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1.
Vaccine ; 41(2): 540-546, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496281

RESUMO

This study examines the personal beliefs held by parents of autistic children in Puerto Rico regarding the cause of their child's autism and how these beliefs may influence parental vaccination decision-making. This study seeks to contribute towards diversifying the autism literature by focusing on an autism community living in a relatively lower income, resource-deficit context. These findings expand our understandings of how parents of autistic children may perceive vaccines and how these perceptions are informed by various sources of knowledge. This ethnographic research study was conducted between May 2017 and August 2019. Methods included 350+ hours of participant-observation and semi-structured interviewing of 35 Puerto Rican parents of autistic children. 32 of these 35 parents interviewed believed autism to be the result of genetic risks that are 'triggered' by an unknown environmental factor. Suggested 'triggers' included various environmental contaminants and vaccinations. The subject of vaccination came up in every interview; 18 interviewed parents did not believe vaccines 'triggered' autism, 3 parents attributed their child's autism entirely to vaccines, while 14 considered vaccines to be one of several possible 'triggers'. It is important to note that no parents interviewed perceived vaccinations to be inherently or universally harmful. Rather, they perceived vaccinations to be one of many possible 'triggers' for a child predisposed to develop autism. In some cases, this perception prompted parents to oppose mandatory vaccination policies on the island. Parents shared nuanced, complex understandings of autism causation that may carry implications for COVID-19 vaccine uptake within the Puerto Rican autistic community.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Pais , Hesitação Vacinal , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Porto Rico , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Hesitação Vacinal/etnologia , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Antropologia Cultural , Antropologia Médica
2.
Anthropol Med ; 29(1): 14-28, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544292

RESUMO

Medication is closely involved in the subjective experience of chronic diseases, but also in the chronification process of illnesses which is described in this paper in the specific case of HIV. The development of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and the progressive recognition of their potential dual use as treatment as prevention (TasP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reshape the experience of HIV and its transmission. Acknowledging the importance of a socioanthropological approach to drugs, this paper highlights how therapeutic strategies of treatment and prevention currently shape the process of HIV chronification and its experience for people concerned with ARVs in Switzerland, whether they are seropositive patients on lifelong treatment or seronegative people affected by the preventive properties of drugs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Antropologia Médica , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Suíça
3.
Cult. cuid ; 26(64)3º Cuatrimestre 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213752

RESUMO

In this article we approach health and care from a holistic approach. The SARS-Cov-2syndemic, in addition to the effects on the health of many people, opened up a scenario of complexity, fears and uncertainties that prompted many to seek ways of self-care that could help them andallow them to cope. In this context, mindfulness, by integrating physical, mental, emotional andsocial aspects, offers a holistic way of taking care of oneself and improving the quality of life. In thisresearch we expose the experience of a mindfulness group through an ethnographic fieldwork tolearn how it has affected the care and well-being of its practitioners in a syndemic context. (AU)


En este artículo abordamos la salud y el cuidado desde un enfoque holístico. La sindemiadel SARS- Cov-2, además de los efectos sobre la salud de muchas personas, abrió un escenario decomplejidad, miedos e incertidumbres que impulsó a muchos a buscar formas de autocuidado quepudieran ayudarlos y permitirles afrontarlo. En este contexto el mindfulness, al integrar aspectosfísicos, mentales, emocionales y sociales, ofrece una forma holística de cuidarse y de mejorar de lacalidad de vida. En esta investigación exponemos la experiencia de un grupo de mindfulness a través de un trabajo de campo etnográfico para conocer cómo ha afectado al cuidado y bienestar desus practicantes en un contexto de sindemia. (AU)


Neste artigo abordamos a saúde e o cuidado a partir de uma abordagem holística. A sindemia do SARS-Cov-2, além dos efeitos na saúde de muitas pessoas, abriu um cenário de complexidade, medos e incertezas que levaram muitos a buscar formas de autocuidado que pudessemajudá-los e permitir o enfrentamento. Nesse contexto, o mindfulness, ao integrar aspectos físicos,mentais, emocionais e sociais, oferece uma forma holística de cuidar de si e melhorar a qualidadede vida. Nesta pesquisa, expomos a experiência de um grupo de mindfulness por meio de um trabalho de campo etnográfico para saber como isso afetou o cuidado e o bem-estar de seus praticantes em contexto sindêmico. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Seguridade Social/etnologia , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Antropologia Médica , Sindemia , Atenção Plena , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia
4.
Anthropol Med ; 29(4): 367-382, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524363

