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1.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 24(3): 266-272, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946510

RESUMO

AIM: Occurrence of denture stomatitis and prosthesis breakage are common problems faced by elderly people wearing removable dentures. To overcome this, several attempts are made to improve the denture material by addition of antimicrobials without compromising original properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate flexural strength and microhardness of self-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin after addition of Vaccinium macrocarpon (commonly called as cranberry), extract as antimicrobial, at varying proportions. STUDY SETTING AND DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Frozen cranberry fruits were subjected to extraction process in the presence of aqueous solvents. Lyophilized extract was added in proportions of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 dry wt/wt % into polymer of self-cure PMMA denture base resin. Based on cranberry inclusion, the study comprised one control (0%) and four test groups (0.5%-2%) with total of 100 samples. A three-point bending test for flexural strength was done for fifty study samples (n = 10). Surface of fractured samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Microhardness was determined using Vickers hardness test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: One-way statistical ANOVA test was done to find the difference between groups, followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple pairwise comparison. RESULTS: Flexural strength ranged from 66.80 to 69.28 MPa, and a statistically insignificant difference was observed between groups (P > 0.05). SEM evaluation showed uniformly dispersed strands of cranberry extract in PMMA matrix. With higher concentration, less voids were seen. Vickers microhardness value significantly decreased from 15.96 in the control group to 14.57 with 2% cranberry addition (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Incorporation of cranberry extract into self-cure PMMA denture base resin, up to 2 dry wt %, did not decline the flexural strength. However, there was a significant decrease in Vickers microhardness values when compared against the control group (0% cranberry inclusion).


Assuntos
Resistência à Flexão , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Extratos Vegetais , Polimetil Metacrilato , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Humanos , Bases de Dentadura , Materiais Dentários/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2833: 51-56, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949700

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established therapy used for the treatment of cutaneous skin cancers and other non-infective ailments. There has been recent interest in the opportunity to use aPDT (antimicrobial PDT) to treat skin and soft tissue infections. PDT utilizes photosensitizers that infiltrate all cells and "sensitize" them to a given wavelength of light. The photosensitizer is simply highly absorbent to a given wavelength of light and when excited will produce, in the presence of oxygen, damaging oxygen radicals and singlet oxygen. Bacterial cells are comparatively poor at combatting oxidative stress when compared with human cells therefore a degree of selective toxicity can be achieved with aPDT.In this chapter, we outline methodologies for testing aPDT in vitro using standard lab equipment.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2833: 43-49, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949699

RESUMO

Current clinical practice assumes that a single antibiotic given as a bolus or as a course will successfully treat most infections. In modern medicine, this is becoming less and less true with drug-resistant, multi-drug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and untreatable infections becoming more common. Where single-drug therapy (monotherapy) fails, we will turn to multi-drug therapy. Alternatively, combination therapy could be useful to prevent the emergence of resistance. Multi-drug therapy is already standard for some multi-drug resistant infections and is the standard for the treatment of some pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.The use of combination therapy for everyday infections could be a clear course out of the current AMR crisis we are facing. With every additional drug added to a combination (n + 1) the likelihood of the pathogen evolving resistance drops exponentially.Many generic antibiotics are cheap to manufacture as they have fallen out of patent protection but are less effective at pharmacologically effective doses due to overuse in the past. Combination therapy can combine these generic compounds into cocktails that can not only treat susceptible and resistant infections but can also reduce the risk of new resistances arising and can resuscitate the use of antimicrobials once thought defunct.In this chapter, we will summarize theory behind combination therapy and standard in vitro methodologies used.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 189, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956629

