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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 29-34, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a newly emerging pathogen, Candida auris has spread rapidly and caused a serious invasive infection. Candida auris often appeared high resistance to classical antifungal drugs. Drug combination therapy is emerging as an effective and well-established strategy to relieve drug resistance problems. The objective of present work was to examine the activity of fluconazole in combination with chlorhexidine acetate against Candida auris isolates. METHODS: Antiplanktonic activity was studied using the EUCAST methodology and growth curve assay. Antibiofilm effectiveness was determined by the crystal violet method, checkerboard microdilution assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results indicated that the 80% minimal inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole alone against Candida auris were 2-32 mg/L and for chlorhexidine acetate were 2-8 mg/L. The combination of fluconazole with chlorhexidine acetate exhibited synergism with the growth curve assay. In addition, the checkerboard microdilution assay presented that fluconazole was strongly synergistic with chlorhexidine acetate (sFICI <0.1875) in inhibiting the growth of Candida auris biofilms. The scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy further exhibited the alteration of morphology of the cells and architecture of the biofilms. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of fluconazole and chlorhexidine acetate provides a new potential strategy for the treatment of clinical Candida auris infection.


Assuntos
Candida , Fluconazol , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Candidíase Invasiva , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suspensões
2.
Food Chem ; 372: 131221, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649029

RESUMO

The direct incorporation of essential oils (EOs) into real food system faces numerous challenges due to high volatility, intense aroma, and instability. This research aimed to enhance the stability and bio-efficacy of Pimenta dioica essential oil (PDEO) through encapsulation in chitosan (CN) nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion (CN-PDEO) was fabricated through ionic-gelation technique. CN-PDEO exhibited high nanoencapsulation efficiency (85.84%) and loading capacity (8.26%) with the particle size ranging between 18.53 and 70.56 nm. Bio-efficacy assessment results showed that CN-PDEO presented more effective antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity against Aspergillus flavus (AF-LHP-VS8) at lower doses (1.6 and 1.0 µL/mL) than the pure PDEO (2.5 and 1.5 µL/mL, respectively, p < 0.05). Additionally, CN-PDEO preserved model food (maize) from aflatoxin B1and lipid peroxidation without altering their sensory properties during storage with high safety profile (p < 0.05). Overall results concluded that CN-PDEO can be recommended for shelf-life extension of stored maize and other food commodities.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Gênero Pimenta , Óleos Voláteis , Aflatoxina B1 , Antifúngicos , Aspergillus flavus , Zea mays
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253954

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Assuntos
Periodontite , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifúngicos
4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(10): 11-12, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is more than twofold rise in prevalence of mucormycosis cases in India during the COVID-19 pandemic which needs to be evaluated. AIMS: The study aimed to document the spectrum of cases of mucormycosis seen at our Institute during COVID-19 times. METHODS: The study is a retrospective observational study carried out at our Institute from May 2021 to mid-June 2021. All patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were subjected to complete history taking, ophthalmological examination, and imaging studies. The patients were treated with a multidisciplinary approach with antifungal therapy as well as surgical intervention when needed. RESULTS: Ten patients (n=10) were seen, with a mean age of 50.3 years. The major risk factors included recent use of steroids, uncontrolled diabetes, and CKD. The most common presentation was swelling of unilateral eye and ptosis, followed by loss of vision. Inflammatory marker (CRP) and d-dimer were raised at presentation in all cases. Imaging showed the spread of infection from paranasal sinus to orbit and brain via cavernous sinus, which was a poor prognostic factor. Intravenous Amphotericin-B was given to all patients for at least 4 weeks. Two patients were discharged after completion of treatment and mortality was seen in three patients. CONCLUSION: We present an array of COVID-associated-mucormycosis (CAM) cases from Eastern India. CAM is presenting with rhino-orbito-cerebral involvement. There is poor outcome with cerebral involvement and high incidence of adverse effects with deoxycholate formulation of amphotericin-B. The causal association of COVID-19 with mucormycosis needs to be unearthed but possible preventive role of anticoagulation should be evaluated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Mucormicose , Doenças Orbitárias , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Doenças Orbitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787170

