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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259094, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364533

RESUMO

Due to extensive application of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, antimicrobial resistance has been increased. To overcome this challenge, rumen microbiologists search for new probiotics to improve the rate of livestock production. The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate breed-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as potential animal probiotics. The current study was conducted during 10 months from July 2020 to April 2021, in which a total of n=12 strains were isolated from different samples including milk, rumen, and feces of Nilli Ravi Buffaloes. These isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against common animal pathogens (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). All the isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses inferred that these strains showed close relations to the species of various genera; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis, and Lactococcus lactis. NMCC-Ru2 has exhibited the enormous potential of antimicrobial activity, 28 mm, for Salmonella typhimurium;23 mm for Listeria monocytogenes 21 mm for E.coil. Highest resistance was seen in NMCC-Ru2 agasint test antbiotic, like 25.5 mm for Tetracycline. Overall results revesl that the probiotic profile of isolates was achieved using standard criteria, particularly with animal probiotic properties


Devido à extensa aplicação de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento na alimentação animal, a resistência aos antimicrobianos aumentou. Para superar esse desafio, os microbiologistas do rúmen buscam novos probióticos para melhorar a produtividade do gado. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e avaliar bactérias lácticas específicas de raças (BAL) como potenciais probióticos animais. 12 cepas foram isoladas de diferentes amostras, incluindo leite, rúmen e fezes de búfalos Nilli Ravi. Esses isolados foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra patógenos animais comuns (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). Todos os isolados foram identificados por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e as análises filogenéticas inferiram que essas cepas apresentaram estreita relação com as espécies de vários gêneros; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis e Lactococcus lactis. O perfil probiótico dos isolados foi obtido usando critérios padrão, particularmente com propriedades probióticas animais.


Assuntos
Animais , Búfalos , Enterococcus , Probióticos , Trato Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus , Antibacterianos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258277, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364531

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharide is used widely in many foods and pharmaceutical industries and produced by using different ways such as extracting it from plants or producing it by using plants and microorganisms' enzymes. In a previous study, we extracted Fructosyltransferase (Ftase) enzyme from pineapple residue and produced FOS. In this study, we measured the antagonistic activity of two synbiotics, the first synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and the produced FOS, the second synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and standard FOS, against pathogenic bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and B cereus). The results showed that the antagonistic activity of both synbiotic types was very close, as there were no significant differences between them except in the antagonistic activity against S. aureus, there was a significant difference between the synbiotic containing the standard FOS, which was the highest in its antagonistic activity compared to the synbiotic containing the produced FOS in this study. The activity of the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) extracted from pineapple residue was evident in enhancing the activity of the probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus), which had a major role in the production of acids and compounds that inhibited the pathogenic bacteria. The diameters of inhibition areas in the current study ranged between 19.33-28 mm, and E. coli was more susceptible to inhibition, followed by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. cereus, respectively.


O fruto-oligossacarídeo (FOS) é amplamente utilizado em muitos alimentos e indústrias farmacêuticas, e é produzido por meio de diferentes maneiras, como extraí-lo de plantas ou produzi-lo usando enzimas de plantas e microrganismos. Em um estudo anterior, extraímos a enzima frutosiltransferase (Ftase) do resíduo de abacaxi e produzimos FOS. Neste estudo, medimos a atividade antagônica de dois simbióticos: o primeiro simbiótico contendo Lactobacillus acidophilus e o FOS produzido, e o segundo simbiótico contendo Lactobacillus acidophilus e o FOS padrão, contra bactérias patogênicas (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus e B. cereus). Os resultados mostraram que a atividade antagônica de ambos os tipos simbióticos foi muito próxima, pois não houve diferenças significativas entre eles, exceto na atividade antagônica contra S. aureus, em que houve uma diferença significativa entre o simbiótico contendo o FOS padrão, que foi o mais alto em sua atividade antagônica, em comparação com o simbiótico contendo o FOS produzido neste estudo. A atividade do fruto-oligossacarídeo (FOS) extraído do resíduo de abacaxi ficou evidente no aumento da atividade da bactéria probiótica (L. acidophilus), que teve papel importante na produção de ácidos e compostos inibidores das bactérias patogênicas. Os diâmetros das áreas de inibição no estudo atual variaram entre 19,33 e 28 mm, e E. coli foi mais suscetível à inibição, seguida por S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e B. cereus, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Ananas , Simbióticos , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Antibacterianos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253508, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360218

