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3.
Contraception ; 105: 19-25, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) associated with prescription contraceptive use. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women aged 15 to 44 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California during 2010 to 2019. We identified EPs and prescription contraceptive use from diagnosis, procedural, and medication codes, and natural language processing of clinical notes from electronic health records. Contraceptive use categories included combined hormonal contraceptives, intrauterine devices, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), progestin-only pills (POPs), implants, no method after recent discontinuation of a prescription contraceptive in the last 12 months, and no method after discontinuation of a prescription contraceptive more than 12 months ago or no use of prescription contraceptives during the study period. Contraceptive use was updated as women started, stopped, or changed methods. An EP was attributed to a contraceptive method if it occurred 14 days after starting and up to 42 days after stopping a method. Age-adjusted EP incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated per 10,000 woman-years overall and by contraceptive category. RESULTS: There were 11,436 EPs among 3,204,118 women with 11,909,842 woman-years of follow-up for an overall EP incidence of 9.5 per 10,000 woman-years (95%CI 9.3-9.6). The majority of EPs (9662; 84.5%) occurred during no prescription contraceptive use. EP incidence was lowest during DMPA (1.8 per 10,000 woman-years [95%CI 1.2-2.5]) or implant (2.0 per 10,000 woman-years [95%CI 1.2-3.3]) use, and higher during POP use at 15.2 (95%CI 12.2-19.6); however, incidence was highest after recent discontinuation of a prescription contraceptive (20.6 per 10,000 woman-years [95%CI 19.7-21.4]). CONCLUSIONS: EP incidence is lower with prescription contraceptive use than with nonuse. IMPLICATIONS: All prescription contraceptives, including POPs are protective of EP.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Gravidez Ectópica , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Feminino , Humanos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/epidemiologia , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Cuad Bioet ; 33(109): 335-348, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493418

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the commercialization, in 1960, of combined estrogen-progestin hormonal contraceptives (CHCs), their use has become widespread for other non-contraceptive indications: dysmenorrhea, irregular cycle length, hypermenorrhea and acne, among others (Lete, 2009; Barranco, 2016). In all cases, these are mild pathologies or minor symptoms for which there are effective therapeutic alternatives. Millions of women in the world receive this treatment, which acts by inhibiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian hormonal axis (HHO Axis), the central axis and regulator of the entire sexual and reproductive physiology of women. Despite the existence of an enormous number of women subjected to this inhibition (ACHs are currently used by some 214 million women around the world, with an annual market of close to 18 billion dollars), very little research has been done on the consequences of suppressing the HHO axis. Only in recent years, and in parallel to the demonstration of the existence of functional receptors for gonadotropins at different levels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, have publications on the neuropsychological effects of HCAs begun to appear. It is also striking that, despite being the most widely used drugs and for the longest time for the treatment of functional gynecological disorders, their use is outside the technical data sheet (i.e., they are used for purposes other than those listed in the official indication approved in their technical data sheet and which appear in the package insert). Although the use of these hormonal products causes a wide variety of side effects, which have been widely studied in the medical literature, the present study proposes, after an exposition of the different aspects of the use of HCAs, a detailed review of the available literature on the neuropsychological effects due to the annulment of the HHO axis. This in order to, after a biological analysis, subsequently establish whether there is an ethical appropriateness in the use that concerns us.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos
5.
Ther Umsch ; 79(10): 519-525, 2022.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415942

RESUMO

Contraception and Sexual Health Abstract. Reliable contraceptive methods allow a free development of sexuality without fear of unwanted pregnancies. They have contributed significantly to a more self-determined sexuality of both women and men at reproductive age. Hormonal contraceptives, which are available in different compositions and application forms, are highly effective, but are nevertheless used less and less for fear of physical and psychological side effects. Current study data regarding sexual health is heterogenous but reflects the clinical experience that hormonal contraceptives usually have no significant effect. However, some women report improved sexual experience, while others suffer from sexual dysfunction. Hormonal contraceptives act primarily on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis to prevent folliculogenesis and ovulation. However, they have an effect on all tissues with sex steroid receptors, including peripheral tissues such as genitals, skin. But they also have an effect on neurobiological mechanisms (mainly in the hypothalamic region) essential for human sexual response. They can impact self and partnership perception, libido, and arousal. The observed influences can be explained via various mechanisms such as: lack of fear of unwanted pregnancies and accordingly more liberated sexuality, decrease in gynecological complaints, such as endometriosis-associated dyspareunia or dysmenorrhea, possible improvement of the individual body image (subjective perception of the physical self) and correspondingly improved self-confidence (e.g., by decreasing acne and hirsutism). Individualized contraceptive counselling, taking into account somatic and emotional aspects, is essential and can contribute to the promotion of sexual health and well-being. This review article summarizes the influence of hormonal contraceptive methods on sexual health and well-being and gives recommendations how to deal with contraception-induced sexual dysfunction.


