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1.
Can Vet J ; 65(7): 675-681, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952764

RESUMO

Objective: Assessing effectiveness of circular (CM) and linear (LM) scrub methods using 3 different combinations of chlorhexidine in surgical field antisepsis in cats. Animals and procedure: Surgical field antisepsis was applied with 2 scrub methods (CM and LM) and 3 different chlorhexidine combinations (A1, A2, and A3) in 51 female cats undergoing ovariectomy. Sterile swabs collected from the surgical field pre- and post-antisepsis were inoculated in the laboratory and colony-forming units (CFU/mL) were quantified. Results: Following the application of antisepsis, the number of positive samples decreased in all groups (P < 0.05) when using both CM and LM, except for CM in the A1 group (P = 0.063). The CFU/mL counts also decreased after antisepsis with both CM and LM in all groups (P < 0.05). A high reduction in CFU/mL counts was observed after antisepsis with both CM and LM in all groups, but no significant differences were observed between the 2 scrub methods (P > 0.05). Conclusion and clinical relevance: Surgical field antisepsis in cats with CM and LM scrub methods, using 2% chlorhexidine combined with 70% ethyl or 70% isopropyl alcohol, or 1% chlorhexidine combined with 70% ethyl alcohol, can effectively reduce the bacterial load on the skin.


Efficacité de deux méthodes de désinfection avec différentes combinaisons de chlorhexidine pour l'antisepsie du champ opératoire chez le chat. Objectif: Évaluation de l'efficacité des méthodes de désinfection par mouvements circulaires (CM) et linéaires (LM) utilisant 3 combinaisons différentes de chlorhexidine dans l'antisepsie du champ opératoire chez le chat. Animaux et procédure: Une antisepsie chirurgicale sur le terrain a été appliquée avec 2 méthodes de désinfection (CM et LM) et 3 combinaisons différentes de chlorhexidine (A1, A2 et A3) chez 51 chattes subissant une ovariectomie. Des écouvillons stériles prélevés sur le champ opératoire avant et après l'antisepsie ont été inoculés en laboratoire et les unités formant des colonies (UFC/mL) ont été quantifiées. Résultats: À la suite de l'application de l'antisepsie, le nombre d'échantillons positifs a diminué dans tous les groupes (P < 0,05) lors de l'utilisation à la fois de CM et de LM, à l'exception du CM dans le groupe A1 (P = 0,063). Le nombre d'UFC/mL a également diminué après antisepsie avec CM et LM dans tous les groupes (P < 0,05). Une forte réduction du nombre d'UFC/mL a été observée après antisepsie avec CM et LM dans tous les groupes, mais aucune différence significative n'a été observée entre les 2 méthodes de désinfection (P > 0,05). Conclusion et pertinence clinique: L'antisepsie chirurgicale sur le terrain chez les chats avec les méthodes de désinfection CM et LM, utilisant 2 % de chlorhexidine combinée à 70 % d'alcool éthylique ou 70 % d'alcool isopropylique, ou 1 % de chlorhexidine combinée à 70 % d'alcool éthylique, peut réduire efficacement la charge bactérienne sur la peau.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Animais , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Gatos , Feminino , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Antissepsia/métodos
2.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 48(2): 96-104, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958415

