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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19494, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376478

RESUMO

Childhood is a unique phase in human life history, in which newborns are breastfed and weaned, and are progressively familiarized to adult diets. By investigating dietary changes from infancy to adolescence, valuable information regarding past cultural behaviors and aspects of human lives can be explored and elucidated. Here, in conjunction with published isotopic results of serial dentine (n = 21) from Yingpan Man, new δ13C and δ15N results are obtained from 172 samples of incremental dentine from 8 teeth of 8 individuals of the Yingpan cemetery, located in Xinjiang, China. The δ13C values range from - 18.2 to - 14.6‰ with a mean ± SD value of - 16.3 ± 0.9‰, and the δ15N results range between 13.4 and 19.9‰ with a mean ± SD value of 16.0 ± 1.4‰. This indicates that the childhood diets were mixtures of C3 and C4 dietary resources and were clearly influenced by breastfeeding and weaning practices. In particular, the findings indicate that there were significant inter-individual differences in terms of the timing and duration of breastfeeding and weaning practices as well as childhood dietary practices at Yingpan. For instance, three individuals were exclusively breastfed after birth, while, two individuals and Yingpan Man were not. In addition, the post-weaning diets of most Yingpan individuals were relatively stable, but one individual and Yingpan Man displayed clear evidence of increased consumption of C4 foods, likely millet, during late and post-weaning periods. Further, 7 individuals had unique dietary changes between 9 to 14 years old. Potential factors related to this are presented from the perspective of changes in social roles that might be caused by their early participation in the social division of labor or puberty and marriage.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Seda , Humanos , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta , Puberdade , Grão Comestível/química , Dentina/química
3.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(4): 838-848, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761866

RESUMO

William Montague Cobb, AB, MD, PhD, was the first African American PhD in anatomy and physical anthropology. He produced 1,100 publications while a professor at Howard University. His influence on the civil rights struggle from the 1930s to 1970s was profound as were his contributions to science and medical history. This article shows how he continued the activist and interdisciplinary traditions of African diasporic intellectuals and that these innovated what is today labeled biocultural anthropology, which focuses on the political, economic, and other societal influences on human biology and health. The human biology of the White "mainstream" has tended toward reductionism, biodeterminism, and eugenics. It drew a causal arrow from biology to society. Had they been able to listen to Black intellectuals, the world might have avoided the tragedy of mid-20th century eugenics and its long continuing biodeterministic shadow.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Antropologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(49)2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845028