Assuntos
Dispareunia , Saúde Sexual , Masculino , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Sexual , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos
6.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36300464

RESUMO

All current hormonal contraceptives have side effects and contraindications related to estrogens and progestins. Users are often dissatisfied with this. There is a great need for a new contraceptive drug without these hormones with the associated side effects and contraindications; with also a favorable bleeding profile; that can be used orally and not daily; that can serve as a contraceptive and after-care and can also be used on demand. Mifepristone 50 mg seems to provide the answer to all these wishes but is not (yet) registered in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Mifepristona , Progestinas , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios , Países Baixos
7.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 67: 101035, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075276

RESUMO

Hormonal contraceptives are among the most important health and economic developments in the 20thCentury, providing unprecedented reproductive control and a range of health benefits including decreased premenstrual symptoms and protections against various cancers. Hormonal contraceptives modulate neural function and stress responsivity. These changes are usually innocuous or even beneficial, including their effects onmood. However, in approximately 4-10% of users, or up to 30 million people at any given time, hormonal contraceptives trigger depression or anxiety symptoms. How hormonal contraceptives contribute to these responses and who is at risk for adverse outcomes remain unknown. In this paper, we discussstudies of hormonal contraceptive use in humans and describe the ways in which laboratory animal models of contraceptive hormone exposure will be an essential tool for expanding findings to understand the precise mechanisms by which hormonal contraceptives influence the brain, stress responses, and depression risk.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais
9.
Cuad. bioét ; 33(109): 335-348, Sep-Dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212921

RESUMO

Desde el comienzo de la comercialización, en 1960, de los anticonceptivos hormonales combinados deestrógenos y progestágenos (ACH), se ha generalizado su utilización para otras indicaciones no anticoncep-tivas: dismenorrea, ciclos de duración irregular, hipermenorrea y acné, entre otros (Lete, 2009; Barranco,2016). En todos los casos se tratan de patologías leves o síntomas menores para los que existen alternativasterapéuticas eficaces. Millones de mujeres en el mundo reciben este tratamiento, que actúa inhibiendoel eje hormonal hipotalámico-hipofisárico-ovárico (Eje HHO), eje central y regulador de toda la fisiologíasexual y reproductiva de la mujer. Pese a la existencia de una enorme cantidad de mujeres sometidas a estainhibición (actualmente los ACH son utilizados por unos 214 millones de mujeres alrededor del mundo,con un mercado anual cercano a los 18.000 millones de dólares), se ha investigado muy poco sobre lasconsecuencias de la supresión del eje HHO. Sólo en los últimos años, y en paralelo a la demostración de laexistencia de receptores funcionales para las gonadotropinas a diferentes niveles en los sistemas nerviososcentral y periférico, comienzan a aparecer publicaciones sobre los efectos neuropsicológicos de los ACH.Llama también la atención que, pese a ser los fármacos más empleados y desde hace más tiempo para eltratamiento de las alteraciones funcionales ginecológicas, su uso esté al margen de la ficha técnica (es de-cir, se les da un uso diferente a los recogidos en la indicación oficial aprobada en su ficha técnica y que figu-ra en el prospecto). Aunque el uso de estos productos hormonales causa efectos secundarios muy variados,y ampliamente estudiados en la literatura médica, en el presente estudio se plantea, tras una exposiciónde los distintos aspectos del uso de los ACH, una revisión pormenorizada de la bibliografía disponible sobrelos efectos neuropsicológicos debidos a la anulación del eje HHO.(AU)