RESUMO

Candida spp. is one of the main pathogens associated with nosocomial infection in Brazil and worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida yeasts in the ICU and their susceptibility to the antifungal agents terbinafine and fluconazole. The samples were collected by swabbing nine surfaces in the ICU of a hospital located in Pelotas, RS. These isolates were genetically characterized by sequencing the internal transcript spacer (ITS) using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The test against antifungals was performed by Microdilution in Broth (CLSI-M27-A4). 64 yeasts identified as Candida parapsilosis (45.31%; n = 29), Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii (28.12%; n = 18), Claviceps lusitaneae (25%; n = 16) and Candida tropicalis (1, 56%; n = 1) mostly at the counter used for handling medicines and food distribution (68.75%; n = 44). Susceptibility to antifungals varied between species. These results describe potentially pathogenic Candida species as contaminants in the ICU environment. The study environment is a potential source of exogenous infection for hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 742062, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722336

RESUMO

Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging fungus associated with high morbidity. It has a unique transmission ability and is often resistant to multiple drugs. In this study, we evaluated the ability of different machine learning models to classify the drug resistance and predicted and ranked the drug resistance mutations of C. auris. Two C. auris strains were obtained. Combined with other 356 strains collected from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) databases, the whole genome sequencing (WGS) data were analyzed by bioinformatics. Machine learning classifiers were used to build drug resistance models, which were evaluated and compared by various evaluation methods based on AUC value. Briefly, two strains were assigned to Clade III in the phylogenetic tree, which was consistent with previous studies; nevertheless, the phylogenetic tree was not completely consistent with the conclusion of clustering according to the geographical location discovered earlier. The clustering results of C. auris were related to its drug resistance. The resistance genes of C. auris were not under additional strong selection pressure, and the performance of different models varied greatly for different drugs. For drugs such as azoles and echinocandins, the models performed relatively well. In addition, two machine learning algorithms, based on the balanced test and imbalanced test, were designed and evaluated; for most drugs, the evaluation results on the balanced test set were better than on the imbalanced test set. The mutations strongly be associated with drug resistance of C. auris were predicted and ranked by Recursive Feature Elimination with Cross-Validation (RFECV) combined with a machine learning classifier. In addition to known drug resistance mutations, some new resistance mutations were predicted, such as Y501H and I466M mutation in the ERG11 gene and R278H mutation in the ERG10 gene, which may be associated with fluconazole (FCZ), micafungin (MCF), and amphotericin B (AmB) resistance, respectively; these mutations were in the "hot spot" regions of the ergosterol pathway. To sum up, this study suggested that machine learning classifiers are a useful and cost-effective method to identify fungal drug resistance-related mutations, which is of great significance for the research on the resistance mechanism of C. auris.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772681

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 32-year-old man from Cape Verde having headache and increasing visual loss. Clinical and radiological investigations disclosed a massive destructive lesion involving the anterior and central skull base, orbit and nasoethmoid region initially interpreted as a malignant small round cell tumour. Surgical biopsies were negative for neoplasm, showing an intense inflammatory infiltrate together with fungus, later characterised as Aspergillus flavus spp. The patient was immunocompetent with no evidence of congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies. Invasive fungal infections in immunocompetent patients are rare and can be a diagnostic challenge. The best diagnostic clues include the patient's origin from tropical climates, imaging features and the identification of fungal hyphae on pathology specimens. Although a devastating disease in immunocompromised patients, craniocerebral aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients carries a better prognosis. Available literature supports the combined used of 'conservative' surgical resection and antifungal therapy as the best treatment option.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 739496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778103

