de R2para idade cronológica foram menores (MG = 0,07% e MLG=0,13%) em comparação com os valores para a idade biológica (MG = 0,31% e MLG = 0,50%). Foram calculados 11 percentis (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 e p97) para a MLG e MG. Conclusão: A idade biológica (IPVC) é um preditor melhor da MLG e da MG do que a idade cronológica. As referências propostas podem servir para monitorar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Nível de evidência II; Estudo de diagnóstico .


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Futebol/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Antropologia
8.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 280-288, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A reappraisal of the available evidence of osteopetrosis in the archaeological record as first step in promoting new approaches to rare diseases in paleopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different approaches are combined: a survey of the last 50 years of bioarchaeological publications; an online search addressing six of the more widely used search engines; macroscopic and radiographic analyses of the human remains from the Neolithic site of Palata 2 (Italy). RESULTS: The combined results of the literature survey and the online search identified six cases of osteopetrosis. The majority of search hits place this disease into differential diagnoses. The investigation of the remains from Palata 2, one of the six cases in literature, indicates a non-specific sclerosis of the cranial vault. CONCLUSIONS: Of the six cases of osteopetrosis, only two, one of the autosomal-recessive type (ARO) and one of the autosomal-dominant type (ADO), are supported by direct osteoarchaeological evidence. Therefore, inaccurate differential diagnoses generate an inflated number of cases in the paleopathological record. SIGNIFICANCE: This reappraisal calls for a more informed and evidence-based approach to osteopetrosis and, more generally, to rare diseases in paleopathology. LIMITATIONS: Lack of specific publications on osteopetrosis; more case studies may be present in "gray literature". SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Cases of osteopetrosis from archaeological and historical collections as well as medical literature are needed to increase knowledge about this rare disease. More precise differential diagnoses are required, particularly when dealing with rare diseases.


Assuntos
Osteopetrose , Antropologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Osteopetrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Paleopatologia , Doenças Raras
9.
Hum Biol ; 92(3): 181-187, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057330

RESUMO

The study of human variation is central to both social and biomedical sciences, but social and biomedical scientists diverge in how variation is theorized and operationalized. Race is especially problematic because it is a cultural concept that contains implicit and explicit understandings of how collective bodies differ. In this moderately updated article, originally published in Human Biology in 2015 (vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 306-312), we propose an operationalization of race that addresses both racial experience and human biological diversity, placing them within the same ontological sphere. Furthermore, this approach can more effectively advance antiracist pedagogy and politics. We argue that human biological diversity does not have to be in opposition to constructivist notions of race. Rather, racial experience is emphasized as an embodied experience that is as real and as valid as biological variation. By focusing on both racial experience and biological diversity, it becomes more feasible to operationalize race to fruitfully inform the pedagogy and politics of antiracism. To do so, racial experience must be more broadly conceived and should not always equate to negative outcomes. With the recognition that racial experience has the potential to be something other than damaging, an antiracist anthropology can more effectively address issues pertaining to racial health disparities.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Biodiversidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Humanos , Política
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0248086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951047

RESUMO

Mass graves are usually key historical markers with strong incentive for archeological investigations. The identification of individuals buried in mass graves has long benefitted from traditional historical, archaeological, anthropological and paleopathological techniques. The addition of novel methods including genetic, genomic and isotopic geochemistry have renewed interest in solving unidentified mass graves. In this study, we demonstrate that the combined use of these techniques allows the identification of the individuals found in two Breton historical mass graves, where one method alone would not have revealed the importance of this discovery. The skeletons likely belong to soldiers from the two enemy armies who fought during a major event of Breton history: the siege of Rennes in 1491, which ended by the wedding of the Duchess of Brittany with the King of France and signaled the end of the independence of the region. Our study highlights the value of interdisciplinary approaches with a particular emphasis on increasingly accurate isotopic markers. The development of the sulfur isoscape and testing of the triple isotope geographic assignment are detailed in a companion paper [13].


Assuntos
Antropologia , Sepultamento , Datação Radiométrica , Paleopatologia
11.
Med Humanit ; 47(3): 375-379, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031186