Since the beginning of the commercialization, in 1960, of combined estrogen-progestin hormonal con-traceptives (CHCs), their use has become widespread for other non-contraceptive indications: dysmenorrhea,irregular cycle length, hypermenorrhea and acne, among others (Lete, 2009; Barranco, 2016). In all cases, the-se are mild pathologies or minor symptoms for which there are effective therapeutic alternatives. Millions ofwomen in the world receive this treatment, which acts by inhibiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian hor-monal axis (HHO Axis), the central axis and regulator of the entire sexual and reproductive physiology of wo-men. Despite the existence of an enormous number of women subjected to this inhibition (ACHs are currentlyused by some 214 million women around the world, with an annual market of close to 18 billion dollars), verylittle research has been done on the consequences of suppressing the HHO axis. Only in recent years, and inparallel to the demonstration of the existence of functional receptors for gonadotropins at different levelsin the central and peripheral nervous systems, have publications on the neuropsychological effects of HCAsbegun to appear. It is also striking that, despite being the most widely used drugs and for the longest timefor the treatment of functional gynecological disorders, their use is outside the technical data sheet (i.e., theyare used for purposes other than those listed in the official indication approved in their technical data sheetand which appear in the package insert). Although the use of these hormonal products causes a wide varietyof side effects, which have been widely studied in the medical literature, the present study proposes, afteran exposition of the different aspects of the use of HCAs, a detailed review of the available literature on theneuropsychological effects due to the annulment of the HHO axis.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neuropsicologia , Gonadotropinas , Inibição da Ovulação , Bioética , Temas Bioéticos
10.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 34(6): 344-350, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036464

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature on the multiple types and uses of progestins in reproductive healthcare. RECENT FINDINGS: Progestins for contraceptive use are available in multiple forms, with the ongoing development of transdermal, intravaginal, and male contraception formulations. Noncontraceptive use of progestins often overlaps with contraceptive indications, which allows for simultaneous multipurpose progestin use, especially in reproductive-aged patients. More studies are needed to determine contraceptive doses of progestins used for noncontraceptive purposes. Side effect profiles of progestins are dependent on their formulation and cross-reactivity with other steroid receptors. Development of newer progestins includes manipulating pharmacologic properties to avoid undesired side effects. SUMMARY: Progestins have multiple uses in reproductive healthcare, including contraception, menstrual suppression, endometrial protection, and hormonal replacement therapy. The development of progestins for these indications can expand therapy for people with contraindications to estrogen-based hormonal therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Progestinas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Progestinas/farmacologia , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepção , Estrogênios , Administração Cutânea
11.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 66: 101015, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835214

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that hormonal contraceptives (HCs) impact psychological outcomes through alterations in neurophysiology. In this review, we first introduce a theoretical framework for HCs as disruptors of steroid hormone modulation of socially competitive attitudes and behaviors. Then, we comprehensively examine prior research comparing HC users and non-users in outcomes related to competition for reproductive, social, and financial resources. Synthesis of 46 studies (n = 16,290) led to several key conclusions: HC users do not show the same menstrual cycle-related fluctuations in self-perceived attractiveness and some intrasexual competition seen in naturally-cycling women and, further, may show relatively reduced status- or achievement-oriented competitive motivation. However, there a lack of consistent or compelling evidence that HC users and non-users differ in competitive behavior or attitudes for mates or financial resources. These conclusions are tentative given the notable methodological limitations of the studies reviewed. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Motivação , Progesterona
13.
Contraception ; 113: 113-118, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): College-age people have the highest numbers of unintended pregnancies and pharmacies within college campuses are in a unique position to meet student needs. Our objective was to implement a pharmacist contraceptive prescribing service in a campus pharmacy and examine the service utilization. STUDY DESIGN: The Purdue University Pharmacy (Indiana, United States) implemented a pharmacist hormonal contraception prescribing service via a collaborative drug therapy management agreement with the campus student health center. The collaborative drug therapy management agreement enables pharmacists to independently prescribe pills, patches, rings, injections, and emergency contraception to students meeting eligibility criteria. After completing a patient health screening and blood pressure check, the pharmacist discusses the eligible method(s) and prescribes up to a 12-month supply. A referral to another provider for long-acting reversible contraception or further evaluation may also be provided. We collected basic information about each encounter (e.g., age, blood pressure, method of contraception prescribed, and time). RESULTS: During the 2020-2021 academic year, 125 prescribing consultations took place with an average appointment length of 20 minutes (range, 12-65 minutes). The median patient age was 21 years (range, 18-30 years). Eligible patients (n = 123, 98%) received a prescription and 119 (95%) prescriptions were written: combined oral pill (n = 91, 77%), injection (n = 12, 10%), patch (n = 6, 5%), vaginal ring (n = 5, 4%), and progestin only pill (n = 5, 4%). CONCLUSION(S): The pharmacist contraception prescribing service developed by the Purdue University Pharmacy and Student Health Center is a unique approach to meeting the needs of students. Few external resources are required for implementation, and most patients were medically eligible to receive hormonal contraception. IMPLICATIONS: Collaboration between on-campus student health centers and pharmacies can be explored as 1 approach to increase access to hormonal contraception for students.