RESUMO

The Lake Titicaca basin was one of the major centers for cultural development in the ancient world. This lacustrine environment is unique in the high, dry Andean altiplano, and its aquatic and terrestrial resources are thought to have contributed to the florescence of complex societies in this region. Nevertheless, it remains unclear to what extent local aquatic resources, particularly fish, and the introduced crop, maize, which can be grown in regions along the lakeshores, contributed to facilitating sustained food production and population growth, which underpinned increasing social political complexity starting in the Formative Period (1400 BCE to 500 CE) and culminating with the Tiwanaku state (500 to 1100 CE). Here, we present direct dietary evidence from stable isotope analysis of human skeletal remains spanning over two millennia, together with faunal and floral reference materials, to reconstruct foodways and ecological interactions in southern Lake Titicaca over time. Bulk stable isotope analysis, coupled with compound-specific amino acid stable isotope analysis, allows better discrimination between resources consumed across aquatic and terrestrial environments. Together, this evidence demonstrates that human diets predominantly relied on C3 plants, particularly quinoa and tubers, along with terrestrial animals, notably domestic camelids. Surprisingly, fish were not a significant source of animal protein, but a slight increase in C4 plant consumption verifies the increasing importance of maize in the Middle Horizon. These results underscore the primary role of local terrestrial food resources in securing a nutritious diet that allowed for sustained population growth, even in the face of documented climate and political change across these periods.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Dieta/tendências , Condições Sociais/tendências , Agricultura/história , Animais , Antropologia Física , Arqueologia/métodos , Restos Mortais/química , Bolívia/etnologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Camelídeos Americanos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Chenopodium quinoa , Alimentos , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Lagos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Peru/etnologia , Tubérculos , Condições Sociais/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Solanum tuberosum
5.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 40(1): 13, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether using the extracellular water/intracellular water (ECW/ICW) index and phase angle combined with segmental-bioimpedance analysis (BIA) improved the model fitting of skeletal muscle volume (SMV) estimation. The secondary aim was to compare the accuracy of segmental-BIA with that of ultrasound for estimating the quadriceps SMV measured with MRI. METHODS: Seventeen young men (mean age, 23.8 ± 3.3 years) participated in the study. The T-1 weighted images of thigh muscles were obtained using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Thigh and quadriceps SMVs were calculated as the sum of the products of anatomical cross-sectional area and slice thickness of 6 mm across all slices. Segmental-BIA was applied to the thigh region, and data on the 50-kHz bioelectrical impedance (BI) index, ICW index, ECW/ICW index, and phase angle were obtained. The muscle thickness index was calculated as the product of the mid-thigh muscle thickness, determined using ultrasound, and thigh length. The standard error of estimate (SEE) of the regression equation was calculated to determine the model fitting of SMV estimation and converted to %SEE by dividing the SEE values by the mean SMV. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis indicated that the combination of 50-kHz BI and the ECW/ICW index or phase angle was a significant predictor when estimating thigh SMV (SEE = 7.9 and 8.1%, respectively), but were lower than the simple linear regression (SEE = 9.4%). The ICW index alone improved the model fitting for the estimation equation (SEE = 7.6%). The model fitting of the quadriceps SMV with the 50-kHz BI or ICW index was similar to that with the skeletal muscle thickness index measured using ultrasound (SEE = 10.8, 9.6 and 9.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Combining the traditionally used 50-kHz BI index with the ECW/ICW index and phase angle can improve the model fitting of estimated SMV measured with MRI. We also showed that the model suitability of SMV estimation using segmental-BIA was equivalent to that on using ultrasound. These data indicate that segmental-BIA may be a useful and cost-effective alternative to the gold standard MRI for estimating SMV.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica , Músculo Esquelético , Coxa da Perna , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/anatomia & histologia , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(4): 253-261, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347329

RESUMO

Bipedal walking was one of the first key behavioral traits that defined the evolution of early hominins. While it is not possible to identify specific selection pressures underlying bipedal evolution, we can better understand how the adoption of bipedalism may have benefited our hominin ancestors. Here, we focus on how bipedalism relaxes constraints on nonhuman primate quadrupedal limb mechanics, providing key advantages during hominin evolution. Nonhuman primate quadrupedal kinematics, especially in our closest living relatives, the great apes, are dominated by highly flexed limb joints, often associated with high energy costs, and are constrained by the need to reduce loads on mobile, but less stable forelimb joints. Bipedal walking would have allowed greater hind limb joint extension, which is associated with reduced energy costs and increased endurance. We suggest that relaxing these constraints provided bipedal hominins important benefits associated with long distance foraging and mobility.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Fadiga , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
8.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 40(1): 9, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452641

RESUMO

Applying human biological evolution to solve topical problems of medicine and preventive cardiology was inspired by the realization of the need for clinical and experimental studies of biological (evolutionary) prerequisites in the occurrence of a pathology. Although it has been stated that there is a need to provide a full biological understanding of features, including those that increase an animal's vulnerability to diseases, unfortunately, in this regard, erectile and associated adaptations to the Earth's gravity in their physiological and pathological manifestations have not been considered. At the same time, it should be noted that humans, unlike other animal species, have the greatest vulnerability of the cardiovascular system (CVS). The latter is associated with fundamental differences in the functioning and regulation of the CVS by the influence of gravity on blood circulation in humans as upright creatures. Based on a review of comparative physiological, ontogenetic, and clinical studies from an evolutionary perspective, the idea of adaptation to the Earth's gravity when walking upright in humans is justified as an anthropogenic basis for the physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system and hemodynamic support systems (physio-anthropology and pathological anthropology).