RESUMO

Objective: Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) have been used for therapeutic purposes in humans since ancient times. Because of their growth conditions, leeches carry certain bacteria and endosymbionts (e.g., Aeromonas spp). In both leech farms and hirudotherapy clinics, there are no reliable antiseptics that can be used with leeches. This study aimed to determine whether methylene blue (MB) is a safe antiseptic for medicinal leeches and assess its safe usage. Methods: This study evaluated the efficacy of MB by determining lethal concentrations (LC), effective concentrations (EC), and lethal times (LT) for the medicinal leech Hirudo verbena Carena, 1820. A total of 570 H. verbana specimens obtained from a local farm were used in this study. Eighteen different concentrations of MB (between 1 ppm and 512 ppm) were tested. Results: The LC50 and EC50 values for H. verbana were determined to be 60.381 (53.674-66.636) ppm and 2.013 (1.789-2.221) ppm, respectively. The LT50 durations for MB concentrations of 32 and 512 ppm were calculated as 212.92 h (138.43 h-1485.78 h) and 17.82 h (8.08 h-23.90 h), respectively. Conclusion: The results show that MB concentrations between 2 and 19 ppm can be safely used as antiseptics in hirudotherapy clinics and leech farms to address bacterial concerns caused by medicinal leeches.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Sanguessugas , Azul de Metileno , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Aplicação de Sanguessugas , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Hirudo medicinalis , Animais Peçonhentos
3.
Trials ; 25(1): 461, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preoperative body surface and nasal decolonization may reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSI) but yields conflicting results in the current orthopedic literature. METHODS: We perform a single-center, randomized-controlled, superiority trial in favor of the preoperative decolonization using a commercial product (octenidine® set). We will randomize a total number of 1000 adult elective orthopedic patients with a high risk for SSI and/or wound complications (age ≥ 80 years, chronic immune-suppression, American Society of Anesthesiologists score 3-4 points) between a decolonization (octenisan® wash lotion 1 × per day and octenisan® md nasal gel 2-3 × per day; during 5 days) and no decolonization. Decolonized patients will additionally fill a questionnaire regarding the practical difficulties, the completeness, and the adverse events of decolonization. The primary outcomes are SSI and revision surgeries for postoperative wound problems until 6 weeks postoperatively (or 1 year for surgeries with implants or bone). Secondary outcomes are unplanned revision surgeries for non-infectious problems and all adverse events. With 95% event-free surgeries in the decolonization arm versus 90% in the control arm, we formally need 2 × 474 elective orthopedic surgeries included during 2 years. DISCUSSION: In selected adult orthopedic patients with a high risk for SSI, the presurgical decolonization may reduce postoperative wound problems, including SSI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT05647252. Registered on 9 December 2022. PROTOCOL VERSION: 2 (5 December 2022).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Reoperação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Pele/microbiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Iminas
4.
Pathologica ; 116(3): 180-185, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979593

RESUMO

The routine use of iodine tincture in medicine represents a turning point in the history of surgical procedures. It was the Istrian doctor Antonio Grossich (1849-1926) who first defined and applied the best formula and demonstrated to the world its superiority over other antiseptics. Although his was a life guided by medicine and the steadfast translation of his political ideals into practice, Grossich's achievements were somewhat obscured by his active involvement in the Istrian irredentism of the first decades of the wentieth century.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Médicos/história
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2415310, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861260

RESUMO

Importance: Peceleganan spray is a novel topical antimicrobial agent targeted for the treatment of skin wound infections. However, its efficacy and safety remain unclear. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of peceleganan spray for the treatment of wound infections. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, open-label, phase 3 randomized clinical trial recruited and followed up 570 adult patients diagnosed with secondary open wound infections from 37 hospitals in China from August 23, 2021, to July 16, 2022. Interventions: Patients were randomized to 2 groups with a 2:1 allocation. One group received treatment with 2% peceleganan spray (n = 381) and the other with 1% silver sulfadiazine (SSD) cream (n = 189). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy outcome was the clinical efficacy rate (the number of patients fulfilling the criteria for efficacy of the number of patients receiving the treatment) on the first day following the end of treatment (day 8). The secondary outcomes included the clinical efficacy rate on day 5 and the bacterial clearance rate (cases achieving negative bacteria cultures after treatment of all cases with positive bacteria cultures before treatment) on days 5 and 8. The safety outcomes included patients' vital signs, physical examination results, electrocardiographic findings, blood test results, and adverse reactions. Results: Among the 570 patients randomized to 1 of the 2 groups, 375 (98.4%) in the 2% peceleganan treatment group and 183 (96.8%) in the 1% SSD control group completed the trial (n = 558). Of these, 361 (64.7%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 48.6 (15.3) years. The demographic characteristics were similar between groups. On day 8, clinical efficacy was achieved by 339 patients (90.4%) in the treatment group and 144 (78.7%) in the control group (P < .001). On day 5, clinical efficacy was achieved by 222 patients (59.2%) in the treatment group and 90 (49.2%) in the control group (P = .03). On day 8, bacterial clearance was achieved by 80 of 334 patients (24.0%) in the treatment group and in 75 of 163 (46.0%) in the control group (P < .001). On day 5, bacterial clearance was achieved by 55 of 334 patients (16.5%) in the treatment group and 50 of 163 (30.7%) in the control group (P < .001). The adverse events related to the application of peceleganan spray and SSD cream were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that peceleganan spray is a safe topical antimicrobial agent with a satisfactory clinical efficacy rate for the treatment of skin wound infections, while the effectiveness of bacterial clearance remains uncertain. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR2100047202.