Assuntos
Farmácias , Farmacêuticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Indiana , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(8): 846-855, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633036

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increased risk of venous thromboembolism associated with the use of hormonal contraception is well recognized, but evidence regarding hormonal contraception containing natural estradiol is limited. This study aimed to assess the associations between the patterns of use of different systemic hormonal contraceptives and the risk of venous thromboembolism during 2017-2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All fertile-aged women (15-49 years) living in Finland in 2017 and using hormonal contraception in 2017 and their 1:1 age- and residence-matched controls not using hormonal contraception in 2017 (altogether 587 559 women) were selected from the Prescription Centre. All incident venous thromboembolism cases during 2018-2019 and their 4:1 age-matched controls were further analyzed in a prospective nested case-control design to assess the associations between the use (starting, stopping, continuous vs no use) of different hormonal contraception types and venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: Altogether, 1334 venous thromboembolism cases occurred during the follow-up period (incidence rate 1.14 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.20), with an incidence rate ratio of hormonal contraception vs no hormonal contraception use of 1.42 (95% CI 1.27-1.58). Compared with non-use, starting the use of gestodene and ethinylestradiol (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.85; 95% CI 1.62-5.03), drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (aOR 1.55; 95% CI 0.98-2.44), desogestrel and ethinylestradiol (aOR 1.97; 95% CI 0.99-3.92), and transdermal patch releasing norelgestromin and ethinylestradiol (aOR 5.10; 95% CI 1.12-23.16), as well as continuing the use of gestodene and ethinylestradiol (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.61-4.21), drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (aOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.02-2.37), cyproterone-acetate and estrogen/ethinylestradiol (aOR 1.66; 95% CI 1.06-2.61), and vaginal ring releasing etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol (aOR 3.27; 95% CI 1.95-5.48) were associated with venous thromboembolism risk. Regarding the type of estrogen, the highest risk was associated with current use (vs non use in the previous 180 days) of ethinylestradiol-containing preparations (aOR 2.20; 95% CI 1.82-2.65), followed by estradiol-containing preparations (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.04-1.87) with no risk for progestin-only hormonal contraception. Current use of estradiol-containing preparations was not associated with venous thromboembolism risk after exclusion of cyproterone-acetate and estrogen/ethinylestradiol (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 0.66-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of venous thromboembolism is associated with ethinylestradiol-containing combined preparations. The use of estradiol-containing combined preparations confers only a slightly increased risk, possibly driven by cyproterone-containing combined oral contraceptives, whereas the use of progestin-only contraception is not associated with venous thromboembolism.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Acetatos , Idoso , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Ciproterona , Estradiol , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Congêneres da Progesterona , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
15.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 50(7-8): 535-541, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the use of reimbursed contraceptive methods in France between 2014 and 2019, with an analysis of the profile of users by age group and an analysis by type of prescriber. METHODS: We conducted a national descriptive study using data from the Assurance Maladie Open Data database on the use of contraceptive methods reimbursed in France from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019. We analyzed the number of users by year, by age group (<20years, 20-60years), and by prescriber (liberal general practitioner, liberal gynecologist, hospital practitioner, liberal midwife). RESULTS: In 2019, 50.1% (5,345,122) of women of childbearing age used a reimbursed contraceptive method. Hormonal oral contraception was the leading contraceptive method used (42.3%), followed by the intrauterine device (6.2%) and the implant (1.6%). Use of combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraception had been declining since 2015 (-8.1 points), to the benefit of the micro progestin pill (+9.1 points) and the copper intrauterine device (+1.4 points). Among women under 20, the hormonal implant was the second most popular contraceptive method (1.2%), followed by the copper intrauterine device (0.8%) and the hormonal intrauterine system (0.2%). Among women over 20years of age of childbearing age, the copper IUD was the second most-reimbursed contraceptive method (2.4%), followed by the hormonal intrauterine system (1.6%) and the hormonal implant (1.2%). There are disparities in prescribing practices: in 2019, 51% of prescribers were general practitioners and 97% of them prescribed hormonal oral contraception. CONCLUSION: The contraceptive supply in France is diversifying, although oral contraception remains predominant. Disparities exist between age groups of users and there is great heterogeneity in practices among contraceptive prescribers.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Feminino , Humanos , Progestinas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(6): 706-709, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320606