RESUMO

Present research work represents antiviral and antibacterial value of body fat of Saara hardwickii commonly called as spiny tailed lizard. Oil was extracted from body fats located in the ventral region of this animal using hydrocarbons e.g., n-hexane, methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of lizard oil was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines ofEscherichia coli, Styphalococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris alone and with antibiotic ampicillin. For antibacterial potential, Ethyl acetate and Butanol solvent extract showed best zone of inhibition (7mm) with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. For antiviral potential, Butanol and Methanol extract showed best HA (Hemagglutination) titer of 04 with NDV and IBV viral strain respectively. It is concluded that lizard oil has antimicrobial potential against different pathogens strains (virus, bacteria).


O presente trabalho de pesquisa apresenta a importância antiviral e antibacteriana da gordura corporal de Saara hardwickii, comumente chamado de lagarto de cauda espinhosa. O óleo foi extraído de gorduras corporais localizadas na região ventral desse animal usando hidrocarbonetos, por exemplo, n-hexano, metanol, butanol e acetato de etila, como solvente. A atividade antibacteriana do óleo do lagarto foi testada em linhagens padrão e multirresistentes de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Proteus vulgaris, de forma isolada e com antibiótico ampicilina. Para o potencial antibacteriano, acetato de etila e extrato de butanol apresentaram melhor zona de inibição (7 mm) com P. aeruginosa e S. aureus, respectivamente. Para o potencial antiviral, o extrato de butanol e o extrato de metanol apresentaram melhor título de hemaglutinação de 4 com as cepas virais NDV e IBV, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o óleo do lagarto possui potencial antimicrobiano contra diferentes cepas de patógenos (vírus e bactérias).


Assuntos
Animais , Antivirais , Tecido Adiposo , Lagartos , Antibacterianos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222

RESUMO

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.


Assuntos
Vaginite/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Moringa , Antibacterianos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

RESUMO

In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Biotecnologia , Lacase , Enzimas , Antibacterianos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

RESUMO

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Assuntos
Animais , Bombyx , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Bactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Larva
7.
Actas urol. esp ; 47(1): 27-33, jan.- feb. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214419

RESUMO

Introducción El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los resultados del tratamiento antibiótico continuado, la autovacuna MV140 y la vacuna bacteriana polivalente MV140 de cepas de colección en la prevención de ITU recurrentes no complicadas. Métodos Se analizaron prospectivamente 377 pacientes desde enero de 2017 hasta agosto de 2019 y se dividieron en 3 grupos según la profilaxis administrada. Grupo A (126): tratamiento antibiótico, Grupo B (126), autovacuna MV140; Grupo C (125), vacuna bacteriana polivalente MV140 a partir cepas seleccionadas. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, menopausia, número de episodios de ITU al inicio y a los 3 y 6 meses de finalizar la profilaxis, costes sanitarios a lo largo del seguimiento a los 3 y 6 meses. Resultados A los 3 meses, los episodios de ITU se redujeron a 0-1 en el 65% del grupo A, en el 80,8% del grupo B y en el 81,7% del grupo C. A los 6 meses, se presentaron 0-1 episodios de ITU en el 44,4% del grupo A, en el 61,6% del grupo B y en el 74,6% del grupo C. En cuanto a los costes sanitarios a lo largo del seguimiento, a los 3 meses el grupo A registró 21.171,87 euros, el grupo B 20.763,73 euros y el grupo C 18.866,14 euros. A los 6 meses, los costes sanitarios fueron de 32.980,35 euros en el grupo A, de 28.133,42 euros en el grupo B y de 23.629,19 euros en el grupo C. Conclusiones La autovacuna MV140 y la vacuna bacteriana polivalente MV140 fueron más eficaces reduciendo el número de episodios de ITU a los 3 y 6 meses y con unos costes sanitarios menores durante el seguimiento, en comparación con la profilaxis antibiótica continuada (p < 0,05). La vacuna bacteriana polivalente MV140 de cepas seleccionadas fue más eficaz en la reducción del número de episodios de ITU con unos costes sanitarios menores que la autovacuna (AU)


