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1.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 17(1): 7, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asclepion of Epidaurus is one of the first healing environments in the world. Descendants of Asclepius, specifically medical students, have been singularly deprived of any information concerning this legacy. This article illuminates the role of Asclepion of Epidaurus and examines the view of medical students upon the subject and the possible benefits of this knowledge in their medical education. METHODS: The participants were 105 senior-year students from the Athens Medical School, who attended a multi-media assisted lecture related to the structure and the role of the Asclepion of Epidaurus. Afterwards, they answered anonymously a questionnaire of 12 pairs of opposite adjectives in order to describe their view regarding the meaning of Asclepion. The method used in the evaluation of their answers was that of semantic differential. RESULTS: The attitude of the students towards the meaning of Asclepion was positive, showing interest and excitement about a powerful, though unfamiliar piece of knowledge. CONCLUSION: Today's novice doctors have welcomed the concept of Asclepion as essential knowledge for the service they will be called to fulfill. The potential benefits of the Asclepian ideals in medical education and ethos are thoroughly discussed.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/história , Médicos/história , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Grécia , Grécia Antiga , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/história , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nature ; 603(7900): 280-283, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264762

RESUMO

Ancient history relies on disciplines such as epigraphy-the study of inscribed texts known as inscriptions-for evidence of the thought, language, society and history of past civilizations1. However, over the centuries, many inscriptions have been damaged to the point of illegibility, transported far from their original location and their date of writing is steeped in uncertainty. Here we present Ithaca, a deep neural network for the textual restoration, geographical attribution and chronological attribution of ancient Greek inscriptions. Ithaca is designed to assist and expand the historian's workflow. The architecture of Ithaca focuses on collaboration, decision support and interpretability. While Ithaca alone achieves 62% accuracy when restoring damaged texts, the use of Ithaca by historians improved their accuracy from 25% to 72%, confirming the synergistic effect of this research tool. Ithaca can attribute inscriptions to their original location with an accuracy of 71% and can date them to less than 30 years of their ground-truth ranges, redating key texts of Classical Athens and contributing to topical debates in ancient history. This research shows how models such as Ithaca can unlock the cooperative potential between artificial intelligence and historians, transformationally impacting the way that we study and write about one of the most important periods in human history.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Redação/história , Grécia Antiga/etnologia , Escrita Manual , História Antiga , Humanos , Software
6.
Hormones (Athens) ; 20(4): 819-823, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884585

RESUMO

Sappho has always been regarded as one of the greatest lyric poets of ancient Greece. Her famous poem Fragment 31 V., also known as the "Ode to Jealousy", accurately describes the profound emotional reaction triggered by the sight of her beloved. The poet's precise description of each sign and symptom triggered by this arousal makes Sappho 31 V., to the best of our knowledge, the first analytical description of the acute stress response, the so-called "fight-or-flight" response, in human history. Here, Fragment 31 V. is re-read from a medical point of view, correlating the ancient Greek lyric text, the corresponding medical terms, and the underlying catecholamine mechanism of action.


Assuntos
História Antiga , Feminino , Grécia , Grécia Antiga , Humanos
7.
Surg Innov ; 28(6): 780-793, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829919