Assuntos
Infecção dos Ferimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , China , Sulfadiazina de Prata/uso terapêutico , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
6.
J Wound Care ; 33(Sup6a): cxl-cli, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the findings on the effect of the clinical use of 0.1% polyhexanide-propylbetaine (PHMB/betaine) solution/gel on acute and hard-to-heal (chronic) wound healing. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and the CENTRAL Trials Registry of the Cochrane Collaboration. Paired reviewers conducted title and abstract screening and full-text screening to identify experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies. Study quality and risk of bias were not formally evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies met the eligibility criteria. The findings from 12 studies indicated that the use of 0.1% PHMB/betaine solution/gel had: a low risk of contact sensitivity; could help debridement during wound cleansing; aided effective wound bed preparation; reduced wound size, odour and exudate; improved pain control; reduced microbial load; and enhanced wound healing. The results of three studies indicated that both 0.1% PHMB and saline solution were effective in reducing bacterial load, while another showed that adding 0.1% PHMB to tie-over dressings had no effect on reducing bacterial loads in wounds. Another study concluded that disinfection and granulation of pressure ulcers with hydrobalance dressing with 0.3% PHMB was faster and more effective than using 0.1% PHMB/betaine. CONCLUSION: The findings of this literature review showed that 0.1% PHMB/betaine solution/gel appeared to be useful and safe for wound cleansing, was effective in removing soft debris and slough from the wound bed, and created a wound environment optimal for healing. Although these actions cannot be attributed solely to this treatment modality, these results do highlight the unique action of this combined product. However, more robust studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Betaína , Biguanidas , Cicatrização , Humanos , Biguanidas/uso terapêutico , Betaína/uso terapêutico , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Géis , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 32: e20230291, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865512

RESUMO

The prevalence of gingivitis is substantial within the general population, necessitating rigorous oral hygiene maintenance. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed a Garcinia indica (GI) fruit extract-based mouthrinse, comparing it to a 0.1% turmeric mouthrinse and a 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse. The evaluation encompassed substantivity, staining potential, antimicrobial efficacy and cytocompatibility. METHODOLOGY: The study employed 182 tooth sections. For antimicrobial analysis, 64 extracted human teeth coated with a polymicrobial biofilm were divided into four groups, each receiving an experimental mouthrinse or serving as a control group with distilled water. Microbial reduction was assessed through colony forming units (CFU). Substantivity was evaluated on 54 human tooth sections using a UV spectrophotometer, while staining potential was examined on 64 tooth sections. Cytocompatibility was tested using colorimetric assay to determine non-toxic levels of 0.2% GI fruit extract, 0.1% Turmeric, and 0.2% CHX. RESULTS: Data were analysed with one-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Cell viability was highly significant (p<0.001) in the 0.2% GI group (64.1±0.29) compared to 0.1% Turmeric (40.2±0.34) and 0.2% CHX (10.95±1.40). For antimicrobial activity, both 0.2% GI (20.18±4.81) and 0.2% CHX (28.22±5.41) exhibited no significant difference (P>0.05) at end of 12 hours. However, 0.1% Turmeric showed minimal CFU reduction (P<0.001). Substantivity results at 360 minutes indicated statistically significant higher mean release rate in 0.1%Turmeric (12.47±5.84 ) when compared to 0.2% GI (5.02±3.04) and 0.2% CHX (4.13±2.25) (p<0.001). The overall discoloration changes (∆E) were more prominent in the 0.2% CHX group (18.65±8.3) compared to 0.2% GI (7.61±2.4) and 0.1% Turmeric (7.32±4.9) (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study supports 0.2% GI and 0.1% Turmeric mouth rinses as potential natural alternatives to chemical mouth rinses. These findings highlight viability of these natural supplements in oral healthcare.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Clorexidina , Curcuma , Frutas , Garcinia , Antissépticos Bucais , Higiene Bucal , Extratos Vegetais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Garcinia/química , Curcuma/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Frutas/química , Análise de Variância , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Colorimetria , Teste de Materiais , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 57, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840171