Introduction The objective of this study was to compare the results on prevention of uncomplicated recurrent UTI between continuous use of antibiotics, MV140 autovaccine and MV140 polybacterial vaccine from collection strain. Methods 377 patients were prospectively analyzed from January 2017 to August 2019 and divided into 3 groups according to the prophylaxis. Group A (126): antibiotics, Group B (126): MV140 autovaccine, Group C (125): MV140 polybacterial vaccine from the collection strain. Variables analyzed were: gender, age, menopause, number of UTI at baseline and 3 and 6 months after the end of prophylaxis, health cost along follow-up at 3 and 6 months. Results At 3 months, group A had 0-1 UTI in 65%, group B had 0-1 UTI in 80.8% and group C in 81.7%. At 6 months, group A had 0-1 UTI in 44.4%, group B had 0-1 UTI in 61.6% and group C in 74.6%. Regarding health cost along follow-up, at 3 months group A had €21,171.87, group B had €20,763.73 and group C €18,866.14. At 6 months, health cost was €32,980.35 in group A, €28,133.42 in group B, and €23,629.19 in group C. Conclusions MV140 autovaccine and MV140 polybacterial vaccine were more efficient with lower number of UTI at 3 and 6 months and lower health cost along follow-up compared to continued prophylaxis with antibiotics (p < .05). Polybacterial MV140 vaccine from collection strain had higher effect to reduce the number of UTI and less health cost than autovaccine (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Autovacinas/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Seguimentos , Recidiva , Infecções Urinárias/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 114(1): 1-5, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621918

