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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5932, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396488

RESUMO

Kohl, a dark eye cosmetic, is a well-known part of Ancient Egyptian culture. Modern chemical analyses of kohls have largely found lead-based inorganic constituents, whereas earlier studies argued for a much broader range of constituents. Furthermore, organic materials in kohls remain severely understudied. This raises questions regarding the true diversity of materials and recipes used to produce kohls. We analysed the contents of 11 kohl containers from the Petrie Museum collection in London. The objects selected cover a broad range of times and locations in Egypt. Our multi-analytical approach allowed us to characterise both inorganic and organic components. Our data show that inorganic ingredients in kohl recipes are not only lead-based but also manganese- and silicon-based. Our analyses also revealed that organic ingredients derived from both plant and animal sources were commonly used in kohl recipes and sometimes even represent the main constituent. All these findings point towards more varied recipes than initially thought and significantly shift our understanding of Ancient Egyptian kohls.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Animais , Cosméticos/química , Egito , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Londres
2.
Nature ; 604(7906): 414, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361943
3.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268632

RESUMO

The study of animal mummification in ancient Egypt has recently received increasing attention from a number of modern scholars given the fact that this part of ancient Egyptian funerary and religious history is a practice yet to be fully understood. In this study, nine samples of embalming matter were extracted from six gazelle mummies from the archaeological site of Kom Mereh (modern village of Komir), dated to the Roman period of dominance in ancient Egypt. All samples were analyzed for the presence of inorganic and organic matter applying a multi-analytical approach based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, in order to identify more specific compounds such as bitumen and beeswax in studied balms, each sample was subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE) and saponification separation process, respectively. The results of this study revealed that the majority of the analyzed embalming substances sampled from six gazelle mummies from Kom Mereh were complex mixtures of plant oils, animal fats, conifer resin, and beeswax. In this regard, this study was able to report a practice until now unmentioned in the scientific literature, namely, the use of cruciferous oil, derived from seeds of Brassicaceae plants, in animal mummification.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Brassicaceae , Múmias , Animais , Egito , Antigo Egito , Embalsamamento/métodos , História Antiga , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Spine Deform ; 10(1): 197-199, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499331

RESUMO

In Paleopathology, total lack of a vertebral body is a rare finding, mostly due to infectious diseases or tumors. We report the case of an adult male from the necropolis next to "Temple of the Millions of Years" of Thutmose III dated to the Late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period (2345-2055 BCE). He showed a fracture of T12, more than 50%, associated with the complete disappearance of the body of L1 and bilateral transverse process. Infection and tumor involvement were ruled out due to the morphology of the spinal segment. The most likely diagnosis was complete body agenesis. Congenital kyphosis related to vertebral agenesis has been described as a possibility in paleopathology, but it had not been reported until now.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Cifose , Adulto , Antigo Egito , Humanos , Cifose/complicações , Masculino , Paleopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Homo ; 72(4): 307-316, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549241

RESUMO

Commingled human remains were discovered in TT110 (Djehuty tomb; Dynasty XVIII), located in El Sheikh Abd el Qurna, Luxor, Egypt. The tomb had been reused over a long period of time (1570-332 BCE). In a small area distinct from the comingled remains, an incomplete skull and two os coxae fragments, consistent with that of a young adult female, between 25 and 40 years of age were found. A detailed macroscopic and radiologic analysis was performed at the tomb site. The three bone fragments showed abundant small to medium sized osteolytic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of late stage metastatic carcinoma or, less likely, multiple myeloma. The age and sex of the individual favors the possibility of breast cancer as the primary making this one of the oldest cases of metastases reported from ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Múmias , Restos Mortais , Egito , Antigo Egito , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(8): 1285-1290, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Ebers papyrus (1,550 BC) is one of the most complete medical papyri of Ancient Egypt. It contains a few paragraphs about otology, about both treatments of the external ear and ideas concerning the ears and deafness. Over the years, many scholarly interpretations of these paragraphs have been made by learned Egyptologists and academic historians of otology. They do not always agree and have often been critical of each other. This historical review compares and contrasts all the main published academic translations of the Ebers papyrus by looking at the original document and their interpretations. METHODOLOGY: Historical research, based on the various translations of the Ebers papyrus. RESULTS: Eight complete translations of the whole Ebers manuscript have been analyzed. Four of these contain transliteration of the hieroglyphics. The hieroglyph associated with the ear is a pictogram of a cow's ear. It has two possible interpretations. It can mean the ear itself but it can also be used to denote either deafness or hearing. CONCLUSION: Insights into the early Egyptians perception of the ear may be obtained, but study of primary references shows that there is scant evidence of knowledge of anatomical details in the Ebers papyrus.