RESUMO

AIM: Although uncommon, infections associated with peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) may be responsible for severe life-threatening complications and increase healthcare costs. Few data are available on the relationship between PIVC insertion site and risk of infectious complications. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the CLEAN 3 database, a randomized 2 × 2 factorial study comparing two skin disinfection procedures (2% chlorhexidine-alcohol or 5% povidone iodine-alcohol) and two types of medical devices (innovative or standard) in 989 adults patients requiring PIVC insertion before admission to a medical ward. Insertion sites were grouped into five areas: hand, wrist, forearm, cubital fossa and upper arm. We evaluated the risk of risk of PIVC colonization (i.e., tip culture eluate in broth showing at least one microorganism in a concentration of at least 1000 Colony Forming Units per mL) and/or local infection (i.e., organisms growing from purulent discharge at PIVC insertion site with no evidence of associated bloodstream infection), and the risk of positive PIVC tip culture (i.e., PIVC-tip culture eluate in broth showing at least one microorganism regardless of its amount) using multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: Eight hundred twenty three PIVCs with known insertion site and sent to the laboratory for quantitative culture were included. After adjustment for confounding factors, PIVC insertion at the cubital fossa or wrist was associated with increased risk of PIVC colonization and/or local infection (HR [95% CI], 1.64 [0.92-2.93] and 2.11 [1.08-4.13]) and of positive PIVC tip culture (HR [95% CI], 1.49 [1.02-2.18] and 1.59 [0.98-2.59]). CONCLUSION: PIVC insertion at the wrist or cubital fossa should be avoided whenever possible to reduce the risk of catheter colonization and/or local infection and of positive PIVC tip culture.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateterismo Periférico , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Clorexidina , Adulto , Desinfecção/métodos , Povidona-Iodo , Fatores de Risco , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Punho/microbiologia
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 178, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918842

RESUMO

Asthma is an airways inflammatory disease and the most common chronic disease of childhood, which causes most hospital visits and placing a heavy financial burden on families and communities. Interleukins 4, 5 and 13, play a central role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Given the importance of oral hygiene in asthmatic patients and IL-4 and 5 are involved in the inflammatory process of periodontitis, the effect of chlorhexidine as mouthwash on asthma attacks in children on serum cytokines is necessary. In this study, 375 children with asthma were divided into two groups using or non-using chlorhexidine. Blood samples were taken and cytokines were measured by ELISA. From 375 patients, 17 patients were excluded. In this study, 171 males and 187 females participated and there were 180 patients in asthma group and 178 patients in asthma/Chlorhexidine group. The levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between Asthma and Asthma/Chlorhexidine groups. Using chlorhexidine as mouthwash in children with asthma had no effect on the type 2 cytokines and may not trigger an asthma attack via allergo-inflammatory mechanism.