RESUMO

Diutina catenulata (Candida catenulata) is an ascomycete yeast species widely used in environmental and industrial research and capable of causing infections in humans and animals. At present, there are only a few studies on D. catenulata, and further research is required for its more in-depth characterization and analysis. Eleven strains of D. catenulata collected from China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) and the CHIF-NET North China Program were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and internal transcribed spacer sequencing. The antifungal susceptibility of the Diutina catenulata strains was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method and Sensititre YeastOne™. Furthermore, ERG11 and FKS1 were sequenced to determine any mutations related to azole and echinocandin resistance in D. catenulata. All isolates exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for itraconazole (0.06-0.12 µg/ml), posaconazole (0.06-0.12 µg/ml), amphotericin B (0.25-1 µg/ml), and 5-flucytosine (range, <0.06-0.12 µg/ml), whereas four isolates showed high MICs (≥4 µg/ml) for echinocandins. Strains with high MIC values for azoles showed common ERG11 mutations, namely, F126L/K143R. In addition, L139R mutations may be linked to high MICs of fluconazole. Two amino acid alterations reported to correspond to high MIC values of echinocandin, namely, F621I (F641) and S625L (S645), were found in the hot spot 1 region of FKS1. In addition, one new amino acid alteration, I1348S (I1368), was found outside of the FKS1 hot spot 2 region, and its contribution to echinocandin resistance requires future investigation. Diutina catenulata mainly infects patients with a weak immune system, and the high MIC values for various antifungals exhibited by these isolates may represent a challenge to clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saccharomycetales
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 711768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796121

RESUMO

Objective: Dirkmeia churashimaensis, belonging to Ustilaginales fungi, has never been reported as clinical pathogenic until very recently. In this study, we report an unusual subcutaneous infection with Dirkmeia churashimaensis and reviewed all human Ustilaginales infections. The aim is to better understand their epidemiology, infection type, risk factors, and the sensitivity to antifungal agents. Methods: An 80-year-old female farmer developed extensive plaques and nodules on her left arm within 2 years. Pathological and microbiological examinations identified a new pathological agent, Dirkmeia churashimaensis, as the cause of this infection. The patient was successfully cured by oral itraconazole. We reviewed a total of 31 cases of Ustilaginales cases, among of which only three were skin infections. Results: Local barrier damage (i.e., surgery, trauma, and basic dermatosis) and systemic immunodeficiency (i.e., preterm and low birthweight, Crohn's disease, malignant cancer, and chemotherapy) are risk factors for Ustilaginales infection. The D1/D2 and ITS regions are the frequently used loci for identifying the pathogens together with phenotype. Most patients could survive due to antifungal treatment, whereas seven patients died. Amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole showed good activity against these reported strains, whereas fluconazole, 5-flucytosine, and echinocandins usually showed low susceptibility. Itraconazole had good efficiency for subcutaneous infections. Conclusions: The present case study and literature review reveal that Ustilaginales can be opportunistic pathogenic normally in immunocompromised and barrier damage people. A proper identification of fungi can be crucial for clinical treatment, and more data of antifungal are needed for choice of medication against this kind of infections.


Assuntos
Micoses , Ustilaginales , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Basidiomycota , Equinocandinas , Fluconazol , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Voriconazol
11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3547-3555, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739806

RESUMO

Biogenically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were evaluated for antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice. Both the nanoparticles were tested at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 ppm along with chemical check against the pathogen. Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) at 200 ppm showed the highest inhibition (73.39%) in the radial growth of R. solani, while gold nanoparticle (Au NP) at the same concentration inhibited the growth of the pathogen up to 60.83%. Study on mode of action of nanoparticle by electron microscopy showed that Ag NP accumulate inside the fungal cells thereby cause distortion of fungal cells leading to death of the pathogen. Ag NP at 200 and 100 ppm caused complete inhibition of sclerotial germination of R. solani. Pot experiment conducted to study the efficacy of Ag NP at 200 ppm against sheath blight of rice showed that application of Ag NP increased the plant growth parameters as compared to control, with reduced per cent disease incidence (20.00%) as compared to inoculated control R. solani (88.00%). Application of Ag NP also increased the concentration of vital secondary metabolites like phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids and total soluble sugars.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Oryza , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ouro , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Prata/farmacologia
12.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3556-3565, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739807