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Gravitação , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antropologia Física , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 308-320, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Foot and ankle dysfunction in barefoot/minimally shod populations remains understudied. Although factors affecting musculoskeletal pain in Western populations are well-studied, little is known about how types of work, gender, and body shape influence bone and joint health in non-Western and minimally shod communities. This study examines the effect of human variation on locomotor disability in an agrarian community in Madagascar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Foot measurements were collected along with height, weight, age, and self-report data on daily activity and foot and ankle pain from 41 male and 48 female adults. A short form revised foot function index (FFI-R), that measures functional disability related to foot pain, was calculated. Raw and normalized foot measurements were compared by gender and used in a multiple linear regression model to determine predictors of FFI-R. RESULTS: Compared to men, women reported higher FFI-R scores (p = 0.014), spent more time on their feet (p = 0.019), and had higher BMIs (p = 0.0001). For their weight, women had significantly smaller and narrower feet than men. Bimalleolar breadth (p = 0.0005) and foot length (p = 0.0223) standardized by height, time spent on feet (p = 0.0102), ankle circumference standardized by weight (p = 0.0316), and age (p = 0.0090) were significant predictors of FFI-R score. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that human variation in anatomical and behavioral patterns serve as significant explanations for increased foot and ankle pain in women in this non-Western rural population. Foot and ankle pain were prevalent at similar levels to those in industrialized populations, indicating that research should continue to examine its effect on similar barefoot/minimally shod communities.


Assuntos
Tornozelo , , Dor , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornozelo/anatomia & histologia , Tornozelo/patologia , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Pé/patologia , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/patologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Sapatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
11.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(4): 242-252, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388300

RESUMO

African-descended peoples of the Americas represent an amalgamation of West, Central, and Southeast African regional and ethnic groups with modest gene flow from specific non-African populations. Despite 16+ generations of residence in the Americas, there is a deficit of evolutionary knowledge about these populations. Focusing on Legacy African American, the African North American descendants of survivors of the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans, we report on emic evolutionary perspectives of their self-identity gleaned from our interviews of 600 individuals collected over 2 years. Gullah-Geechee peoples of Carolina Coastal regions are a model case study due to their historical antiquity, substantial African retentions, relative geospatial isolation, and proposed progenitor status to other Legacy African American microethnic groups. We identify salient research questions for future studies that will begin to bridge the evolutionary gaps in our knowledge of these diverse peoples and the historical evidence for specific evolutionary processes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo , South Carolina , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 321-331, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current methods of quantifying defects of dental enamel (DDE) include either gross or low-level examination for linear enamel hypoplasia, histological analysis of striae of Retzius, or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of a tooth or a tooth cast. Gross examination has been shown to miss many defects. Other methods can be destructive, require transporting samples, and are expensive. Here, we show that digital light microscopy (DLM) can be used for the analysis of DDE as indicated by widened perikymata spacing (WPS). This method takes advantage of high-power (100×) microscopy, but is non-destructive, can be implemented almost anywhere, and is inexpensive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As proof of concept, we created photomontages of labial surfaces of five human canines from images made using DLM and SEM. We counted and measured the widths of all visible perikymata for each imaging modality and fit measurements to a negative curve representing the expected values for each tooth. We calculated residuals for each measurement. WPS were defined when R2 was in the 90th percentile, and were considered matched in DLM and SEM images when observed within the same decile of the tooth surface. RESULTS: There were more WPS detected in the images derived from DLM than from SEM. Overall, the data derived from the two imaging modalities provided similar information about the frequency and timing of stress during dental development. CONCLUSIONS: The method described here allows for DDE data acquisition as WPS from large samples, making feasible population-level studies that reflect sophisticated understanding of dental development.