RESUMO

Developing special textiles (for patients in hospitals for example) properties, special antimicrobial and anticancer, was the main objective of the current work. The developed textiles were produced after dyeing by the novel formula of natural (non-environmental toxic) pigments (melanin amended by microbial-AgNPs). Streptomyces torulosus isolate OSh10 with accession number KX753680.1 was selected as a superior producer for brown natural pigment. By optimization processes, some different pigment colors were observed after growing the tested strain on the 3 media. Dextrose and malt extract enhanced the bacteria to produce a reddish-black color. However, glycerol as the main carbon source and NaNO3 and asparagine as a nitrogen source were noted as the best for the production of brown pigment. In another case, starch as a polysaccharide was the best carbon for the production of deep green pigment. Peptone and NaNO3 are the best nitrogen sources for the production of deep green pigment. Microbial-AgNPs were produced by Fusarium oxysporum with a size of 7-21 nm, and the shape was spherical. These nanoparticles were used to produce pigments-nanocomposite to improve their promising properties. The antimicrobial of nanoparticles and textiles dyeing by nanocomposites was recorded against multidrug-resistant pathogens. The new nanocomposite improved pigments' dyeing action and textile properties. The produced textiles had anticancer activity against skin cancer cells with non-cytotoxicity detectable action against normal skin cells. The obtained results indicate to application of these textiles in hospital patients' clothes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Corantes , Prata , Têxteis , Têxteis/microbiologia , Corantes/química , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
5.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 74(6): 255-268, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968949

RESUMO

This comprehensive review endeavors to illuminate the nuanced facets of linalool, a prominent monoterpene found abundantly in essential oils, constituting a massive portion of their composition. The biomedical relevance of linalool is a key focus, highlighting its therapeutic attributes observed through anti-nociceptive effects, anxiolytic properties, and behavioral modulation in individuals affected by dementia. These findings underscore the compound's potential application in biomedical applications. This review further explores contemporary formulations, delineating the adaptability of linalool in nano-emulsions, microemulsions, bio-capsules, and various topical formulations, including topical gels and lotions. This review covers published and granted patents between 2018-2024 and sheds light on the evolving landscape of linalool applications, revealing advancements in dermatological, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial domains.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Humanos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/uso terapêutico , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Patentes como Assunto , Emulsões , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem
6.
Chirality ; 36(7): e23698, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961803

RESUMO

Chirality, the property of molecules having mirror-image forms, plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical and biomedical research. This review highlights its growing importance, emphasizing how chiral drugs and nanomaterials impact drug effectiveness, safety, and diagnostics. Chiral molecules serve as precise diagnostic tools, aiding in accurate disease detection through unique biomolecule interactions. The article extensively covers chiral drug applications in treating cardiovascular diseases, CNS disorders, local anesthesia, anti-inflammatories, antimicrobials, and anticancer drugs. Additionally, it explores the emerging field of chiral nanomaterials, highlighting their suitability for biomedical applications in diagnostics and therapeutics, enhancing medical treatments.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Nanoestruturas/química , Humanos , Estereoisomerismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15441, 2024 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965246

RESUMO

A very practical method for the synthesis of unsymmetrical carbamide derivatives in good to excellent yield was presented, without the need for any catalyst and at room temperature. Using a facile and robust protocol, fifteen unsymmetrical carbamide derivatives (9-23) bearing different aliphatic amine moieties were designed and synthesized by the reaction of secondary aliphatic amines with isocyanate derivatives in the presence of acetonitrile as an appropriate solvent in good to excellent yields. Trusted instruments like IR, mass spectrometry, NMR spectra, and elemental analyses were employed to validate the purity and chemical structures of the synthesized compounds. All the synthesized compounds were tested as antimicrobial agents against some clinically bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Compounds 15, 16, 17, 19 and 22 showed potent antimicrobial activity with promising MIC values compared to the positive controls. Moreover, compounds 15 and 22 provide a potent lipid peroxidation (LPO) of the bacterial cell wall. On the other hand, we investigated the anti-proliferative activity of compounds 9-23 against selected human cancerous cell lines of breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116), and lung (A549) relative to healthy noncancerous control skin fibroblast cells (BJ-1). The mechanism of their cytotoxic activity has been also examined by immunoassaying the levels of key anti- and pro-apoptotic protein markers. The results of MTT assay revealed that compounds 10, 13, 21, 22 and 23 possessed highly cytotoxic effects. Out of these, three synthesized compounds 13, 21 and 22 showed cytotoxicity with IC50 values (13, IC50 = 62.4 ± 0.128 and 22, IC50 = 91.6 ± 0.112 µM, respectively, on MCF-7), (13, IC50 = 43.5 ± 0.15 and 21, IC50 = 38.5 ± 0.17 µM, respectively, on HCT-116). Cell cycle and apoptosis/necrosis assays demonstrated that compounds 13 and 22 induced S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells, while only compound 13 had this effect on HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, compound 13 exhibited the greatest potency in inducing apoptosis in both cell lines compared to compounds 21 and 22. Docking studies indicated that compounds 10, 13, 21 and 23 could potentially inhibit enzymes and exert promising antimicrobial effects, as evidenced by their lower binding energies and various types of interactions observed at the active sites of key enzymes such as Sterol 14-demethylase of C. albicans, Dihydropteroate synthase of S. aureus, LasR of P. aeruginosa, Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase of K. pneumenia and Gyrase B of B. subtilis. Moreover, 13, 21, and 22 demonstrated minimal binding energy and favorable affinity towards the active pocket of anticancer receptor proteins, including CDK2, EGFR, Erα, Topoisomerase II and VEGFFR. Physicochemical properties, drug-likeness, and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) parameters of the selected compounds were also computed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde/métodos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células MCF-7 , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(27): e38630, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968489