RESUMO

Milk provides a way of thinking about how the body is enacted in science, policy and popular culture. This paper follows the currents of moral and biomedical epistemologies circulating around milk, including via notions of inheritance, the practices of wet nursing, and emerging scientific knowledge about the health-related benefits of breastfeeding. By situating milk's flows historically and culturally it shows how constructions of milk production, lactation, and infant feeding have long served as a 'cultural signal' of prevailing conceptions of bodies and social identities. In so doing, it explores the simultaneous power of milk as both a source of dispositional and somatic health, and an index of customary forms of unity and division. A focus on breast milk further contributes to augmenting and expanding recent debates about the biology-society nexus in science and technology studies (STS), anthropology, and sociology. Seen within biomedicine today as a carrier of somatic signals about the environment, the article reflects on how milk is bound up in the responsibilisation of women's bodies and the internalising of potential risks to the health of their offspring. This implies an unlimited agency for women in averting health risks and in future-proofing their children to be better than well, elides the socioeconomic, and environmental forces pragmatically limiting this assumed agency, and the distinct lack of material and inter-personal support for the perinatal period in many nations.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Pessoalidade , Antropologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leite Humano , Gravidez
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10665, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021220

RESUMO

In this contribution, we investigated the role of plants in the prehistoric community of Casale del Dolce (Anagni, FR, central Italy), through microparticles recovered from dental calculus. The finding of a great amount of pollen types, even in form of compact lumps, could indicate use of natural substances, such as honeybee products and/or conifer resins. This plant-microremain record also suggested environmental implications relative to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic period. Additionally, the stability of the tartar microenvironment had preserved starches and other microparticles, such as one epidermal trichome, a sporangium, and fragments of plant tissue, rarely detected in ancient dental calculus. The detection of secondary metabolites in the ancient matrix confirmed the familiarity of this community with plant resources. All these data supply various interesting food for thought and expand the knowledge about the potential of dental calculus in archaeological and archaeobotanical fields with a special focus on palaeoecology.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Cálculos Dentários/química , Meio Ambiente , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia , Biodiversidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália , Plantas/química
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(2): 267-273, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201869

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Chile ha experimentado un aumento de la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico (SM) entre la población adulta. Se sugiere que las manifestaciones fisiopatológicas de los componentes de este síndrome estarían relacionadas con el desarrollo de un posible ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico. OBJETIVO: determinar la frecuencia y las características del SM en una muestra de adultos después de un ACV isquémico. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo y transversal que consistió en revisar las variables relacionadas con el SM en 180 pacientes adultos ingresados a una clínica por ACV isquémico entre los años 2011 y 2017. Se consideraron las mediciones del peso y la talla para obtener el IMC y el estado nutricional. También se midieron la circunferencia de la cintura (CC), la presión arterial sistólica (PAS) y la diastólica (PAD), el colesterol total, el colesterol-HDL, el colesterol-LDL, los triglicéridos (TG) y la glucemia. RESULTADOS: el 62,8 % de la muestra presentaba SM. El IMC (IC: 28,5-29,9; p = 0,001), la CC (IC: 101,3-105,3; p = 0,001), la PAS (IC: 147,4-155,7; p = 0,000), la PAD (IC: 87,7-93,6; p = 0,000), la glucemia (IC: 132,9-159,2; p = 0,000) y los TG (IC: 181,2-228,8; p = 0,000) eran mayores en el grupo con SM. El colesterol-HDL (IC: 35,5-39,2; p = 0,000) era más bajo en este mismo grupo. La mayor edad (p = 0,007), el género masculino (p = 0,017) y el estado nutricional de exceso (p = 0,000) presentaron una asociación positiva con el SM. Entre los sujetos con SM, no hubo diferencias al comparar los componentes que definen el SM entre hombres y mujeres. CONCLUSIÓN: nuestros hallazgos revelan una alta frecuencia de SM en las personas adultas ingresadas a una clínica por diagnóstico de ACV isquémico


BACKGROUND: Chile has experienced an increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among the adult population. MS is proposed as a predictor for the occurrence of vascular defects causing ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency and characteristics of MS in a sample of adults after an ischemic ACV. METHODS: a descriptive, cross-sectional study that consisted of reviewing variables related to MS in 180 adult patients admitted to a clinic for an ischemic stroke between the years 2011 and 2017. Weight and height measurements were considered to obtain BMI and nutritional status. Waist circumference (CC), systolic (PAS) and diastolic blood pressure (PAD), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and glycemia were also measured. RESULTS: 62.8 % of the sample had MS. BMI (CI, 28.5-29.9; p = 0.001), CC (CI, 101.3-105.3; p = 0.001), PAS (CI, 147.4-155.7; p = 0.000), PAD (CI, 87.7-93.6; p = 0.000), glycemia (CI, 132.9-159.2; p = 0.000), and TG (CI, 181.2-228.8; p = 0.000) were higher in the group with SM. HDL-cholesterol (CI, 35.5-39.2; p = 0.000) was lower in this same group. Older age (p = 0.007), male gender (p = 0.017), and excess nutritional status (p = 0.000) had a positive association with MS. Of the subjects with MS, there were no differences obtained when comparing the components that define MS between men and women. CONCLUSION: our findings reveal a high frequency of MS in adults admitted to a clinic for ischemic stroke