Assuntos
Dente Canino/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia/métodos , Antropologia Física , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Fósseis , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Odontometria
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 223-236, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to identify maternal genetic affinities between the Middle to Final Neolithic (3850-2300 BC) populations from present-day Poland and possible genetic influences from the Pontic steppe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted ancient DNA studies from populations associated with Zlota, Globular Amphora, Funnel Beaker, and Corded Ware cultures (CWC). We sequenced genomic libraries on Illumina platform to generate 86 complete ancient mitochondrial genomes. Some of the samples were enriched for mitochondrial DNA using hybridization capture. RESULTS: The maternal genetic composition found in Zlota-associated individuals resembled that found in people associated with the Globular Amphora culture which indicates that both groups likely originated from the same maternal genetic background. Further, these two groups were closely related to the Funnel Beaker culture-associated population. None of these groups shared a close affinity to CWC-associated people. Haplogroup U4 was present only in the CWC group and absent in Zlota group, Globular Amphora, and Funnel Beaker cultures. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of mitochondrial haplogroups of Neolithic farmer origin identified in Early, Middle and Late Neolithic populations suggests a genetic continuity of these maternal lineages in the studied area. Although overlapping in time - and to some extent - in cultural expressions, none of the studied groups (Zlota, Globular Amphora, Funnel Beaker), shared a close genetic affinity to CWC-associated people, indicating a larger extent of cultural influence from the Pontic steppe than genetic exchange. The higher frequency of haplogroup U5b found in populations associated with Funnel Beaker, Globular Amphora, and Zlota cultures suggest a gradual maternal genetic influx from Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Moreover, presence of haplogroup U4 in Corded Ware groups is most likely associated with the migrations from the Pontic steppe at the end of the Neolithic and supports the observed genetic distances.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , /genética , Antropologia Física , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Polônia
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 295-307, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We quantified variation in fecal cortisol across reproductive periods in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) to examine physiological mechanisms that may facilitate biparental care. Specifically, we evaluated evidence for the explanation that owl monkeys have hormonal mechanisms to mobilize energy during periods when each sex is investing heavily in reproduction, that is, the gestation period for females and the infant care period for males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2011 and 2015, we monitored 10 groups of Azara's owl monkeys from a wild population in Formosa, Argentina and collected fecal samples from 26 adults (13 males, 13 females). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we quantified fecal cortisol as a proxy for evaluating stress responses, including energetic demands, on both sexes during periods of reproduction and parental care. RESULTS: Male cortisol was lowest during periods when they were caring for young infants (<3 months) compared with periods with older infants or no infant. Female cortisol was elevated during gestation compared with other periods. Mean fecal cortisol in both males and females was lower when an infant was present compared with when females were gestating. DISCUSSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that owl monkey males have elevated fecal cortisol during periods when they need to mobilize energy to provide intensive infant care. Our findings are also inconsistent with the Maternal Relief hypothesis. However, results from studies measuring fecal cortisol must be interpreted with care and alternative explanations, such as seasonal fluctuations in diet and thermoenergic demands, should be considered when drawing conclusions.