RESUMO

Due to the worry growing increase in bacterial antibiotic resistance and the scanty availability of new antibiotics, it is highly recommended to use not recently synthesized, but still active molecules. Clofoctol is a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent with a different mechanism of action, as compared with the other antibacterial molecules currently available. By reducing intracellular ATP, clofoctol inhibits the synthesis of bacterial cytoplasmic membrane peptidoglycans, inducing the arrest of cell wall synthesis, thus characterizing the molecule as a "membrane-acting agent". More recently, however, it has been shown that clofoctol is also able to induce apoptosis by inhibiting the translation of intracellular proteins. An important property of clofoctol is the rapidity of the antimicrobial effect, which allows the complete eradication of the pathogen and makes the development of resistance unlikely. Administered rectally, the drug rapidly accumulates in the tissues. Most of the clinical studies conducted on clofoctol concern the treatment of respiratory diseases in children. The drug appears to be more active in upper rather than in lower respiratory tract infections. Tolerability was reported to be good, with a low incidence of side effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cresóis , Criança , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cresóis/metabolismo , Cresóis/farmacologia , Cresóis/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos/metabolismo , Clorobenzenos/farmacologia , Bactérias/metabolismo
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 6, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal infection caused by Coxiella burnetii is rare and difficult to diagnose. Here we reported a case of spinal infection from Coxiella burnetii detected by the metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old male farmer with no medical history reported severe sharp low back pain, numbness and lower limb weakness for three years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bone destruction and spinal cord compression within L1 and L2. mNGS testing showed that the inspected specimen collected from spinal lesion was detected positively for Coxiella burnetii. After receiving the combined treatment of antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, the patient recovered well, and the sagittal MRI showed that vertebral edema signals disappeared and the graft of bone fused 16 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: The mNGS may be benefit for early diagnosis and intervention of non-specific spinal infection, and future studies should validate its effectiveness for clinical use in spinal infections. Additionally, antibiotic therapy combined with surgical intervention plays an important role on the treatment of spinal infection caused by Coxiella burnetii.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Febre Q , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 5, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis remains one of the most common pathogens causing infection in surgical patients. Our goal was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance of E. faecalis, causing infections in a surgical clinic, against two antibacterial drugs, ampicillin and teicoplanin. One commonly administered in the past for such infections, ampicillin, and another newer, teicoplanin, which demonstrated exceptionally good efficacy. METHODS: Data from 1882 isolates were retrieved from the microbiology department database during two 5-year periods. Standard biochemical methods were employed for the identification of the isolates. The prevalence of E. faecalis among patients with clinical evidence of infection in a surgical oncology ward was assessed. Confidence interval (CI) as well as standard error (SE) were calculated. Moreover, the annual incidence of E. faecalis infections in this surgical ward was recorded. The susceptibility of E. faecalis to ampicillin and teicoplanin was studied and compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed that the incidence of E. faecalis infections in the surgical clinic was increasing. Ampicillin, in the later year period, was not statistically different from teicoplanin in treating E. faecalis infections. Consequently, ampicillin seems currently to be an effective antibiotic against such infections that could be used as empiric therapy.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Teicoplanina , Humanos , Teicoplanina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 22(1): 5, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New antibiotics are urgently needed in clinical treatment of superdrug-resistant bacteria. Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are a major source of antibiotics because they exhibit structural diversity, and unique antibacterial mechanisms and resistance. Analysis of gene clusters of S. agglomeratus 5-1-3 showed that Clusters 3, 6, 12, 21, and 28 were used to synthesize NRPs. Here, we examined secondary metabolites of S. agglomeratus 5-1-3 isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, for NRPs with antibacterial activity. RESULTS: We isolated a total of 36 Streptomyces strains with distinct colony morphological characteristics from 7 soil samples. We screened 8 Streptomyces strains resistant to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We then selected S. agglomeratus 5-1-3 for further study based on results of an antibacterial activity test. Here, we isolated three compounds from S. agglomeratus 5-1-3 and characterized their properties. The crude extract was extracted with ethyl acetate and purified with column chromatography and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We characterized the three compounds using NMR analyses as echinomycin (1), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3.3',5'-trimethoxy flavone (2), and 2,6,2', 6'-tetramethoxy-4,4-bis(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-biphenyl (3). We tested the antibacterial activity of pure compounds from strain 5-1-3 with the Oxford cup method. NRP echinomycin (1) showed excellent anti-MRSA activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.0 µg/mL. Meanwhile, MIC of compound 2 and 3 was 128.0 µg/mL for both. In addition, 203 mg of echinomycin was isolated from 10 L of the crude extract broth of strain 5-1-3. CONCLUSION: In this study, S. agglomeratus 5-1-3 with strong resistance to MRSA was isolated from the soils in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Strain 5-1-3 had a high yield of echinomycin (1) an NRP with a MIC of 2 µg/mL against MRSA. We propose that echinomycin derived from S. agglomeratus 5-1-3 may be a potent antibacterial agent for pharmaceutical use.