Assuntos
Audição , Animais , Bovinos , Antigo Egito
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(18)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903252

RESUMO

Black organic coatings and ritual deposits on ancient Egyptian coffins and cartonnage cases are important and understudied sources of evidence about the rituals of funerary practice. Sometimes, the coatings were applied extensively over the surface of the coffin, resembling paint; in other cases, they were poured over the mummy case or wrapped body, presumably as part of a funerary ritual. For this study, multiple samples of black coatings and ritual liquids were taken from 20 Egyptian funerary items dating to a specific time period (c. 943 to 716 BC). Multiple sampling from each object enabled several comparisons to be made: the variability of the black coating within one application, the variability between two applications on one object, and the variability from object to object. All samples were analyzed for lipids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 51 samples from across the 20 items were further analyzed for the presence of bitumen using solid phase separation followed by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. The majority of the black substances were found to comprise a complex mixture of organic materials, including bitumen from the Dead Sea, conifer resin, and Pistacia resin, providing evidence for a continuation in international trade between Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean after the Late Bronze Age. Both the coating and the anointing liquid are very similar to mummification balms, pointing to parallels with Egyptian embalming rituals and raising questions about the practical aspects of Egyptian funerary practice.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Múmias/história , Resinas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Antigo Egito , Funerárias/história , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , História Antiga , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/química , Pistacia/química , Resinas Vegetais/química
9.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 137-145, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To correlate atherosclerosis (Ath) and osteoarthritis (OA) in mummies from ancient Egypt. MATERIALS: Whole-body CT examinations of 23 mummies from the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin, Germany, and 22 mummies from the Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy. METHODS: Ath was assessed in five anatomical regions by means of preserved arterial calcifications. OA was assessed using the Kellgren and Lawrence (1957) classification. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between Ath and total OA. A significant association was found for Ath and the upper limb group for OA grade >1 and for Ath and the lower limb group, consisting mainly of the hip and knee, for OA grade >2 OA. CONCLUSIONS: The association of Ath and advanced OA of the hip and knee is comparable in prevalence to those reported in recent clinical studies, despite the low life expectancy and the different environment and lifestyle of the ancient Egyptians. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to correlate findings of Ath and OA in ancient Egypt statistically. The diseases of Ath and OA are common ailments with enormous and increasing impacts on public health. LIMITATIONS: The large number of cardiovascular diseases was indicated only by arterial calcifications that resisted the post-mortem changes of the mummification process. Also, the assessed OA was on radiological OA. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Genomic studies of ancient Egyptian mummies may reveal genetic risk factors for Ath and OA that could be shared in ancient and modern populations.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Múmias , Osteoartrite , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Antigo Egito , Humanos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249377, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826664

RESUMO

The Falcon Necropolis at Quesna in the Nile Delta of Egypt is considered to have been founded by the priest Djedhor, the Saviour, of Athribis (Tell Atrib in modern Benha) at the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period. Recent excavations here have revealed abundant avian remains from mummies dedicated to the ancient Egyptian god Horus Khenty-Khety. Among the few mammal remains from the site are five species of shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), including some that we identified as Güldenstaedt's White-toothed Shrew, Crocidura gueldenstaedtii (Pallas, 1811). Discovery of this species at Quesna increases the number of shrews recovered from ancient Egyptian archaeological sites to eight species. Crocidura gueldenstaedtii no longer occurs in the Nile Delta, and its presence in a diverse shrew fauna at Quesna that includes one other extirpated species, Crocidura fulvastra (Sundevall, 1843), supports the hypothesis of a moister regional environment 2000-3000 years ago. Inadvertently preserved local faunas, such as that from Quesna, can provide valuable information about ancient environments and subsequent turnover in faunal communities.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Musaranhos , Animais , Antigo Egito
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534798