RESUMO

Dental infections, which include anything from severe periodontal illnesses and abscess forms to routine tooth caries, are a major public health risk. This review article focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment of dental infections. A narrative review was conducted based on several published articles, relevant journals, and books in Google Scholar PubMed using the keywords dental caries, periodontal disease, gingivitis, and related diseases; we excluded duplicated information. Our review illustrated the types of dental infections and the proper antimicrobial drug that is suitable for this disease. Drawing from recent research findings and clinical evidence, we explore the spectrum of bacteria commonly associated with dental infections and their susceptibility profiles to various antibiotics. Emphasis is placed on understanding the mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance in the context of dental pathogens, shedding light on optimal treatment regimens and potential challenges in clinical management. Additionally, we go over the clinical consequences of antibiotic therapy in dentistry, taking into account factors like patient selection, dose guidelines, and side effects. The management of dental infections through antimicrobial strategies has undergone significant advancements, as evidenced by this updated review. Besides the normal methods, emerging technologies such as 3D printing for drug delivery of antibiotics and disinfectants hold promise in enhancing treatment efficacy and patient outcomes. By leveraging the precision and customization afforded by 3D printing, dentistry can tailor antimicrobial interventions to individual patient needs, optimizing therapeutic outcomes while minimizing adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico
9.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 195, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971787

RESUMO

This study explores a sustainable approach for synthesizing silver nanocomposites (AgNCs) with enhanced antimicrobial and bioactivity using safe Lactobacillus strains and a whey-based medium (WBM). WBM effectively supported the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, triggering a stress response that led to AgNCs formation. The synthesized AgNCs were characterized using advanced spectroscopic and imaging techniques such as UV‒visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-Edx). Lb acidophilus-synthesized AgNCs in WBM (had DLS size average 817.2-974.3 ± PDI = 0.441 nm with an average of metal core size 13.32 ± 3.55 nm) exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria such as Escherichia coli (16.47 ± 2.19 nm), Bacillus cereus (15.31 ± 0.43 nm), Clostridium perfringens (25.95 ± 0.03 mm), Enterococcus faecalis (32.34 ± 0.07 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (23.33 ± 0.05 mm), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (13.20 ± 1.76 mm), and filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus brasiliensis (33.46 ± 0.01 mm). In addition, Lb acidophilus-synthesized AgNCs in WBM exhibit remarkable free radical scavenging abilities, suggesting their potential as bioavailable antioxidants. These findings highlight the dual functionality of these biogenic AgNCs, making them promising candidates for applications in both medicine and nutrition.


Assuntos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos , Prata , Soro do Leite , Nanocompostos/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Soro do Leite/química , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 26(8): 13-25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967208

RESUMO

Calvatia gigantea, commonly known as the giant puffball mushroom, has traditionally been regarded as a significant edible and medicinal species due to its wide spectrum of bioactive compounds and its health-promoting properties. This study aims to systematize the knowledge on the nutritional value and therapeutic potential of C. gigantea, highlighting its role in traditional and contemporary medicine. The mushroom is recognized for its nutritional content, including easily digestible protein, carbohydrates, fiber, phenolic compounds, vitamins, and minerals, while being low in calories, cholesterol, and sodium. Furthermore, C. gigantea exhibits a range of biological effects, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and wound-healing properties, attributed to its diverse chemical composition that includes unsaturated fatty acids, free amino acids, polysaccharides, and bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Agaricales/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e945583, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967286