RESUMO

Immigrant rights have become increasingly contentious and partisan issues in the United States, and especially within the U.S. healthcare system. It is particularly essential to pay attention to Latinx immigrants-the largest immigrant and uninsured population in the United States. Latinx immigrants face many structural and legal challenges that may impact their biomedical healthcare access and treatment, creating a state of liminality or in-betweenness, especially when managing a chronic illness such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthritis. Using qualitative methods at a free healthcare clinic in Central Texas, the study reveals how the chronic illness narrative becomes inextricable from the immigrant narrative for this particular group, and how a unique 'dual-liminality' emerges from living with both an immigrant status and chronic condition. This study also introduces how Gloria Anzaldúa's theory of nepantla can be used to push existing understandings of migrant liminality in medical anthropology by reframing the experiences of U.S. Latinx immigrants with chronic illness as ones of opportunity. Nepantla functions as a novel theoretical lens to better understand how Latinx immigrants may regain agency in their chronic illness management and promote social change by helping others in similar situations.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Texas , Antropologia Médica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doença Crônica , Hispânico ou Latino
5.
Anthropol Med ; 29(4): 351-366, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539916

RESUMO

Brazilian mental health care reform understands mental health as a complex social process. There is a large literature production within the country focused on deinstitutionalization policy, social determinants of mental health and human rights, however, with little recognition beyond Latin American borders. In addition, cultural dimensions of mental suffering have been neglected in Brazilian debates which limits an expanded understanding of health care and users' inclusion. This paper aims to discuss the role of cultural determinants in mental health care in Brazil. We followed a patient in the city of Rio de Janeiro who opted for therapy based on her religious beliefs-using ayahuasca in the context of the Afro Brazilian religion of Umbanda-over the treatment-as-usual in mental health. We draw on the notions of autoatención (self, domestic, and group-care in lay contexts) and medical landscapes to examine how therapeutic negotiations reflect embodied cultural traits and both social and political determinants shaping therapeutic spaces. We argue that recognizing sociocultural differences and therapeutic negotiations are key elements in making a more inclusive health practice. Moreover, this recognition enables identifying and reasoning the broader social processes framing health practices. This debate is relevant to the Brazilian mental health context and to other scenarios, especially those where local and global knowledge and practices in mental health are entangled.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Religião , Feminino , Humanos , Brasil , Antropologia Médica , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde
6.
Anthropol Med ; 29(4): 383-398, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562204

RESUMO

This paper explores how Catholic women in Argentina use assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs), and particularly the way in which they resort to biomedicine and religion as complementary sources of knowledge, support and assistance during reproductive treatments. It is concerned about the role of the Catholic religion in local reproductive itineraries, seeing that Catholicism has such significant social, political and cultural influence in the country. Drawing on a qualitative and ethnographic study of Catholic spaces of worship, a maternity hospital and in-depth interviews with former users from three metropolitan areas in Argentina, we examine how reproductive itineraries involve the users' agency in building health resources from religion, with reference to biomedicine. The data reveal that women address religion as an affective, social and therapeutic recourse intertwined with biomedical power. These findings highlight the multiple and complex forms reproduction acquires in specific social, cultural and normative contexts, and contribute to discussing the complementarity between religion and biomedicine in health experiences.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Reprodução , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Catolicismo/psicologia , Argentina , Antropologia Médica , Tecnologia
7.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 778-793, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375078

RESUMO

Following a 2015 ruling in the Turkish Supreme Court, vaccine resistance has increased significantly in Turkey. Where childhood vaccination was once compulsory, it is now voluntary, enabling the transformation of Turkish lay medical culture. This medical culture rose in political importance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, little is known about vaccine hesitancy and resistance in Turkey, and the interconnections with the wider political atmosphere in the country. We draw upon fieldwork conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the rationales behind people's vaccination choices. We argue that vaccines encouraged by the state offer citizens opportunities for individuation and resistance to the more generalized coercive practices of the Turkish state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Turquia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Antropologia Médica , Vacinação
8.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 866-878, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375091