RESUMO

CT scans of an unnamed mummified adult from Egypt, now in the Chau Chak Wing Museum, University of Sydney (NMR.27.3), reveal it to be fully sheathed in a mud shell or carapace, exposing a mortuary treatment not previously documented in the Egyptian archaeological record. The carapace was placed between layers of linen wrappings thus it was not externally visible. Radiocarbon dating of textile samples provide a range of c.1370-1113 cal BC (95.4% probability), with a median date of 1207 cal BC. When assessed against mummification techniques of the era, the individual is placed in the late 19th-20th Dynasty, at the later end of this date range. Multi-proxy analysis including µ-XRF and Raman spectroscopy of carapace fragments from the head area revealed it to consist of three layers, comprising a thin base layer of mud, coated with a white calcite-based pigment and a red-painted surface of mixed composition. Whether the whole surface of the carapace was painted red is unknown. The carapace was a form of ancient conservation applied subsequent to post-mortem damage to the body, intended to reconfigure the body and enable continued existence of the deceased in the afterlife. The carapace can also be interpreted as a form of elite emulation imitating resin shells found within the wrappings of royal bodies from this period.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Múmias , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos
12.
Talanta ; 225: 121949, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592704

RESUMO

In the context where lengthy protocols are used to extract and to characterize each substance from mummification balms using techniques such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, this paper presents the evaluation of the efficiency of an original method to characterize mummification balms using the SIMPLISMA algorithm in infrared spectroscopy. This tool is a pure variable approach corresponding to the selection of calibration variables. This developed approach was combined with chemometric treatment (principal component analysis) to interpret the 47 Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of human mummies' balms from Ancient Egypt. This treatment gave 6 pure spectra and their corresponding extracted concentration profiles. The first pure spectrum corresponded to residual species, and the second to the identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules which have a pyrolytic origin. The fourth pure spectrum corresponded to proteins which were characterized, and could be considered as markers of good conservation of individuals. The fifth pure spectrum characterized polysaccharides. Finally, two pure spectra showed the same natural substance, namely fat, which, on the one hand, was unaltered and, on the other hand, was degraded fatty matter. This fast, simple and non-destructive approach allowed the composition of each balm to be studied and their state of conservation/degradation to be characterized. This approach enabled the presence of proteins, polysaccharides and fatty matter or beeswax in different states of conservation/alteration in the studied balms to be characterized.


Assuntos
Múmias , Antigo Egito , Embalsamamento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113115, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891812

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient Egyptian texts only offer glimpses into their conceptual understandings of the inner-body and illness manifestation. Explanations of how prescribed materia medica were believed to work are rare and obscure, often resulting in modern approximations for ancient terminology such as 'ra-ib'-an ancient Egyptian classification predominantly translated as 'stomach'-leading to misunderstandings of historical texts, and therefore their use of pharmacology. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the ra-ib and the explanatory models of illness from the Egyptian perspective, and to explore the link between these and the prescribed selection of materia medica. To then compare the conceptual mechanics of these treatment strategies with those of another non-Western tradition-namely Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)-to provide further insight into potential conceptual frameworks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case study of a unit of Ancient Egyptian texts focusing on the ra-ib. Totalling 34 prescriptions, the first stage lexicographically analysed the texts using cognitive linguistic and translation theories to produce our new understanding. This enabled our comparison of the mechanics of materia medica usage within these texts with those found in TCM outlined by the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China 2015 for the relevant ingredients. RESULTS: the study demonstrated that-rather than denoting the organ 'stomach'-ra-ib instead constitutes a system running from the mouth, downward to the anus. This is best translated as 'inner thoroughfare', and changes the way in which we attempt to understand potential motivations in the selection of ingredients. By exploring common themes in the use of eleven securely translated ingredients from the Egyptian corpus and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China-representing a modern traditional system which understands the body via a series of interconnected systems-we were able to highlight certain themes which might be 'universal' to system-based traditions; this provided new insights into the Egyptian motivations for treatment selection. CONCLUSIONS: Having gained the ancient view of the body and illness, cultural comparisons are important for providing further potential insights and clarifications of a discontinued historical healing tradition. The new understanding of the ra-ib from our study greatly changes the way in which we understand the dynamics of Egyptian ethnopharmacological source material from this period.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Materia Medica/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Antigo Egito , Etnofarmacologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Materia Medica/farmacologia , Farmacopeias como Assunto
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 217-219, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227516