Assuntos
Equinomicina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Streptomyces , Tibet , Antibacterianos/química , Streptomyces/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Misturas Complexas , Solo
13.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 22(1): 2, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spectra™ VRE agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS) is a chromogenic agar that is FDA approved for screening patients for VRE colonization. The package insert recommends confirming isolates with identification and susceptibility testing, but confirming every culture delays time to result. Given the agar's historic high specificity for E. faecium isolates, we theorized the agar could be utilized as a stand-alone screening to minimize reagents and time. AIM: Our laboratory sought to develop a workflow to optimize the use of the medium. METHODS: We plated 3,815 rectal swabs to the Spectra VRE agar and compared results to traditional identification and susceptibility testing. RESULTS: Dark blue or purple colonies on the agar demonstrated a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 85% for detection of VRE faecium, but light blue colonies were significantly less specific for E. faecalis. CONCLUSIONS: We streamlined our workflow to accept dark blue or purple colonies as VRE faecium and plan to perform additional testing only on light blue colonies. Interestingly, higher quantity of growth increased the accuracy of the agar. In the future, growth quantity may be used to further streamline the workflow once more data is obtained.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Humanos , Enterococcus faecalis , Ágar , Vancomicina , Fluxo de Trabalho , Resistência a Vancomicina , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
14.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(198): 20220793, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596451

RESUMO

Laboratory experiments suggest that rapid cycling of antibiotics during the course of treatment could successfully counter resistance evolution. Drugs involving collateral sensitivity could be particularly suitable for such therapies. However, the environmental conditions in vivo differ from those in vitro. One key difference is that drugs can be switched abruptly in the laboratory, while in the patient, pharmacokinetic processes lead to changing antibiotic concentrations including periods of dose overlaps from consecutive administrations. During such overlap phases, drug-drug interactions may affect the evolutionary dynamics. To address the gap between the laboratory and potential clinical applications, we set up two models for comparison-a 'laboratory model' and a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic 'patient model'. The analysis shows that in the laboratory, the most rapid cycling suppresses the bacterial population always at least as well as other regimens. For patient treatment, however, a little slower cycling can sometimes be preferable if the pharmacodynamic curve is steep or if drugs interact antagonistically. When resistance is absent prior to treatment, collateral sensitivity brings no substantial benefit unless the cell division rate is low and drug cycling slow. By contrast, drug-drug interactions strongly influence the treatment efficiency of rapid regimens, demonstrating their importance for the optimal choice of drug pairs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614222

RESUMO

In orthopedic surgery, biomaterial-associated infections represent a complication of serious concern. Most promising strategies to prevent these infections currently rely on the use of anti-infective biomaterials. Desirably, in anti-infective biomaterials, the antibacterial properties should be achieved by doping, grafting, or coating the material surfaces with molecules that are alternative to conventional antibiotics and exhibit a potent and highly specific activity against bacteria, without altering the biocompatibility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are among the most interesting candidate molecules for this biomaterial functionalization. Here, the potential expressed by the recently discovered peptide Dadapin-1 was explored by assaying its MIC, MBIC and MBC on clinical strains of relevant bacterial species isolated from orthopedic infections and by assessing its cytotoxicity on the human osteoblast-like MG63 cells. When appropriately tested in diluted Mueller Hinton Broth II (MHB II), Dadapin-1 exhibited significant antibacterial properties. MIC values were in the range of 3.1-6.2 µM for the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus warneri, and 12.4-24.9 µM for the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, the peptide was found non-cytotoxic, with an IC50 exceeding the highest concentration tested of 179 µM. Overall, Dadapin-1 expresses considerable potential for future application in the production of anti-infective biomaterials.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Escherichia coli , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614237