RESUMO

Plant-derived essential oils and extracts are known to be effective against many microorganisms. The essential oil obtained from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum possessed promising antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum. The antifungal potential of O. gratissimum essential oil can be markedly improved with the use of nanotechnology. O. gratissimum essential oil based nanoformulations were prepared using non-ionic surfactant and water by ultrasonication. The process was optimized for parameters such as surfactant concentration and sonication time to achieve minimum droplet diameter with high physical stability. Stable O. gratissimum essential oil nanoemulsions were obtained for 1:1 ratio (v/v) of essential oil and surfactant with mean droplet diameter of 259.4 nm for 10 min sonication time. Essential oil and all nanoemulsions were evaluated for their antifungal activity against P. digitatum of kinnow fruit by poisoned food technique. The nanoemulsion (1:1, 10 min) showed the highest growth inhibition (1 × 104 CFU ml-1, 96%) against P. digitatum followed by pure oil (13 × 104 CFU ml-1, 85%) on 15th day of incubation. Scanning electron and optical microscopy results further revealed stronger suppressive activity of O. gratissimum essential oil nanoemulsions for spore germination and hyphal elongation of P. digitatum than pure oil.


Assuntos
Ocimum , Óleos Voláteis , Penicillium , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(45): 13373-13385, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735146

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is known as an ideal target for the investigations of fungicides. To develop novel SDH inhibitors, 30 novel thiophene/furan-1,3,4-oxadiazole carboxamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. In the in vitro antifungal assay, a majority of the target compounds demonstrated fair to potent antifungal activity against seven tested phytopathogenic fungi. Compounds 4b, 4g, 4h, 4i, and 5j showed remarkable antifungal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affording EC50 values ranging from 0.1∼1.1 mg/L. In particular, compound 4i displayed the most potent activity against S. sclerotiorum (EC50 = 0.140 ± 0.034 mg/L), which was superior to that of boscalid (EC50 = 0.645 ± 0.023 mg/L). A further morphological investigation revealed the abnormal mycelia and damaged cell structures of compound 4i-treated S. sclerotiorum by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the in vivo antifungal assay against S. sclerotiorum revealed that compounds 4g and 4i were effective for suppressing rape Sclerotinia rot at a dosage of 200 mg/L. In the SDH inhibition assay, compounds 4g and 4i also presented significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 1.01 ± 0.21 and 4.53 ± 0.19 µM, respectively, which were superior or equivalent to that of boscalid (3.51 ± 2.02 µM). Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation of compound 4g with SDH revealed that compound 4g could form strong interactions with the key residues of the SDH. These results indicated that this class of derivatives could be a promising scaffold for the discovery and development of novel SDH inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Succinato Desidrogenase , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxidiazóis , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico , Tiofenos/farmacologia
14.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES: To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS: Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS: Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cryptococcus neoformans , Malária , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1157, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii complex. We compared the clinical, biological, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates from HIV-Infected Patients (HIVIP) with C. neoformans (Cn) versus C. curvatus/C. laurentii (Cc/Cl) meningitis. METHODS: Comparative analytical study were conducted. Apart from patients' clinical data, the following analysis were performed and the results were compared in both groups: biochemical examination, cryptococcal antigen test, India ink staining, and culture on Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF), strains identification by mass spectrometry, ITS sequencing, PCR serotyping and antifungal susceptibility. The main outcome variable was the "species of Cryptococcus identified", which was compared to other variables of the same type using the Pearson Chi-square test or the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: A total of 23 (79.3%) Cn meningitis cases versus 6 (20.7%) Cc/Cl meningitis were retained. Cn meningitis was more frequently associated with headache (100% vs 50%, p = 0.005) than Cc/Cl meningitis and meningeal signs were more frequent in Cn infected patients. Biologically, hypoglycorrhachia and low CD4 count were more observed in Cn group (90% vs 20% of patients, p = 0.01; 45.6 vs 129.8 cells/µL, p = 0.02, respectively). A higher proportion of Cn strains (91.3%) showed a low Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (< 8 mg/L) for fluconazole compared to Cc/Cl strains (66.7%). Also, Cc/Cl strains resistant to 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B were found in 16.7% of cases for each of the two antifungal agents. Cryptococcus detection by routine analysis (India ink, culture, and antigens) was better for Cn samples than Cc/Cl. Except ITS sequencing, which identified all strains of both groups, mass spectrometry and serotyping PCR identified Cn strains better than Cc/Cl (100% vs 80%, p = 0.1; 100% vs 0%, p < 0.0001, respectively). After treatment with amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, and fluconazole in both groups, the outcome was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical presentation of Cn meningitis is certainly more severe than that of Cc/Cl meningitis, but Cc/Cl infection should be considered in the management of HIVIP with meningeal syndrome because of the diagnostic difficulty and the high MICs of antifungal agents required for the treatment of meningitis due to these cryptococcal species.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus gattii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Infecções por HIV , Meningite Criptocócica , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Meningite Criptocócica/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 12985-12993, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723535