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance and the associated morbidity and mortality from untreatable common infectious organisms is an increasing threat to global public health. In 2019, the Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators identified that antimicrobial resistance was directly responsible for up to 1.27 million deaths worldwide and was associated with up to 4.95 million deaths, with low-income and middle-income countries being the most severely affected. In 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic began, they predicted that antimicrobial resistance could result in 10 million deaths per year by 2050, overtaking cancer as a leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new approaches to antimicrobial treatment. In June 2024, the findings from researchers at the Ineos Oxford Institute for Antimicrobial Research (IOI) and the Oxford University Department of Pharmacology in the UK reported the use of a small molecule that can work alongside antibiotics to suppress the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. The SOS inhibitor molecule has been called OXF-077. This editorial aims to highlight the global threats from increasing antimicrobial resistance and the urgent need for new molecules that function through novel mechanisms of action, including molecular antimicrobial adjuvants.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19 , Saúde Global , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950036

RESUMO

Electrospun (ES) fibrous nanomaterials have been widely investigated as novel biomaterials. These biomaterials have to be safe and biocompatible; hence, they need to be tested for cytotoxicity before being administered to patients. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and biorelevant in vitro cytotoxicity assay for ES biomaterials (e.g. wound dressings). We compared different in vitro cytotoxicity assays, and our model wound dressing was made from polycaprolactone and polyethylene oxide and contained chloramphenicol as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Baby Hamster Kidney cells (BHK-21), human primary fibroblasts and MTS assays together with real-time cell analysis were selected. The extract exposure and direct contact safety evaluation setups were tested together with microscopic techniques. We found that while extract exposure assays are suitable for the initial testing, the biocompatibility of the biomaterial is revealed in in vitro direct contact assays where cell interactions with the ES wound dressing are evaluated. We observed significant differences in the experimental outcome, caused by the experimental set up modification such as cell line choice, cell medium and controls used, conducting the phosphate buffer washing step or not. A more detailed technical protocol for the in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of ES wound dressings was developed.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Cicatrização , Animais , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Humanos , Linhagem Celular , Teste de Materiais , Cricetinae , Poliésteres/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia
13.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 2531-2553, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952486

RESUMO

The WHO Global Status Report on Oral Health 2022 reveals that oral diseases caused by infection with oral pathogenic microorganisms affect nearly 3.5 billion people worldwide. Oral health problems are caused by the presence of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, E. faecalis and C. albicans in the oral cavity. Synthetic anti-infective drugs have been widely used to treat oral infections, but have been reported to cause side effects and resistance. Various strategies have been implemented to overcome this problem. Synthetic anti-infective drugs have been widely used to treat oral infections, but they have been reported to cause side effects and resistance. Therefore, it is important to look for safe anti-infective alternatives. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies suggest that Red Betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) could be a potential source of oral anti-infectives. This review aims to discuss the pathogenesis mechanism of several microorganisms that play an important role in causing health problems, the mechanism of action of synthetic oral anti-infective drugs in inhibiting microbial growth in the oral cavity, and the potential of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) as an herbal oral anti-infective drug. This study emphasises the importance of researching natural components as an alternative treatment for oral infections that is more effective and can meet global needs.


Assuntos
Piper , Humanos , Piper/química , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Boca/microbiologia
14.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(5): e4093, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978319

RESUMO

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities of Anchusa officinalis L. in vitro and in silico. The dried aerial parts of A. officinalis L. were extracted with methanol. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was analyzed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects were tested against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 10 phytochemical compounds, and cyclobutane (26.07%) was identified as the major photochemical compound. The methanol extract exhibited the maximum amount of total phenolic content (118.24 ± 4.42 mg QE/g dry weight of the dry extract) (R2 = 0.994) and the total flavonoid content was 94 ± 2.34 mg QE/g dry weight of the dry extract (R2 = 0.999). The IC50 value for 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid was 107.12 ± 3.42 µg/mL, and it was high for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (123.94 ± 2.31 µg/mL). The IC50 value was 72.49 ± 3.14 against HepG2 cell lines, and a decreased value was obtained (102.54 ± 4.17 g/mL) against MCF-7 cell lines. The methanol extract increased the expression of caspase mRNA and Bax mRNA levels when compared to the control experiment (p < .05). The conclusions, A. officinalis L. aerial parts extract exhibited antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Metanol , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Humanos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Metanol/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Células MCF-7 , Simulação por Computador , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15050, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951205