RESUMO

Treatment of a child diagnosed with an inherited metabolic disease is a demanding task both for the clinicians and for the parents. The metabolic pediatricians and dietitians have to deal with scarce and dispersed clinical knowledge, while the parents must actively participate in its treatment, the bulk of which consists of a stringent diet and managing the risk of metabolic decompensation or intoxication. In this article, I characterize the medical epistemologies of a particular kind of "metabolic living," discussing differences and similarities between the clinical/expert knowledge of metabolic specialists, and the lay knowledge of parents of affected children.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas , Pais , Criança , Humanos , Antropologia Médica , Família , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Doenças Raras
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115470, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article compares research on biological embedding and the embodiment of social experiences, two concepts proposed in the 1990s to introduce a new perspective on the social production of health inequalities. We draw on Ludwig Fleck's concept of 'thought style' (1935/2008) to question the possible emergence of a common research program around the processes by which the social becomes biological. METHODS: We compiled a corpus of 322 articles referring to either biological embedding or to the embodiment of social experiences, identified in the Web of Science core collection and published from 1990 to 2021. We analyzed the articles' use of these concepts using scientometric indicators and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Initial differences between the research agendas associated with biological embedding and embodiment are strengthened as both concepts circulate around scientific communities studying the social production of health inequalities. Thought styles formed around embedding and embodiment differ significantly in terms of shared references, sets of methods and research questions, and policy recommendations. Research on biological embedding forms a thought style shared by researchers in the biomedical and public health sciences. Conversely, the concept of embodiment of social experiences connects perspectives from biomedical, public health, human and social sciences, and gathers three thought styles, one identical to that of biological embedding and two formed in social epidemiology and in medical anthropology. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the differences between the concepts and divergences in their evolution provides an opportunity for identification of topics where thought styles are either complementary or in tension.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Ciências Sociais , Humanos , Antropologia Médica , Saúde Pública , Pesquisadores
10.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 839-853, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228080

RESUMO

NGOs recruit religious leaders as health actors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Program designers both construct religious leaders as opponents of family planning interventions who discourage their congregants from using family planning and as proponents who persuade their congregants to use them. This article investigates a family planning project that recruited religious leaders in Morogoro, Tanzania. Research findings show that binary talk obfuscates the structural underpinning of high fertility rates. The construction of static binaries of good and bad religious leaders observed mismatches with peoples' own realities and it misses the lifelike nuances of actors' own ethical action.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Tanzânia , Antropologia Médica
11.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 854-865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069559

RESUMO

Screening refugees for mental health issues, medical assistants use a digital tool that produces a numerical score but also, importantly, attunes to the moods of their clients and the atmospheres of their homes. In this article, we propose the concept of numeration-attunement as helpful for medical anthropology. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among medical assistants working in the Kutapalong refugee camp in Bangladesh, we explore their assessment of the mental health of the refugees: its numeration-attunement. To develop the notion of numeration-attunement, we draw on numeration research as well as phenomenology. Comprehending how medical assistants assess the mental health of refugees requires attention both to numeration and datafication by way of a screening tool as well as the revelatory character of attunement to moods.


Assuntos
Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Bangladesh , Antropologia Médica , Refugiados/psicologia
12.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 824-838, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069564

RESUMO

Efforts to integrate traditional midwives into state health systems have not succeeded in reducing perinatal mortality, but have nevertheless continued in many countries, including Mexico. The authors used ethnographic methods to examine an NGO's efforts to integrate traditional midwives into the state health system in the Sierra Madre region of Chiapas, Mexico. We found that most of the traditional midwives in the study area have little to gain by such integration, and ask whether it is possible, practical, and ethical to integrate traditional midwives into health institutions until and unless such policy is grounded in local realities.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , México , Antropologia Médica
13.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 810-823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069573

RESUMO

I explore what silence surrounding abortion means to women in their everyday lives and the composition of their selfhood. My analysis is based on one-year of ethnographic fieldwork consisting of 20 interviews with women from the Faroe Islands and participant observation. Building upon theoretical frameworks of belonging and subjectivity studies, I discuss women's silent maneuverings from an understanding of freedom of choice and power as complex entities and expand on the dimensions of belonging and nonbelonging. I find that women's silent maneuverings are a navigational strategy made in a quest for belonging, and propose the concept of performed belonging.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Antropologia Médica , Narração , Antropologia Cultural
15.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 86(1): 11-24, sept. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1412166