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the use of hormonal contraceptives in Danish breast cancer patients. METHODS: Nationwide drug utilization study in Danish women diagnosed with breast cancer at ages 13-50 years during 2000-2015. User proportions were estimated in 6-months intervals from 2 years before to 2 years after diagnosis. RESULTS: Use of hormonal contraceptives declined sharply after breast cancer diagnosis. Still, 7% of patients aged 13-39 years filled hormonal contraceptive prescriptions within 6 months after the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of premenopausal breast cancer patients discontinues hormonal contraception at diagnosis. All prescribers of hormonal contraceptives should acknowledge that hormonal contraception is contraindicated for breast cancer patients. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Use of hormonal contraception is contraindicated among women with breast cancer. In this nationwide study, we assessed the use of hormonal contraceptives among all Danish premenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2000-2015. Hormonal contraceptive use was assessed within 2 years before and 2 years after breast cancer diagnosis. The majority of patients discontinued hormonal contraception at breast cancer diagnosis. However, 7% of patients aged 13-39 years filled hormonal contraceptive prescriptions within 6 months after the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Contracepção Hormonal , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(4): 272-277, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper looks at how trends in contraceptive prescribing by General Practices in England were affected by the Covid pandemic and lockdown. It compares English prescribing data from May 2014 to May 2021, including the period of 'lockdown', from April 20-June 20. DESIGN & SETTING: A retrospective analysis of the English Prescribing Dataset which reports monthly on prescribed items from English General Practices was carried out. Data on all forms of prescribed contraceptive methods were extracted using British National Formulary (BNF) codes, and total quantities tabulated by method, then transformed into 'months of contraception provided' by each method. RESULTS: Prescription of the combined oral contraceptive pill reduced by 22% during the period of lockdown compared to the same three months in 2019. Prescriptions of Progestogen-Only pills remained stable. This continued a trend in oral contraceptive prescribing evident from May14. Prescription of long-acting methods reduced during the period of lockdown, with the greatest reductions in implants (76% reduction from pre-lockdown levels), intra-uterine systems (79% reduction from pre-lockdown levels) and intrauterine devices (76% reduction from pre-lockdown levels). These rates of contraceptive provision recovered quickly after the period of lockdown ended. CONCLUSIONS: The disruption of face-to-face contraceptive consultations in General Practice during a Covid-19 'lockdown' has resulted in a reduction in oestrogen -containing methods compared to progestogen-only methods, which require less face-to-face monitoring. Implant and intrauterine contraceptive device prescription reduced by three quarters over the first three months of lockdown, but rebounded in the next year.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Menopause ; 29(3): 351-359, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213521