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Estado Nutricional , Índice Glicêmico , Peso-Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropologia
15.
Nature ; 592(7853): 193-194, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790435
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798098

RESUMO

Elucidating when Neanderthal populations disappeared from Eurasia is a key question in paleoanthropology, and Belgium is one of the key regions for studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Previous radiocarbon dating placed the Spy Neanderthals among the latest surviving Neanderthals in Northwest Europe with reported dates as young as 23,880 ± 240 B.P. (OxA-8912). Questions were raised, however, regarding the reliability of these dates. Soil contamination and carbon-based conservation products are known to cause problems during the radiocarbon dating of bulk collagen samples. Employing a compound-specific approach that is today the most efficient in removing contamination and ancient genomic analysis, we demonstrate here that previous dates produced on Neanderthal specimens from Spy were inaccurately young by up to 10,000 y due to the presence of unremoved contamination. Our compound-specific radiocarbon dates on the Neanderthals from Spy and those from Engis and Fonds-de-Forêt demonstrate that they disappeared from Northwest Europe at 44,200 to 40,600 cal B.P. (at 95.4% probability), much earlier than previously suggested. Our data contribute significantly to refining models for Neanderthal disappearance in Europe and, more broadly, show that chronometric models regarding the appearance or disappearance of animal or hominin groups should be based only on radiocarbon dates obtained using robust pretreatment methods.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Extinção Biológica , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica
18.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(3): 185-198, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764627

RESUMO

An accurate reconstruction of habitual activities in past populations and extinct hominin species is a paramount goal of paleoanthropological research, as it can elucidate the evolution of human behavior and the relationship between culture and biology. Variation in muscle attachment (entheseal) morphology has been considered an indicator of habitual activity, and many attempts have been made to use it for this purpose. However, its interpretation remains equivocal due to methodological shortcomings and a paucity of supportive experimental data. Through a series of studies, we have introduced a novel and precise methodology that focuses on reconstructing muscle synergies based on three-dimensional and multivariate analyses among entheses. This approach was validated using uniquely documented anthropological samples, experimental animal studies, histological observations, and geometric morphometrics. Here, we detail, synthesize, and critically discuss the findings of these studies, which overall point to the great potential of entheses in elucidating aspects of past human behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Cultural , Hominidae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia , Comportamento , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Estresse Ocupacional
19.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 79: 102137, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647534

RESUMO

Partially or totally skeletonized bodies are undoubtedly the most challenging scenario to deal with for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Indeed, in such cases, being able to figure out the cause and manner of death is often tricky. Human remains require to be washed and cleaned before a thorough assessment of any signs of trauma. However, bones and any fragment of more or less putrefied soft tissues may be home to crucial traces for investigative purposes. They are often located in the context of apparently meaningless dirt and, sometimes they are even invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, their careless cleaning inevitably leads to an unintentional loss of such traces with a negative impact on subsequent investigations. For these reasons before proceeding with cleaning, exhaustive examination and sampling must be carried out. In particular fragments of soft tissues, even if putrefied, are absolutely not to be considered as a hindrance for forensic purposes, since they could still provide valuable information after histological examination. Finally, forward-thinking professionals should think about the possible presence of exogenous micro-traces of forensic concern and collect specimens to be analyzed through in-depth analyses, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM/EDX). The present series of cases demonstrates that crucial forensic information can be obtained through the analysis of apparently meaningless residues and even of micro-traces not visible to the naked eye and mixed with trivial dirt.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Manejo de Espécimes , Antropologia , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Glicoforinas , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Cristalino , Masculino , Metais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espectrometria por Raios X , Coloração e Rotulagem
20.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(2): 141-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689211

RESUMO

Among mammals, humans are exquisitely sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an environmentally pervasive bacterial cell membrane component. Very small doses of LPS trigger powerful immune responses in humans and can even initiate symptoms of sepsis. Close evolutionary relatives such as African and Asian monkeys require doses that are an order of magnitude higher to do the same. Why humans have evolved such an energetically expensive antimicrobial strategy is a question that biological anthropologists are positioned to help address. Here we compare LPS sensitivity in primate/mammalian models and propose that human high sensitivity to LPS is adaptive, linked to multiple immune tactics against pathogens, and part of multi-faceted anti-microbial strategy that strongly overlaps with that of other mammals. We support a notion that LPS sensitivity in humans has been driven by microorganisms that constitutively live on us, and has been informed by human behavioral changes over our species' evolution (e.g., meat eating, agricultural practices, and smoking).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sepse , Animais , Antropologia , Humanos , Primatas
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