Assuntos
Asma , Clorexidina , Interleucina-4 , Antissépticos Bucais , Humanos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Asma/sangue , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-13/sangue , Interleucina-5/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Adolescente
11.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 37(2): 56-59, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864768

RESUMO

Background: Povidone, a synthetic polymer commonly used in various products such as antiseptics, cosmetics, and medications, has been associated with allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Despite its widespread use, cases of povidone-induced anaphylaxis, especially in children, are under-recognized. This case report aims to highlight the importance of considering povidone allergy in pediatric patients presenting with anaphylaxis. Case Presentation: We describe a 3-year-old boy who experienced anaphylaxis following the application of povidone-iodine antiseptic solution to a leg wound. He presented with generalized urticaria, angioedema, dyspnea, and cough. Prompt diagnosis and management were initiated in the emergency department. He experienced the second anaphylaxis with povidone-containing eye drops prescribed during an ophthalmology visit. Conclusions: Povidone allergy should be considered in pediatric patients presenting with anaphylaxis, especially those with idiopathic reactions or multiple drug allergies. Clinicians should emphasize patient education on label reading and the provision of adrenaline autoinjectors to prevent life-threatening reactions associated with povidone exposure.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Povidona-Iodo , Humanos , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Povidona-Iodo/efeitos adversos , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/efeitos adversos , Soluções Oftálmicas/efeitos adversos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 942: 173739, 2024 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839007

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS), a commonly used antibacterial agent, is associated with various harmful effects on mammalian neurodevelopment, particularly when exposed prenatally. This study investigated the impact of long-term exposure to TCS on the prefrontal cortex development in adolescent mice. We evaluated the motor ability, motor coordination, and anxiety behavior of mice using open field tests (OFT) and elevated cross maze tests (EPM). An increase in movement distance, number of passes through the central area, and open arm retention time was observed in mice treated with TCS. Hematoxylin eosin staining and Nissl staining also showed significant adverse reactions in the brain tissue of TCS-exposed group. TCS induced microglia activation and increased inflammatory factors expression in the prefrontal cortex. TCS also increased the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), thereby elevating the levels of PKM2 dimer, which entered the nucleus. Treatment with TEPP46 (PKM2 dimer nuclear translocation inhibitor) blocked the expression of inflammatory factors induced by TCS. TCS induced the phosphorylation of nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in vivo and in vitro, upregulating the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The results also demonstrated the binding of PKM2 to STAT3, which promoted STAT3 phosphorylation at the Tyr705 site, thereby regulating the expression of inflammatory factors. These findings highlight the role of PKM2-regulated STAT3 phosphorylation in TCS-induced behavioral disorders in adolescents and propose a reliable treatment target for TCS.


Assuntos
Microglia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Piruvato Quinase , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Triclosan , Animais , Triclosan/toxicidade , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/induzido quimicamente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/toxicidade , Masculino
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 682, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine mouthwash is a common oral hygiene product used in intensive care units, but it may have some adverse effects. Licorice, a natural herb, could be a potential alternative to chlorhexidine. However, the effect of licorice mouthwash on the oral health of intubated patients has not been studied yet. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of licorice and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the oral health of intubated patients. METHODS: This was a triple-blind clinical trial. The sample included 130 intubated patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Iran. The samples were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups: A and B. In group A, the main researcher applied 15 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash after each brushing (twice a day for 5.5 days) and suctioned it after 30 s. In group B, 20% licorice mouthwash was used instead of chlorhexidine. The demographic information questionnaire and the Beck Oral Assessment Scale (BOAS) were completed by one of the nurses before and on the sixth day of the study. RESULTS: Finally, 60 patients in each group completed the study. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic variables or oral health before the intervention (P > 0.05). The oral health of patients in both the chlorhexidine and liquorice mouthwash groups improved significantly after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in oral health between the two groups at postintervention (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that both mouthwashes exerted a comparable effect on dental and oral health. However, the chlorhexidine mouthwash showed a greater impact on the reduction of dental plaque and the thinning of saliva compared to licorice mouthwash. In essential cases, licorice mouthwash can be employed as an alternative to chlorhexidine.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Glycyrrhiza , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Antissépticos Bucais , Saúde Bucal , Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Intubação Intratraqueal , Irã (Geográfico) , Higiene Bucal/métodos
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 340: 122217, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857997