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reminded us of past epidemics. Pharaonic Egypt has often been associated with epidemics and disasters through the 10 plagues in the Bible. The aim of this study was to examine which epidemics and serious diseases can be effectively proven for Ancient Egypt through mummies and historical source texts. The biblical plagues cannot be proven because there is no agreement on the dating of the Exodus, or the Exodus is a conglomeration of memories of different events. Other diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis have been proven for Ancient Egypt, while polio and smallpox are still uncertain. There are indications of a bubonic disease from the time of the middle 18th Dynasty, but its exact nature cannot be determined from source texts or mummies, as they are too vague.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Peste/epidemiologia , Bíblia , Antigo Egito/epidemiologia , História do Século XVIII , Humanos
15.
Orv Hetil ; 161(51): 2162-2170, 2020 12 20.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346745

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Egy traumás eredetu sérüléseket mutató, ókori egyiptomi koponya vizsgálatát ismertetjük a Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum gyujteményébol. A jelen cikkben egy mumifikált fej elemzését emeltük ki, ennek átfogó vizsgálatát és részletes eredményeit közöljük. Célkituzés: Célunk egy multidiszciplináris vizsgálatsorozat megvalósítása volt, amelyen keresztül képet kapunk az egykor Egyiptom területén élt emberek egészségi állapotáról. Módszer: A kutatás során a múmiákon szerves és szervetlen kémiai analíziseket, komputertomográfiai és röntgenvizsgálatot, szénizotópos kormeghatározást végeztünk, és felhasználtunk biológiai antropológiai módszereket is. Eredmények: A koponya igazoltan az ókori Egyiptomból származik, és mivel sebei gyógyulásnak indultak, véleményünk szerint az egyén túlélte a fejét ért behatást. Ez meglepo eredménynek minosül, hiszen ilyen jellegu életveszélyes traumás sérüléseket csak akkor lehet nagy valószínuséggel túlélni, ha megfelelo orvosi ellátás áll rendelkezésre. Következtetés: Úgy gondoljuk, ebben az esetben is ez történt, bizonyítva, hogy az egyiptomi orvosi ismeretek valóban igen fejlettek és az orvoslás magas színvonalú volt. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(51): 2162-2170. INTRODUCTION: We are presenting the analysis of an ancient Egyptian mummified head from the collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum, which shows special traumatic injuries. The examination of this artefact nicely demonstrates the procedures we usually apply in our research on the Egyptian mummies of the Museum. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to implement a series of multidisciplinary studies to get a picture of the health condition of these people once living in the territory of Egypt. METHOD: When researching the mummies, we performed organic and non-organic chemical analyses, computed tomography, X-ray examinations, radiocarbon isotope dating as well as biological anthropological methods. RESULTS: In this article, we report on the comprehensive examination of the skull and the detailed results we got. The skull is proven to originate from ancient Egypt. CONCLUSION: As the wounds began to heal, we can conclude that the individual survived the impact on his head. This is quite surprising as such life-threatening traumatic injuries can only be survived if adequate medical care is available. We believe this was the case also here, i. e., ancient Egyptian medicine was highly developed and of really high standards. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(51): 2162-2170.


Assuntos
Múmias , Ferimentos e Lesões , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos , Hungria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232351

RESUMO

The ancient pigment Egyptian blue has long been studied for its historical significance; however, recent work has shown that its unique visible induced luminescent property can be used both to identify the pigment and to inspire new materials with this characteristic. In this study, a multi-modal characterization approach is used to explore variations in ancient production of Egyptian blue from shabti statuettes found in the village of Deir el-Medina in Egypt (Luxor, West Bank) dating back to the New Kingdom (18th-20th Dynasties; about 1550-1077 BCE). Using quantitative SEM-EDS analysis, we identify two possible production groups of the Egyptian blue and demonstrate the presence of multiple phases within samples using cluster analysis and ternary diagram representations. Using both macro-scale non-invasive (X-rays fluorescence and multi-spectral imaging) and micro-sampling (SEM-EDS and Raman confocal microspectroscopy) techniques, we correlate photoluminescence and chemical composition of the ancient samples. We introduce Raman spectroscopic imaging as a means to capture simultaneously visible-induced luminesce and crystal structure and utilize it to identify two classes of luminescing and non-luminescing silicate phases in the pigment that may be connected to production technologies. The results presented here provide a new framework through which Egyptian blue can be studied and inform the design of new materials based on its luminescent property.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Cobre/química , Silicatos/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Corantes/síntese química , Corantes/história , Cobre/história , Cristalização , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Luminescência , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cidade de Roma , Escultura/história , Silicatos/síntese química , Silicatos/história , Espectrometria por Raios X , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
Anal Chem ; 92(23): 15445-15453, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197168