RESUMO

Greece, one of the oldest civilizations of the world, fundamentally contributed to the establishment and evolution of medicine and surgery. Undoubtedly, the foundations of the orthopaedic science are dated back to antiquity. The journey of the orthopaedic art was inaugurated with the poems of Homer and incarcerated through the practices of Hippocrates and Galen. Their deep knowledge of the musculoskeletal conditions and their treatment was generously bequeathed to humanity. This heritage acted as the catalyst for the establishment of orthopaedics in the modern Greek era. In this article, we tried to illustrate the evolution of the orthopaedic art in Greece from antiquity to modern times, reviewing the available evidence from scientific articles, books, historical manuscripts, old newspapers, and biographies. We summarize the most important events, and we identify the pioneers that shaped this new surgical branch, creating the modern Greek orthopaedic discipline.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Livros , Grécia , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga
8.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(4): 1-7, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peripatetic teaching originated in the Aristotelian school of ancient Greece and refers to the action of walking, discussion and deep learning. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the educational impact of peripatetic teaching in clinical medical education. There has been no previous evaluation of this form of teaching within medical education. METHODS: A pilot study was carried out to evaluate small group clinical sessions encompassing peripatetic teaching. RESULTS: A total of 56 post teaching questionnaires were completed and evaluated (return rate ~95%). High levels of satisfaction (n~4.7/5) were reported from this method of teaching. On average, a total of 1420 steps were taken during each teaching session, identifying additional exercise benefits for all. CONCLUSIONS: This article identifies educational and health benefits to peripatetic teaching. The authors present a simple framework to structure each teaching session using the mnemonic FIRM - Feedback, dIscussion, Reflection and Mentorship. From this pilot study, the authors conclude that there are perceived benefits for teacher and learner from this teaching method.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Grécia Antiga , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino
9.
Cell ; 184(10): 2565-2586.e21, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930288

RESUMO

The Cycladic, the Minoan, and the Helladic (Mycenaean) cultures define the Bronze Age (BA) of Greece. Urbanism, complex social structures, craft and agricultural specialization, and the earliest forms of writing characterize this iconic period. We sequenced six Early to Middle BA whole genomes, along with 11 mitochondrial genomes, sampled from the three BA cultures of the Aegean Sea. The Early BA (EBA) genomes are homogeneous and derive most of their ancestry from Neolithic Aegeans, contrary to earlier hypotheses that the Neolithic-EBA cultural transition was due to massive population turnover. EBA Aegeans were shaped by relatively small-scale migration from East of the Aegean, as evidenced by the Caucasus-related ancestry also detected in Anatolians. In contrast, Middle BA (MBA) individuals of northern Greece differ from EBA populations in showing ∼50% Pontic-Caspian Steppe-related ancestry, dated at ca. 2,600-2,000 BCE. Such gene flow events during the MBA contributed toward shaping present-day Greek genomes.


Assuntos
Civilização/história , Genoma Humano , Genoma Mitocondrial , Migração Humana/história , DNA Antigo , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos
10.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 17-21, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661678

RESUMO

In her thought-provoking article, Graiver (see record 2021-21903-001) argues that many early Christian monks achieved sustained psychological health, perceived as joyful serenity by their contemporaries, and admired within their milieu and the society at large. This state was attained by means of dispassion (apatheia) and culminated in spiritual enlightenment. In the author's opinion, conclusions of this historical research call for a reassessment of modern attitudes to psychological health that can be construed only "in a culturally sensitive manner" (p. 1). In my opinion, limitation of the evidence on mental health in Ancient Greece to medical authors only is hardly justified. The word psuchê is virtually ignored by Greek medical authors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Saúde Mental/história , Monges/história , Cristianismo/psicologia , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Monges/psicologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526435

RESUMO

We have been here before. In 430 BCE, a plague struck Athens, killing as much as 25% of the population. In 1347 CE, the bubonic plague afflicted western Europe for 4 years, killing as much as 50% of the population. The plague of Athens led to a collapse of their religion, cultural norms and democracy. In contrast, the bubonic plague led eventually to the Renaissance, a growth of art, science and humanism. As we contend with the COVID-19 global pandemic, will we become Athens or Florence?