RESUMO

Iodine (I2) as a broad-spectrum antiseptic has been widely used for treating bacterial infections. However, I2 has low water-solubility and sublimes under ambient conditions, which limits its practical antibacterial applications. The highly specific and sensitive reaction between I2 and starch discovered 200 years ago has been extensively applied in analytical chemistry, but the antibacterial activity of the I2-starch complex is rarely investigated. Herein, we develop a novel type of iodine-based antiseptics, iodine-soluble starch (I2-SS) cryogel, which can dissolve in water instantly and almost completely kill bacteria in 10 min at 2 µg/mL of I2. Although KI3 and the commercially available povidone­iodine (I2-PVP) solutions show similar antibacterial efficacy, the high affinity of I2 to SS largely enhances the shelf stability of the I2-SS solution with ∼73 % I2 left after one-week storage at room temperature. In sharp contrast, ∼8.5 % and âˆ¼2.5 % I2 are detected in KI3 and I2-PVP solutions, respectively. Mechanistic study reveals that the potent antibacterial effect of I2-SS originates from its attack on multiple bacterial targets. The outstanding antibacterial activity, capability of accelerating wound healing, and good biocompatibility of I2-SS are verified through further in vivo experiments. This work may promote the development of next-generation iodine-based antiseptics for clinical use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Criogéis , Iodo , Solubilidade , Amido , Água , Iodo/química , Iodo/farmacologia , Amido/química , Amido/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , Água/química , Criogéis/química , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Povidona-Iodo/química , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(3): 50-53, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38887072

RESUMO

The article presents a case of expert evaluation of poisoning with chlorohexidine in the case of intravenous administration to a maternity woman who entered the maternity department for a planned cesarean section, contrary to the instructions for the use of this antiseptic, intended only for external or cavity application. The toxic effect of chlorohexidine began with thoracic discomfort, shortness of breath, then deep hypoxic phenomena in the form of diffuse cyanosis of the skin, facial pastoralism, respiratory disorders requiring ventilation, acute decrease of oxygen saturation in the blood up to 77% with further decrease to 60%, a pattern of pronounced hemorrhagic edema in the lungs, occurred when consciousness was absent. The consequences of poisoning are assessed as life-threatening from the forensic medical position, and uterus removal to prevent a heavy atonic hemorrhage is considered as loss of the organ. These features are characterized as causing serious harm to health. The legal evaluation of the health workers' actions is the prerogative of the juridical investigative authorities.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina , Humanos , Feminino , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/intoxicação , Adulto , Gravidez , Cesárea , Administração Intravenosa
17.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(7): 417, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38904701