Assuntos
Aotidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Animais , Antropologia Física , Argentina , Feminino , Masculino , Ligação do Par , Reprodução
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 237-248, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We study the genetic diversity between Classic Teotihuacan and its neighboring towns trying to understand how far or close they are at the genetic level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use cranial nonmetric traits to study a sample of 280 adult skulls from archaeological sites running from the late Preclassic to the early Postclassic. Samples of Classic Teotihuacan were studied for La Ventilla and San Sebastián Xolalpan neighbors. For the Epiclassic period, samples from Xaltocan, Toluca valley, Mogotes and Xico were used. For the Preclassic and Postclassic samples from Xico were also used. We used a parametric bootstrap for the mean measure of divergence for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Samples from Xico have small biodistance from Preclassic to Postclassic. Samples from Los Mogotes differ depending on the functional context of deposition, with individuals from household burials (funerary) differing from non-funerary, ceremonial interments and exhibiting affinities to Epiclassic samples from Toluca valley. Epiclassic populations from Xaltocan vary significantly from any samples analyzed. Samples from Classic period Teotihuacan vary considerably among them but form a separate genetic group from all the other populations under study. CONCLUSIONS: The great biodistance separation among Classic Teotihuacan and its neighbor villages of central Mexico let us conclude that, contrary from the classical idea that those villages were confirmed by the inhabitants of Teotihuacan's collapse: They indeed remain as separate populations by themselves.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia Física , Evolução Biológica , Sepultamento , História Antiga , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/classificação , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , México
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 249-261, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The overarching hypothesis of the present paper is that ethnically and/or genetically diverse human populations may exhibit similarity in correlations between various aspects of human phenotypes due to the morphological integration process during the ontogenetic stages. To test this we investigated whether an association between craniofacial (CF) features and body composition (BC) variations is present in humans and the extent to which such possible associations are comparable in different populations. Furthermore, the paper examines the contribution of common genetic (additive) and shared familial environmental factors in assessing the correlation between CF and BC characteristics in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two pedigree-based samples were collected from two distinct populations, including India (Santhal) and Europe (Chuvash). Canonical correlation analysis was used to compare the association between CF and BC characteristics in the two studied samples. The contribution of genetic and familial environmental factors on the correlation between CF and BC features was analyzed through variance decomposition analysis by implementing the Mendelian Analysis package (MAN). RESULTS: Our study suggests that CF morphology is significantly (p < 0.001) associated with BC variation in both samples. CF characteristics and BC phenotypes revealed a consistent trend in both samples where condensed and broad CF morphology was significantly associated with increased fat accumulation, with slight variations between the Santhal and Chuvash samples. Despite the variations observed between the samples, the heritability estimates were impressively equivalent for traits like total facial height (55.6%Santhal vs.56.1%Chuvash ) and nasal index (42.8%Santhal vs. 43.3%Chuvash ). DISCUSSION: The genetic contribution of CF morphology appeared to be extensive and the contribution of common genetic and shared family environmental correlations between CF and BC measures were suggestively substantial. Accordingly, these correlations were consistently observed across ethnically diverse populations, despite drastic morphological differences between the samples under comparison.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética/genética , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Europa (Continente) , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 283-294, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the most contentious issues in paleoanthropology is the nature of the last common ancestor of humans and our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (panins). The numerical composition of the vertebral column has featured prominently, with multiple models predicting distinct patterns of evolution and contexts from which bipedalism evolved. Here, we study total numbers of vertebrae from a large sample of hominoids to quantify variation in and patterns of regional and total numbers of vertebrae in hominoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compile and study a large sample (N = 893) of hominoid vertebral formulae (numbers of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal segments in each specimen) and analyze full vertebral formulae, total numbers of vertebrae, and super-regional numbers of vertebrae: presacral (cervical, thoracic, lumbar) vertebrae and sacrococcygeal vertebrae. We quantify within- and between-taxon variation using heterogeneity and similarity measures derived from population genetics. RESULTS: We find that humans are most similar to African apes in total and super-regional numbers of vertebrae. Additionally, our analyses demonstrate that selection for bipedalism reduced variation in numbers of vertebrae relative to other hominoids. DISCUSSION: The only proposed ancestral vertebral configuration for the last common ancestor of hominins and panins that is consistent with our results is the modal formula demonstrated by chimpanzees and bonobos (7 cervical-13 thoracic-4 lumbar-6 sacral-3 coccygeal). Hox gene expression boundaries suggest that a rostral shift in Hox10/Hox11-mediated complexes could produce the human modal formula from the proposal ancestral and panin modal formula.