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias/história , Peste , Europa (Continente) , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Peste/história , Peste/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acta Chir Belg ; 121(2): 139-143, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amaurosis is the sudden and acute loss of sight. Followers of Hippocrates in ancient Greece described amaurosis as a symptom of several ophthalmological pathologies, such as tumours or trauma. To treat it, surgery often was performed. METHODS: The Corpus Hippocraticum, edited by Littré, was thoroughly studied. RESULTS: The Corpus Hippocraticum describes the surgical treatment for amaurosis, which involves drilling with specialized tools (i.e. trephines) into the affected area of the temporal bone. It was believed that this procedure would help release demonic spirits and balance the bodily humours. Physiology of the era assumed that fluids in the head sometimes exerted high pressure on the optical nerve and that this fluid needed to be alleviated. CONCLUSIONS: Ancient Greeks studied cranial anatomy and understood the main principals of internal bleeding and inflammation. They treated some of the neurological symptoms that resulted from these conditions with surgery.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Crânio , Cegueira , Grécia , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicine has gone through many schools of thought before arriving in the version we see in our world today. In the beginning, it was based on religion, superstition, and magic plants for therapy. This approach was practiced for many centuries until a period of cultural development arrived. This change occurred in the ancient Greek era, when new theories on nature arose: physiokratia emerged to describe the nature of humanity, including its genesis and supporting phenomena. From the various mystical traditions, we have come to understand the natural phenomena that surround the universe, thanks to the knowledge of the "hidden causes" that emerged due to this trend of philosophical thought. METHODS: We studied ancient texts to determine the common roots between myth, therapy, and religion of medical cultures in the pre-Hippocratic era and the era of pre-Socratic philosophers. RESULTS: This study is focused on the period of time before and during pre-Socratic thought, showing that there are many similarities in the approach of therapy for various diseases in that era. The Greek contribution to Western medicine was in the development of a rational system of thought that has been transmitted in medical culture. This attempt to interpret humanity was called philosophy. Hippocrates, who came after the pre-Socratics, changed the old approach to patients. When the approach to medical diagnosis and healing changed, it affected the therapy of other ancient cultures. The ancient Greeks were influenced by other civilizations' approaches to therapy, especially with the use of plants and the different mythological and religious outlooks connected to this use. Despite the emergence of pre- Socratic rationalism, supernatural beliefs remained even when the use of herbs was no longer practiced in direct connection to their origins in myth and magic. The first detachment of magic therapy occurred later with the father of medicine, Hippocrates. CONCLUSION: The ancient Greeks invented the rationalist doctrine, which influenced medicine. Thus, the birth of philosophy, through its many stages, has influenced therapeutic patterns in medicine, especially with medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Magia/história , Fitoterapia/história , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais , Grécia Antiga/epidemiologia , História Antiga , Humanos
14.
Am J Med ; 134(1): 3-4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805232
15.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(3): 29-30, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120516

RESUMO

Zeus is known as the king of the gods and god of the sky. His attributes are lightning and thunder and he is often depicted about to hurl them. According to Greek mythology, Zeus molested the titan Metis and decided to swallow her when she was pregnant, which resulted in an excruciating headache, only relieved after a craniotomy performed using Hephaestus' axe. The result of this procedure was the birth of Athena, Zeus' daughter. We conducted a combined analysis of some writings such as the classical mythological poem Theogony by Hesiod, and some other books that examine and retell myths and legends of ancient Greece, with medical papers on this topic, trying to characterize Zeus' headache. Would it be possible to fit Zeus' headache into the group of thunderclap headaches?


Zeus é conhecido como rei dos deuses e deus dos céus. Tem como atributos os raios e os trovões e é frequentemente representado prestes a lançá-los. De acordo com a mitologia grega, Zeus molestou a titã Métis e resolveu engoli-la grávida, o que resultou em uma cefaleia excruciante, apenas aliviada após uma craniotomia realizada por meio do machado de Hefesto. O fruto deste procedimento foi Atena, filha de Zeus. Realizamos uma análise combinada utilizando escritos mitológicos clássicos como o poema Teogonia de Hesíodo, além de outros livros sobre mitologia e artigos médicos que tratam deste tema, para tentar caracterizar a cefaleia de Zeus. Seria possível enquadrar a cefaleia de Zeus no grupo das cefaleias em trovoada?