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a condition associated with estrogen deficiency which leads to decreased bone mineral density and an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Estrogen-based hormone therapy is an integral component of treatment; however, to date the ideal hormone formulation for optimizing bone health has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of estrogen-based oral contraceptives (OCP) versus hormone therapy (HT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in women with POI. EVIDENCE REVIEW: A systematic review of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was conducted from conception until December 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that met inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias for RCTs. The study protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews and adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 1,227 studies; 3 RCTs and 2 observational cohort studies met inclusion criteria and were included in our study. The largest subpopulation was Turner Syndrome (n = 625), followed by idiopathic POI (n = 146). Of the four studies that assessed changes in BMD, two studies reported a significant increase in lumbar spine BMD with HT compared with OCP (+0.050 g/cm2, P < 0.025; +0.019 g/cm2, P < 0.01), one study found similar improvement in lumbar spine BMD across treatments (HT -0.003 g/cm2, P = 0.824), and one study did not directly compare treatments. Effects on bone turnover markers were inconsistent across three studies that evaluated this outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This is the first systematic review to include studies that directly compared OCP and HT on bone outcomes in POI. While two studies reported increased lumbar spine BMD with HT, this result was not consistently found across studies. There were important differences in POI etiology, treatment regimens and formulations, and risk of bias was high in many of the studies. These results indicate future, larger-scale trials are needed to further understand the optimal hormone therapy for bone density in POI.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Densidade Óssea , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
19.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(5): 1158-1165, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence after a venous thromboembolism (VTE) related to estrogen-containing contraceptives is a key driver to guide anticoagulant treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of recurrent VTE after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment in women with a first episode of VTE related to estrogen-containing contraceptives. METHODS: Embase, MEDLINE, and the CENTRAL were searched from 1 January 2008 to 27 May 2021 for prospective and retrospective studies reporting on recurrence after a first VTE related to estrogen-containing contraceptives. Risk of bias was assessed using QUIPS tool. Recurrence rates per 100 patient-years were pooled using Knapp-Hartung random-effects meta-analysis. Incidence rates were reported separately based on study follow-up duration (≤1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years) and for several subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 4,120 studies were identified, of which 14 were included. The pooled recurrence rate was 1.57 (95%-CI: 1.10-2.23; I2  = 82%) per 100 patient-years. Recurrence rates per 100 patient-years were 2.73 (95%-CI: 0.00-3643; I2  = 80%) for studies with ≤1 year follow-up, 1.35 (95%-CI: 0.68-2.68; I2  = 44%) for studies with 1-5 years follow-up, and 1.42 (95%-CI: 0.84-2.42; I2  = 78%) for studies with >5 years follow-up. CONCLUSION: Among women with VTE associated with estrogen-containing contraceptives, the risk of recurrence after stopping anticoagulation is low, which favors short-term anticoagulation. Large prospective studies on VTE recurrence rates and risk factors after stopping short-term anticoagulants are needed.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
20.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(1): 59-69, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060888

RESUMO

Combined hormonal contraception (CHC) remains the most widely used contraceptive strategy, particularly in France. While the benefit-risk balance is very beneficial for the majority of women, its use must be cautious in some clinical situations and in particular in women at vascular risk. It is therefore essential to provide information on all the vascular risk factors before prescribing any CHC, regardless of their route of administration. From an oncological point of view, if the use of CHCs is associated with a slight increase in the risk of breast cancer, their potential benefits persist for many years after their discontinuation for the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer. These benefits counteract largely the risk of breast cancer. Finally, CHCs provide non-contraceptive benefits, especially in clinical situations such as dysmenorrhea or severe endometriosis. Therefore, it is necessary to precisely assess the clinical context of each woman in order to adapt the best contraceptive strategy.


TITLE: La balance bénéfices-risques des contraceptions hormonales estroprogestatives. ABSTRACT: La contraception hormonale estroprogestative (COP) reste la stratégie contraceptive la plus utilisée, notamment en France. Si la balance bénéfices-risques est, pour la très grande majorité des femmes, très favorable, son utilisation doit être extrêmement prudente dans certaines situations cliniques et, en particulier, chez les femmes à risque vasculaire. Il est donc indispensable de renseigner l'ensemble des facteurs de risque vasculaire avant toute prescription de COP, quelle que soit sa voie d'administration. D'un point de vue carcinologique, si l'utilisation de la COP est associée à une discrète augmentation du risque de cancer du sein, les bénéfices méconnus, persistant de nombreuses années après son arrêt, vis-à-vis du risque de cancer de l'ovaire et de l'endomètre, contrebalancent largement ce risque mammaire. Enfin, la COP apporte des avantages non contraceptifs, notamment dans les situations cliniques telles que les dysménorrhées ou l'endométriose invalidante, améliorant profondément la qualité de vie des femmes. Il est donc nécessaire d'évaluer très précisément le contexte clinique de chaque femme afin d'adapter la meilleure stratégie contraceptive en minimisant les risques et pour bénéficier des avantages potentiels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Progestinas , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Contracepção Hormonal , Humanos
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