RESUMO

The black matter employed in the funeral context by ancient Egyptians is a complex mixture of plant-based compounds with variable amounts of bitumen. Asphaltene, the most resistant component of bitumen, contains vanadyl porphyrins and carbonaceous radicals, which can be used as paramagnetic probes to investigate embalming materials without sample preparation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at the X-band, combining in-phase and out-of-phase detection schemes, provides new information in a nondestructive way about the presence, the origin, and the evolution of bitumen in these complex materials. It is found that the relative EPR intensity of radicals and vanadyl porphyrins is sensitive to the origin of the bitumen. The presence of nonporphyrinic vanadyl complexes in historical samples is likely due to the complexation of VO2+ ions by carboxylic functions at the interface between bitumen and other biological components of the embalming matter. The absence of such oxygenated vanadyl complex in natural bitumen and in one case of historical human mummy acquired by a museum in the 19th century reveals a possible, nondocumented, ancient restoration of this mummy by pure bitumen. The linear correlation between in-phase and out-of-phase EPR intensities of radicals and vanadyl porphyrins in balms and in natural bitumen reveals a nanostructuration of radicals and vanadyl porphyrin complexes, which was not affected by the preparation of the balm. This points to the remarkable chemical stability of paramagnetic probes in historical bitumen in ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Embalsamamento , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Múmias , Vanadatos/química , Antigo Egito
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17037, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046824

RESUMO

Takabuti, was a female who lived in ancient Egypt during the 25th Dynasty, c.660 BCE. Her mummified remains were brought to Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1834 and are currently displayed in the Ulster Museum. To gain insight into Takabuti's ancestry, we used deep sampling of vertebral bone, under X-ray control, to obtain non-contaminated bone tissue from which we extracted ancient DNA (aDNA) using established protocols. We targeted the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), known to be highly informative for human ancestry, and identified 38 single nucleotide variants using next generation sequencing. The specific combination of these SNVs suggests that Takabuti belonged to mitochondrial haplogroup H4a1. Neither H4 nor H4a1 have been reported in ancient Egyptian samples, prior to this study. The modern distribution of H4a1 is rare and sporadic and has been identified in areas including the Canary Islands, southern Iberia and the Lebanon. H4a1 has also been reported in ancient samples from Bell Beaker and Unetice contexts in Germany, as well as Bronze Age Bulgaria. We believe that this is an important finding because first, it adds to the depth of knowledge about the distribution of the H4a1 haplogroup in existing mtDNA, thus creating a baseline for future occurrences of this haplogroup in ancient Egyptian remains. Second, it is of great importance for archaeological sciences, since a predominantly European haplogroup has been identified in an Egyptian individual in Southern Egypt, prior to the Roman and Greek influx (332BCE).


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Antigo Egito , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História Antiga , Humanos
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15463, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963281

RESUMO

Millions of mummified birds serving for religious purpose have been discovered from archeological sites along the Nile Valley of Egypt, in majority ibises. Whether these birds were industrially raised or massively hunted is a matter of heavy debate as it would have a significant impact on the economy related to their supply and cult, and if hunted it would have represented an ecological burden on the birds populations. Here we have measured and analysed the stable oxygen, carbon and radiogenic strontium isotope compositions as well as calcium and barium content of bones along with the stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope composition of feathers from 20 mummified ibises and birds of prey recovered from various archeological sites of Ancient Egypt. If these migratory birds were locally bred, their stable oxygen, radiogenic strontium and stable sulfur isotopic compositions would be similar to that of coexisting Egyptians, and their stable carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope variance would be close, or lower than that of Egyptians. On one hand, isotopic values show that ibises ingested food from the Nile valley but with a higher isotopic scattering than observed for the diet of ancient Egyptians. On the other hand, birds of prey have exotic isotopic values compatible with their migratory behaviour. We therefore propose that most mummified ibises and all the birds of prey analysed here were wild animals hunted for religious practice.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Plumas/química , Múmias , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Antigo Egito
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