RESUMO

Este artículo es un trabajo de investigación etnográfica en el campo sanitario. Sus objetivos son reconstruir trayectorias de personas con trastornos mentales y de comportamiento por uso de alcohol y visibilizar representaciones y prácticas en los tratamientos brindados en el Hospital Vilardebó (Uruguay), en torno a dichos itinerarios. Las narrativas de los pacientes estudiados dan cuenta de una ruptura biográfica ocurrida mayoritariamente en la adolescencia, cuando comienza un consumo problemático de alcohol que lleva a una reorganización de la identidad social de orden simbólico; refirieren también, la mayoría de ellos, estar disconformes con la asistencia que se les brinda, y reclaman ser más escuchados. Por otra parte, en lo referente a las representaciones formuladas por los funcionarios entrevistados, a mayor formación y experiencia de ejercicio profesional, hay mayores críticas a la atención que se brinda a estos usuarios. De ahí que la confluencia de Antropología y Salud, ensamblando cultura y cuidado, permite integrar a las dimensiones físicas los aspectos emocionales, familiares, culturales y sociales.


This article is carries out ethnographic research in the sanitary field. Its objectives are to reconstruct the trajectories of people with mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use and to make visible representations and practices in treatments provided at Hospital Vilardebó (Uruguay). Patients' narratives show a biographical rupture occurring mainly during adolescence. Problematic alcohol use begins soon after, leading to a reorganization of symbolic social identity. Most patients are not satisfied with care provided, and demand to be listened to more extensively. As for health care workers' representations, the greater the training and professional expertise, the greater the criticism of provided care. Hence, the confluence of Anthropology and Health, combining culture and care, makes possible the emotional, family, cultural and social aspects to be integrated into the physical ones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde Mental , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Antropologia Médica
16.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9888

RESUMO

Aula com Paulo Rosenbaum sobre Sintomas, significado, adoecimento: aspecto da antropologia médica.


Assuntos
Terapêutica Homeopática , Diagnóstico Miasmático , Antropologia Médica
18.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 794-809, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914240

RESUMO

The publication of A Randomized Trial of Induction Versus Expectant Management (ARRIVE), conducted in the United States in 2018, heralded a paradigm shift within the obstetrical management of term pregnancy among people who have not previously given birth. ARRIVE finds its home among other canonical - and controversial - randomized controlled trials (RCTs) within obstetrics. We argue that RCTs have their own (after)life, both creating new subjects for biomedical intervention and recalibrating who reproductive health practitioners consider to be at risk of adverse health outcomes. These data have important consequences for medical social scientific engagement with RCTs to further interrogate the questions of risk and intervention within reproductive health.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Conduta Expectante , Antropologia Médica , Resultado da Gravidez
19.
Med Anthropol ; 41(8): 763-777, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939314

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has required many anthropologists to do fieldwork differently: research that would otherwise have been done face-to-face has been shifted online, sometimes very quickly. When doing research with people with chronic illnesses, it is important to acknowledge both the histories of online ethnography and the way that disability studies has engaged with the internet over time. This article uses the example of my PhD fieldwork, based in Northeast England, to explore how living in an increasingly digital world may impact how medical anthropologists could, and perhaps should, do ethnography.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Antropologia Médica , Antropologia Cultural , Reino Unido
20.
Anthropol Med ; 29(3): 255-270, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000408

RESUMO

This qualitative study documented the effects of uterine fibroids on the suffering of women in Haiti. It makes a unique contribution by re-socializing this disease, by making visible the social inequalities and what is at stake for the women, for their families, and for healthcare delivery. Uterine fibroid is a benign tumor of the uterus, common in gynecology, but profoundly malignant in how it affects women's lives. Little has been reported on their lived experiences. Haiti has historical, social, and economic factors that hinder the search for treatment. The study explores how and why patients seek surgical care for uterine fibroids at Mirebalais University Hospital. Seventeen in-depth interviews with patients and seven accompanying family members were conducted and recorded in Creole and translated into English, along with participant observations in two patients' homes. Content and narrative analysis were done iteratively, and the processual ethnographic method was used to relate our findings to Haitian history, to the context of the study, and to future implications. The women's experience of accompaniment, their suffering in their pèlerinage (care-seeking journey), and the troubling social impact of uterine fibroids make it a socially malignant illness. The study shows that it is critical to address the suffering of women afflicted with uterine fibroids by strengthening the Haitian health system, improving economic advantages, and establishing ways for them to gain access to social goods and participate in community activities.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , Antropologia Cultural , Antropologia Médica , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Leiomioma/complicações , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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