Assuntos
Pan troglodytes , Coluna Vertebral , Animais , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
18.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 163-178, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105143

RESUMO

Developmental plasticity facilitates energetically costly but potentially fitness-enhancing adjustments to phenotypic trajectories in response to environmental stressors, and thus may significantly impact patterns of growth, morbidity, and mortality over the life course. Ongoing research into epigenetics and developmental biology indicate that the timing of stress exposures is a key factor when assessing their impact on developmental processes. Specifically, stress experienced within sensitive developmental windows (SDWs), discrete developmental periods characterized by heightened energy requirements and rapid growth, may alter the pace and tempo of growth in ways that significantly influence phenotypic development over both the short and long term. In human skeletal biology, efforts to assess how developmental environments shape health outcomes over the life course could be enhanced by incorporating the SDW concept into existing methodological approaches. The goal of this article is to outline an interpretive framework for identifying and interpreting evidence of developmental stress in the skeletal system using the SDW concept. This framework provides guidance for the identification of elements most likely to capture evidence of stress most relevant to a study's core research questions, the interpretation of developmental stress exhibited by those elements, and the relationship of skeletal indicators of stress to the demographic patterning of morbidity and mortality. Use of the SDW concept in skeletal biology has the potential to enrich traditional approaches to addressing developmental origins of health and disease hypotheses, by targeting periods in which individuals are most susceptible to stress and thus most likely to exhibit plasticity in response.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 36-53, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: By focusing on two Danish leprosaria (Naestved and Odense; 13th-16th c. CE) and using diet and origin as proxies, we follow a multi-isotopic approach to reconstruct life histories of patients and investigate how leprosy affected both institutionalized individuals and the medieval Danish community as a whole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combine archaeology, historical sources, biological anthropology, isotopic analyses (δ13 C, δ15 N, δ34 S, 87 Sr/86 Sr) and radiocarbon dating, and further analyze bones with different turnover rates (ribs and long bones). RESULTS: The δ13 C, δ15 N and δ34 S results indicate a C3 terrestrial diet with small contributions of marine protein for leprosy patients and individuals from other medieval Danish sites. A similar diet is seen through time, between males and females, and patients with and without changes on facial bones. The isotopic comparison between ribs and long bones reveals no significant dietary change. The δ34 S and 87 Sr/86 Sr results suggest that patients were local to the regions of the leprosaria. Moreover, the radiocarbon dates show a mere 50% agreement with the arm position dating method used in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: A local origin for the leprosy patients is in line with historical evidence, unlike the small dietary contribution of marine protein. Although only 10% of the analyzed individuals have rib/long bone offsets that undoubtedly show a dietary shift, the data appear to reveal a pattern for 25 individuals (out of 50), with elevated δ13 C and/or δ15 N values in the ribs compared to the long bones, which points toward a communal type of diet and reveals organizational aspects of the institution.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos/análise , Hanseníase/etnologia , Hanseníase/história , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Dinamarca/etnologia , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Isótopos/metabolismo , Masculino , Datação Radiométrica
20.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 144-151, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The statistical analysis of fossil remains is essential to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. Unfortunately, the human fossil record is straight away scarce and plagued with severe loss of information caused by taphonomic processes. The recently developed field of Virtual Anthropology helps to ameliorate this situation by using digital techniques to restore damaged and incomplete fossils. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the package Arothron, an R software suite meant to process and analyze digital models of skeletal elements. Arothron includes tools to digitally extract virtual cavities such as cranial endocasts, to statistically align disarticulated or broken bony elements, and to visualize local variations between surface meshes and landmark configurations. RESULTS: We describe the main functionalities of Arothron and illustrate their usage through reproducible case studies. We describe a tool for segmentation of skeletal cavities by showing its application on a malleus bone, a Neanderthal tooth, and a modern human cranium, reproducing their shape and calculating their volume. We illustrate how to digitally align a disarticulated model of a modern human cranium, and how to combine piecemeal shape information on individual specimens into one. In addition, we present useful visualization tools by comparing the morphological differences between the right hemisphere of the Neanderthal and the modern human brain. CONCLUSIONS: The Arothron R package is designed to study digital models of fossil specimens. By using Arothron, scientists can handle digital models with ease, investigate the inner morphology of 3D skeletal models, gain a full representation of the original shapes of damaged specimens, and compare shapes across specimens.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Software , Animais , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Homem de Neandertal , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
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