RESUMO

Chalcones are intermediate products in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, which possess a wide range of biological properties, including antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The introduction of a chlorine atom and the glucosyl moiety into their structure may increase their bioavailability, bioactivity, and pharmacological use. The combined chemical and biotechnological methods can be applied to obtain such compounds. Therefore, 2-chloro-2'-hydroxychalcone and 3-chloro-2'-hydroxychalcone were synthesized and biotransformed in cultures of two strains of filamentous fungi, i.e. Isaria fumosorosea KCH J2 and Beauveria bassiana KCH J1.5 to obtain their novel glycosylated derivatives. Pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness, and biological activity of them were predicted using cheminformatics tools. 2-Chloro-2'-hydroxychalcone, 3-chloro-2'-hydroxychalcone, their main glycosylation products, and 2'-hydrochychalcone were screened for antimicrobial activity against several microbial strains. The growth of Escherichia coli 10,536 was completely inhibited by chalcones with a chlorine atom and 3-chlorodihydrochalcone 2'-O-ß-D-(4″-O-methyl)-glucopyranoside. The strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 939 was the most resistant to the action of the tested compounds. However, chalcone aglycones and glycosides with a chlorine atom almost completely inhibited the growth of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus DSM 799 and yeast Candida albicans DSM 1386. The tested compounds had different effects on lactic acid bacteria depending on the tested species. In general, chlorinated chalcones were more effective in the inhibition of the tested microbial strains than their unchlorinated counterparts and aglycones were a little more effective than their glycosides.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Biotransformação , Chalconas , Cloro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Chalconas/síntese química , Cloro/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Beauveria/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 387, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951841

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are metal-organic skeleton compounds composed of self-assembled metal ions or clusters and organic ligands. MOF materials often have porous structures, high specific surface areas, uniform and adjustable pores, high surface activity and easy modification and have a wide range of prospects for application. MOFs have been widely used. In recent years, with the continuous expansion of MOF materials, they have also achieved remarkable results in the field of antimicrobial agents. In this review, the structural composition and synthetic modification of MOF materials are introduced in detail, and the antimicrobial mechanisms and applications of these materials in the healing of infected wounds are described. Moreover, the opportunities and challenges encountered in the development of MOF materials are presented, and we expect that additional MOF materials with high biosafety and efficient antimicrobial capacity will be developed in the future.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Cicatrização , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Porosidade , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico
17.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0297351, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and the use of probiotics on the treatment of halitosis. METHODS: Fifty-two participants, aged from 18 to 25 years, exhaling sulfhydride (H2S) ≥ 112 ppb were selected. They were allocated into 4 groups (n = 13): Group 1: tongue scraper; Group 2: treated once with aPDT; Group 3: probiotic capsule containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 (6.7 x 108 CFU) and xylitol (280mg), 3 times a day after meals, for 14 days; Group 4: treated once with aPDT and with the probiotic capsule for 14 days. Halimetry with gas chromatography (clinical evaluation) and microbiological samples were collected from the dorsum of the tongue before and after aPDT, as well as after 7, 14, and 30 days. The clinical data failed to follow a normal distribution; therefore, comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test (independent measures) and Friedman ANOVA (dependent measures) followed by appropriate posthoc tests, when necessary. For the microbiological data, seeing as the data failed to follow a normal distribution, the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was performed with Dunn's post-test. The significance level was α = 0.05. RESULTS: Clinical results (halimetry) showed an immediate significant reduction in halitosis with aPDT (p = 0.0008) and/or tongue scraper (p = 0.0006). Probiotics showed no difference in relation to the initial levels (p = 0.7530). No significant differences were found in the control appointments. The amount of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were not altered throughout the analysis (p = 0.1616, p = 0.2829 and p = 0.2882, respectively). CONCLUSION: There was an immediate clinical reduction of halitosis with aPDT and tongue scraping, but there was no reduction in the number of bacteria throughout the study, or differences in the control times, both in the clinical and microbiological results. New clinical trials are necessary to better assess the tested therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT03996044.