RESUMO

In a continuous study on the high-value-added exploration of a renewable forest bioresource turpentine in modern organic agriculture, two series of α-pinene derivatives containing amide and α,ß-unsaturated ketone pharmacophores were prepared. Through an in-depth fungicidal activity study, the title compounds presented excellent inhibitory activity against common crop fungi, especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the notable EC50 values of α,ß-unsaturated compounds 3u (funan containing) and 3v (thiophene containing) were 1.657 and 1.749 µg/mL, respectively. Further physiological and biochemical studies on S. sclerotiorum revealed that compounds 3u and 3v reduced the ergosterol content in the cell membrane and increased the permeability of the cell membrane. In combination with their effect on mycelial morphology, the title compounds might have inhibitory effects on the biosynthesis of ergosterol, which is a paramount component of the target cell membrane. Moreover, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and SAR studies revealed that the charge distribution of α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl ketone derivatives played an important role in the observed fungicidal activity. In summary, this study highlights the design and development of novel high-efficacy turpentine-based antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Terebintina , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Florestas , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730611

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Salix , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Escherichia coli , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3539-3546, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739805

RESUMO

We have developed a simple, robust environment-friendly and efficient method for ZnO nanoparticles biosynthesis using Dalbergia sissoo fresh leaf extract. Before using these nanoparticles for antimicrobial assay, a detailed characterization was performed using techniques like Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Particle size analysis (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM),Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) etc. The average size of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles was around 30 nm and they were pure and crystalline by nature. The effectiveness of these biosynthesized nanoparticles were checked against both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. A total of eight bacterial strains-Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus entericus, Bacillus cereus, Pantoea cypripedii and three fungal strains-Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger and Aspergilus flavus were studied to have a clear view of the spectrum of ZnO nanoparticles anti-microbial activity. The effectiveness of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles against the microbes was found to be better than the standard reference antibiotics used (streptomycin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin). The results seem to be very promising and can be used for some practical applications of ZnO nanoparticles in nearfuture.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pantoea/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 751947, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722339

RESUMO

The threat burden from pathogenic fungi is universal and increasing with alarming high mortality and morbidity rates from invasive fungal infections. Understanding the virulence factors of these fungi, screening effective antifungal agents and exploring appropriate treatment approaches in in vivo modeling organisms are vital research projects for controlling mycoses. Caenorhabditis elegans has been proven to be a valuable tool in studies of most clinically relevant dimorphic fungi, helping to identify a number of virulence factors and immune-regulators and screen effective antifungal agents without cytotoxic effects. However, little has been achieved and reported with regard to pathogenic filamentous fungi (molds) in the nematode model. In this review, we have summarized the enormous breakthrough of applying a C. elegans infection model for dimorphic fungi studies and the very few reports for filamentous fungi. We have also identified and discussed the challenges in C. elegans-mold modeling applications as well as the possible approaches to conquer these challenges from our practical knowledge in C. elegans-Aspergillus fumigatus model.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Micoses , Animais , Antifúngicos , Aspergillus fumigatus , Fungos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 1027-1053, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752219

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis (IC) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). Included are descriptions of nosocomial infections caused by Candida auris, an emerging pathogen, and IC- and IA-associated with coronavirus disease 2019. The characteristics and availability of newer nonculture-based tests for identification of nosocomial fungal pathogens are discussed. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Controle de Infecções/normas , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
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