RESUMO

This work compared the effectiveness of several Methylene Blue (MB)-based protocols for photo-eradication of biofilms formed on the surface of the glass and stainless steel discs by S. aureus MRSA isolates using a diode laser (λ = 665 nm; output power 40 mW; energy fluence was 189 J cm-2). The results obtained showed that MB alone, up to a concentration of 62.5 mgL-1, had limited photo-bactericidal activity. It was possible to enhance the activity of MB using two types of spherical gold nanoparticles of similar sizes, 15 ± 3 nm/20 ± 3 nm, but differing in the method of their synthesis and stabilization. The enhancement of the photodestruction effect was related to the increased production of hydroxyl radicals by the MB+gold nanoparticles mixture, and this mixture showed dark cytotoxicity against the cocci studied. Effective destruction (mortality above 99.9%) of the biofilms formed by MRSA isolates was also possible without the use of gold nanoparticles, but the concentration of MB had to be at least 125 mgL-1. A highly efficient protocol of photodestruction of biofilms, consisting of triple exposure of biofilms to laser light in the presence of MB alone, combined with the removal of dead bacteria protecting deep layers of pathogens against photosensitization, was also described.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Fotoquimioterapia , Staphylococcus aureus , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Ouro/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Antibacterianos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614309

RESUMO

Foodborne infections are an important global health problem due to their high prevalence and potential for severe complications. Bacterial contamination of meat during processing at the enterprise can be a source of foodborne infections. Polymeric coatings with antibacterial properties can be applied to prevent bacterial contamination. A composite coating based on fluoroplast and Ag2O NPs can serve as such a coating. In present study, we, for the first time, created a composite coating based on fluoroplast and Ag2O NPs. Using laser ablation in water, we obtained spherical Ag2O NPs with an average size of 45 nm and a ζ-potential of -32 mV. The resulting Ag2O NPs at concentrations of 0.001-0.1% were transferred into acetone and mixed with a fluoroplast-based varnish. The developed coating made it possible to completely eliminate damage to a Teflon cutting board. The fluoroplast/Ag2O NP coating was free of defects and inhomogeneities at the nano level. The fluoroplast/Ag2O NP composite increased the production of ROS (H2O2, OH radical), 8-oxogualnine in DNA in vitro, and long-lived active forms of proteins. The effect depended on the mass fraction of the added Ag2O NPs. The 0.01-0.1% fluoroplast/NP Ag2O coating exhibited excellent bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but did not affect the viability of eukaryotic cells. The developed PTFE/NP Ag2O 0.01-0.1% coating can be used to protect cutting boards from bacterial contamination in the meat processing industry.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Politetrafluoretileno , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Bactérias , Carne
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614327