RESUMO

The indications for collagenase ointment (CO) and its efficacy are not clearly established in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds. To evaluate the efficacy of CO versus silver sulfadiazine ointment (SSD) in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds. A total of 170 eligible patients with deep second-degree burns, aged 18-65 years, with injuries occurring within 48-96 h, and having a total wound area of less than 30% of the total body surface area were included from 5 centers in China. The primary outcome was the wound healing time, and the secondary outcomes were the clearance time of wound necrotic tissues, wound healing rate, and wound inflammation. The study included 85 patients in SSD group and 84 in CO group in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population. The median time of wound healing was comparable in both groups (10 days vs. 10.5 days P = 0.16). The time for wound necrotic tissue removal was significantly shortened by CO compared with SSD (5 vs. 10 days P < 0.01). Wound inflammation, pain, wound healing rate, and scar were compared with SSD (all P-values > 0.05). No adverse events, such as infection or allergic reactions to the drugs and materials used, were reported. Both CO and SSD could heal the burn wounds at 10 days of treatment. However, CO significantly shortened the time of wound necrotic tissue removal by 5 days. Trial Registration: ChiCTR2100046971.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Colagenases , Sulfadiazina de Prata , Cicatrização , Humanos , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem , Sulfadiazina de Prata/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Colagenases/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , China , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos
18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(6): 354, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This single-center randomized, parallel design, clinical trial with a 2-week follow-up involved patients affected by periodontitis undergoing periodontal surgery. The aim was to evaluate periodontal surgical wound healing with the use of chlorhexidine-based mouth rinses versus an untreated control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Periodontal surgery was performed following a standardized protocol. Patients were randomly prescribed i) chlorhexidine (CHX) + anti-discoloration system (ADS) + hyaluronic acid (HA), ii) CHX + ADS or iii) no treatment (control group). Plaque score, gingival inflammation, and Early Healing Index (EHI), assessing the degree of wound closure and the presence of fibrin and necrosis, were evaluated at 3, 7 and 14 days after surgery. RESULTS: In total, 33 patients were enrolled. Patients were comparable at baseline for all measured clinical parameters. At 3-days wound healing was significantly improved in all patients treated with CHX + ADS-based mouth rinses with a lower EHI score at the interdental papillae compared with control group (p < 0.01). CHX + ADS + HA group presented improved healing across all time points in terms of EHI, plaque containment, and gingival inflammation when compared to control group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The usage of CHX-ADS following periodontal surgery improved early wound healing, reduced plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. During the early post-operative period the adjunct of HA further improved soft tissue closure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study aims at evaluating the response of gingival tissues to mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine and anti-discoloration system (CHX + ADS) or CHX + ADS + hyaluronic acid (CHX + ADS + HA) versus no rinse in terms of healing of the periodontal surgical wound. CHX + ADS mouth rinses enhanced early soft tissue closure after periodontal surgery and contributed to the reduction in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. The adjunct of HA may be beneficial especially in the early post-operative period. CHX + ADS administration following periodontal surgery may improve soft tissue healing in the first two post-operative weeks.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Ácido Hialurônico , Antissépticos Bucais , Cicatrização , Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Índice Periodontal , Índice de Placa Dentária
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 34(6): 667-671, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of various commercially available alcohol-based hand sanitisers (ABHS) using European standard (EN 1500) method and perform ABHS testing with membrane filtration method. STUDY DESIGN: A Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of the Study: Quality Control Section of the Microbiology Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from February to April 2023. METHODOLOGY: Efficacy of 14 commercially and widely accessible hand sanitisers was defined as reducing micro-organism growth. It was determined using the EN 1500 European standard test and membrane filtration method. RESULTS: Majority (92.8%) ABHS showed a significant bacterial reduction except one ABHS tested with the EN 1500 method. Only six ABHS products were tested through the membrane filtration method because high viscosity of hand sanitisers was causing damage to filter membranes. CONCLUSION: Continued vigilance in evaluating hand sanitiser's efficacy through robust testing methods is essential to ensure public health and prevent the dissemination of misleading products that may compromise hand hygiene practices. KEY WORDS: Hand sanitisers, European standard, Membrane filtration method, Antibacterial efficacy.


Assuntos
Filtração , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Paquistão , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higienizadores de Mão/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2403273121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865266

RESUMO

In secondary active transporters, a relatively limited set of protein folds have evolved diverse solute transport functions. Because of the conformational changes inherent to transport, altering substrate specificity typically involves remodeling the entire structural landscape, limiting our understanding of how novel substrate specificities evolve. In the current work, we examine a structurally minimalist family of model transport proteins, the small multidrug resistance (SMR) transporters, to understand the molecular basis for the emergence of a novel substrate specificity. We engineer a selective SMR protein to promiscuously export quaternary ammonium antiseptics, similar to the activity of a clade of multidrug exporters in this family. Using combinatorial mutagenesis and deep sequencing, we identify the necessary and sufficient molecular determinants of this engineered activity. Using X-ray crystallography, solid-supported membrane electrophysiology, binding assays, and a proteoliposome-based quaternary ammonium antiseptic transport assay that we developed, we dissect the mechanistic contributions of these residues to substrate polyspecificity. We find that substrate preference changes not through modification of the residues that directly interact with the substrate but through mutations peripheral to the binding pocket. Our work provides molecular insight into substrate promiscuity among the SMRs and can be applied to understand multidrug export and the evolution of novel transport functions more generally.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Especificidade por Substrato , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , Modelos Moleculares
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