Assuntos
Humanos , Craniotomia/história , Cefaleia , Mitologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Grécia Antiga
17.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 787-806, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681877

RESUMO

Since the dawn of humanity, wounds have afflicted humans, and healers have held responsibility for treating them. This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/história , Antibacterianos/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Conflitos Armados/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Pinturas , Mundo Romano/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
18.
Int Orthop ; 44(10): 2177-2183, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To summarize the available information from mythology, archeology, and classical literature aiming to compose the image of Asclepieia, Asclepius, and the Asclepiads, and to depict the atmosphere of medicine in its infancy. METHOD: A thorough literature search was undertaken in PubMed and Google Scholar as well as in physical books in libraries to summarize the pharmacies and pain practices used for trauma in ancient Greece. RESULTS: The antiquity of medicine is confirmed by the worship of God Apollo and Asclepius, who were the persons who possessed the knowledge of medicine and surgery, and delivered it to mortals. The available archaeological data, stone offerings, and inscriptions from Asclepieia were the first testimonies of divine and human knowledge and provide insights on individual cases of patients cured by the Asclepiads. Sparse descriptions offer a first glimpse of the methods and means used by the first priests-physicians for wound healing and diseases treatment. CONCLUSION: Asclepieia established the roots of medicine and the first step of human knowledge, and contributed to the field of surgery and pharmacology that gave birth to the rational medicine. With Hippocrates and his research, the circle of Asclepieia ended, and the era of the organized medical schools with theories and experiments on every aspect of medicine begun.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos , Mitologia , Dor
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 165, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The collected works of Hippocrates were searched for concepts on the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of acute and urgent respiratory diseases, with the objective to trace their origins in the Hippocratic Collection. METHODS: A scoping review was performed to map out key concepts of acute and severe respiratory diseases in the entire Hippocratic Collection. The digital library Thesaurus Lingua Graeca (TLG) was researched for references in the entire Hippocratic Collection regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of acute respiratory diseases; then, the relevant texts were studied in their English translation by the Loeb Classical Library. RESULTS: Hippocratic physicians followed principles of treatment for pneumonia and pleurisy, still relevant, such as hydration, expectoration, analgesia and prompt mobilisation. Other approaches, including the inhalation of "vapours through tubes" in angina, can be considered as forerunners of modern medical practice. Thoracic empyema was diagnosed by shaking the patient and direct chest auscultation after "applying your ear to his sides". In case of an emergency from upper airway obstruction, urgent insertion of primitive airway equipment, such as a small pharyngeal tube, was applied. CONCLUSIONS: The main Hippocratic concepts on four still common acute and urgent respiratory diseases -pneumonia, pleurisy, thoracic empyema and upper airway obstruction- were identified and most of them were found to be in agreement with contemporary medical thinking and practice.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Emergências/história , Mundo Grego/história , Médicos/história , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/história , Diagnóstico , Empiema Pleural/história , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos , Pleurisia/história , Pneumonia/história , Prognóstico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemistry as experimental science began in the seventeenth century, when it began moving away from being one of the alchemical doctrines and toward analyzing matter and its transformations using scientific methods. Previously, the ancient Pre-Socratic philosophy through observation of nature was concerned with the laws that govern the natural world and the property of matter. Later, the Hellenistic Alexandrian culture took possession of the Hermetic doctrines of the Egyptians, mixing them with pre-Socratic thought and Gnosticism. At this historical moment, therefore, there was a fusion of the Greek philosophical patrimony and the Hellenistic and Alexandrian influences on medicine. The Hermetic gnosis evolved over time to become alchemy and then to usher in the birth of chemical science. Many doctors were wandering philosophers who dealt with cosmogony to understand the body and diseases and to discover new healing drugs for treatment, and thus they were the first chemist therapists. METHODS: The influence of ancient physicians through the pre-Socratic philosophy for these prochemical theories and practice has been researched through ancient texts, so these texts have been referenced to determine the legacy of paleo-chemicals doctrines. RESULTS: The study of various texts in particular from the Pre-Socratic age and the eminent physicians underline that, despite a different approach to the cosmogonic concepts of nature and the matter, the medicine of that age had an important influence on chemistry as an experimental science, especially concerning therapy with drugs. CONCLUSION: The Pre-Socratic philosophers have influenced the medical practice and guided it toward the concept of the properties of matter for medical treatment and an understanding of the causes of diseases.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Química/história , Preparações Farmacêuticas/história , Filosofia/história , Médicos/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos
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