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica as common pathogens of humans and animals are good model organisms to conduct research on bacterial biology. Because these bacteria can multiply in both the external environments and in the living hosts, they prove their wide adaptability. It has been previously demonstrated that prolonged exposition of Salmonella serotype O48 cells to normal human serum led to an increase in resistance to sera in connection with the synthesis of very long O-antigen. In this work, we have studied the phenotype connected to virulence of Salmonella&nbsp;enterica strains that were subjected to consecutive passages in 50% human serum from platelet-poor plasma (SPPP). We found that eight passages in SPPP may not be enough for the bacteria to become serum-resistant (S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, S. Senftenberg). Moreover, C1q and C3c complement components bound to Salmonellae (S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, S. Hammonia) membrane proteins, which composition has been changed after passaging in sera. Interestingly, passages in SPPP generated genetic changes within gene fljB, which translated to cells' motility (S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, S. Erlangen). One strain, S. Hammonia exposed to a serum developed a multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype and two S. Isaszeg and S. Erlangen tolerance to disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium salts (QAS). Furthermore, colonial morphotypes of the serum adaptants were similar to those produced by starter cultures. These observations suggest that overcoming stressful conditions is manifested on many levels. Despite great phenotypic diversity occurring after prolonged exposition to SPPP, morphotypes of colonies remained unchanged in basic media. This work is an example in which stable morphotypes distinguished by altered virulence can be confusing during laboratory work with life-threatening strains.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Humanos , Virulência , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(2): 390-409, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36687120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increasing resistance rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to different antibiotics, failures in eradication therapies are becoming more frequent. Even though eradication criteria and treatment algorithms for first-line and second-line therapy against H. pylori infection are well-established, there is no clear recommendation for third-line and rescue therapy in refractory H. pylori infection. AIM: To perform a systematic review evaluating the efficacy and safety of rescue therapies against refractory H. pylori infection. METHODS: A systematic search of available rescue treatments for refractory H. pylori infection was conducted on the National Library of Medicine's PubMed search platform based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Randomized or non-randomized clinical trials and observational studies evaluating the effectiveness of H. pylori infection rescue therapies were included. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were included in the analysis of mean eradication rates as rescue therapy, and 21 of these were selected for analysis of mean eradication rate as third-line treatment. For rifabutin-, sitafloxacin-, levofloxacin-, or metronidazole-based triple-therapy as third-line treatment, mean eradication rates of 81.6% and 84.4%, 79.4% and 81.5%, 55.7% and 60.6%, and 62.0% and 63.0% were found in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis, respectively. For third-line quadruple therapy, mean eradication rates of 69.2% and 72.1% were found for bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT), 88.9% and 90.9% for bismuth quadruple therapy, three-in-one, Pylera® (BQT-Pylera), and 61.3% and 64.2% for non-BQT) in ITT and PP analysis, respectively. For rifabutin-, sitafloxacin-, levofloxacin-, or metronidazole-based triple therapy as rescue therapy, mean eradication rates of 75.4% and 78.8%, 79.4 and 81.5%, 55.7% and 60.6%, and 62.0% and 63.0% were found in ITT and PP analysis, respectively. For quadruple therapy as rescue treatment, mean eradication rates of 76.7% and 79.2% for BQT, 84.9% and 87.8% for BQT-Pylera, and 61.3% and 64.2% for non-BQT were found in ITT and PP analysis, respectively. For susceptibility-guided therapy, mean eradication rates as third-line and rescue treatment were 75.0% in ITT and 79.2% in PP analysis. CONCLUSION: We recommend sitafloxacin-based triple therapy containing vonoprazan in regions with low macrolide resistance profile. In regions with known resistance to macrolides or unavailability of bismuth, rifabutin-based triple therapy is recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Rifabutina/efeitos adversos
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 141(2): 403-413, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal postoperative infections before and after addition of adjunctive azithromycin to standard antibiotic prophylaxis for prelabor cesarean births. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with singleton gestations at more than 23 weeks of gestation who underwent prelabor cesarean birth at a single tertiary care center. Deliveries were categorized as those before implementation of 500 mg intravenous azithromycin in addition to standard preoperative cephalosporin antibiotic prophylaxis (pre-AZI group; January 2013-September 2015) and those after implementation of adjunctive azithromycin (post-AZI group; January 2016-December 2018). Cesarean births from October to December 2015 were excluded as a washout period. The primary outcome was a composite of postcesarean infections (endometritis, superficial or deep wound infections, intra-abdominal abscess, urinary tract infections). Secondary outcomes included composite components, other wound or postoperative complications, and select neonatal morbidities. Outcomes were compared between groups, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using multivariable analysis. Propensity score matching was performed to assess the robustness our analysis. RESULTS: Of 2,867 delivering patients included for analysis, 1,391 (48.5%) were in the pre-AZI group and 1,476 (51.5%) were in the post-AZI group. Patients in the post-AZI group were older and were more likely to have private insurance, use aspirin, and receive predelivery antibiotics within 2 weeks. There were significantly lower odds of composite infection after azithromycin implementation (3.3% vs 4.8%, aOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.89), driven by a reduction in wound infection odds (2.4% vs 3.5%, aOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). There were lower odds of other postpartum complications, including wound seroma (0.5% vs 0.9%, aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.90) and dehiscence (0.5% vs 1.2%, aOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79). There were no differences in select neonatal morbidities between groups. Of 1,138 matching sets in the propensity analysis, the primary outcome remained significantly lower in the post-AZI group (aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41-0.99). CONCLUSION: Adopting adjunctive azithromycin for prelabor cesarean deliveries was associated with lower odds of postpartum infection.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
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