Assuntos
Halitose , Ligilactobacillus salivarius , Fotoquimioterapia , Probióticos , Humanos , Halitose/microbiologia , Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Halitose/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Língua/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15211, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956076

RESUMO

Biological agents are getting a noticeable concern as efficient eco-friendly method for nanoparticle fabrication, from which fungi considered promising agents in this field. In the current study, two fungal species (Embellisia spp. and Gymnoascus spp.) were isolated from the desert soil in Saudi Arabia and identified using 18S rRNA gene sequencing then used as bio-mediator for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Myco-synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. Their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were investigated. In atrial to detect their possible antibacterial mechanism, Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and TEM analysis were performed for Klebsiella pneumoniae treated by the myco-synthesized AgNPs. Detected properties of the fabricated materials indicated the ability of both tested fungal strains in successful fabrication of AgNPs having same range of mean size diameters and varied PDI. The efficiency of Embellisia spp. in providing AgNPs with higher antibacterial activity compared to Gymnoascus spp. was reported however, both indicated antibacterial efficacy. Variations in the protein profile of K. pneumoniae after treatments and ultrastructural changes were observed. Current outcomes suggested applying of fungi as direct, simple and sustainable approach in providing efficient AgNPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Microbiologia do Solo , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Arábia Saudita , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Clima Desértico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(7)2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955371

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to explore potential synergistic effects of medicinal dyes with antimicrobials against pathogens responsible for skin infections. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial testing was conducted using minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration assays. The fractional inhibitory index (ΣFIC) of combinations was calculated, and isobolograms were constructed on selected combinations. Toxicity studies were conducted using the brine-shrimp lethality assay. Combination (1:1 ratio) studies noted that 26% of dye-antibiotic combinations were synergistic against the Gram-positive strains, 15% against the Gram-negative strains, and 14% against the yeasts. The Mercurochrome: Betadine® combination noted synergy at ratios against all the Staphylococcus aureus strains with ΣFIC values ranging from 0.05 to 0.48. The combination of Gentian violet with Gentamycin noted a 15-fold decrease in toxicity, and a selectivity index of 977.50 against the Escherichia coli (DSM 22314) strain. Time-kill studies were conducted on the combinations with the highest safe selectivity index (SI) value and lowest safe SI value i.e. Gentian violet with Gentamycin and Malachite green with Neomycin. Both combinations demonstrated better antimicrobial activity in comparison to the independent values and the controls. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the potential for medicinal dye combinations as a treatment for skin infections.


Assuntos
Corantes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Corantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Violeta Genciana/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corantes de Rosanilina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 21(7): 447-457, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985570

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning by producing toxins that cause diarrhea and vomiting and, in severe cases, endocarditis, meningitis, and other diseases. It also tends to form biofilms and spores that lead to contamination of the food production environment. Citral is a potent natural antibacterial agent, but its antibacterial activity against B. cereus has not been extensively studied. In this study, we first determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations, growth curves, killing effect in different media, membrane potential, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species levels, and morphology of vegetative cells, followed by germination rate, morphology, germination state of spores, and finally biofilm clearance effect. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of citral against bacteria ranged from 100 to 800 µg/mL. The lag phase of bacteria was effectively prolonged by citral, and the growth rate of bacteria was slowed down. Bacteria in Luria-Bertani broth were reduced to below the detection limit by citral at 800 µg/mL within 0.5 h. Bacteria in rice were reduced to 3 log CFU/g by citral at 4000 µg/mL within 0.5 h. After treatment with citral, intracellular ATP concentration was reduced, membrane potential was altered, intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was increased, and normal cell morphology was altered. After treatment with citral at 400 µg/mL, spore germination rate was reduced to 16.71%, spore morphology was affected, and spore germination state was altered. It also had a good effect on biofilm removal. The present study showed that citral had good bacteriostatic activity against B. cereus vegetative cells and its spores and also had a good clearance effect on its biofilm. Citral has the potential to be used as a bacteriostatic substance for the control of B. cereus in food industry production.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Bacillus cereus , Biofilmes , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus cereus/ultraestrutura , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oryza/microbiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/enzimologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microbiologia de Alimentos
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