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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4867-4874, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are exceptionally effective drugs in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, nevertheless, TKIs have also an effect on platelets. We aimed to investigate the effect of a third-generation TKI, ponatinib on platelet functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and coated-platelet formation were examined using in vitro and in ex vivo samples of patients on ponatinib therapy. RESULTS: In platelet rich plasma of healthy volunteers, ponatinib at a supra-therapeutic concentration (1,000 nM) significantly impaired collagen induced platelet aggregation (p≤0.01) and reduced the formation of coated-platelets at 150 nM ponatinib concentration (p≤0.05). In addition, upon glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor activation, a significantly lower percentage of PAC1 binding platelets (p≤0.05) was observed at 1,000 nM final concentration of ponatinib. Platelets, isolated from patients on ponatinib therapy showed impaired collagen elicited aggregation response, already in pre-dose samples compared to healthy donors. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic concentration of ponatinib impairs platelet activation processes elicited by GPVI receptor agonists.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4875-4883, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Sunitinib continues to be administered as a first-line therapeutic agent in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This study aimed to examine the role of CD44 in sunitinib resistance and as a predictive marker in mRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the effect of CD44 knockdown on sunitinib resistance in RCC cell lines using WST-1 assays. CD44 expression in mRCC patients treated with first-line sunitinib was determined by immunohistochemistry. We validated the findings of this study by in silico analysis. RESULTS: CD44 knockdown increased sensitivity to sunitinib. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 19 (34.5%) of 55 mRCC cases were positive for CD44. CD44-positive cases were associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) after first-line sunitinib treatment. In the JAVELIN 101 study, high CD44 expression was significantly associated with poor PFS after sunitinib but not after avelumab + axitinib therapy. CONCLUSION: CD44 is involved in sunitinib resistance and may be a promising marker for sunitinib treatment in mRCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4929-4936, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A new set of LQB-nitrones and analogues was synthesized to evaluate anticancer activity based on the substitution of the terpenyl moiety of the antileukemic compound LQB-278 by the conformationally restricted cinnamyl ether. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structure-activity relationship study was performed in vitro on Jurkat cells to screen the antileukemic activity of LQB-nitrones and analogues and elucidate the mechanisms of action of the most active derivatives. RESULTS: The cynamyl ramification and its ortho position aldehyde substitution improved the antileukemic activity. Three compounds showed an in vitro antiproliferative action, but only 5b induced apoptosis. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms showed increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1/Sdi1, caspase 3, Fas receptor, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CONCLUSION: The cinnamyl derivative 5b (LQB-461) presented higher antileukemic effects than the prototype terpenyl nitrone, inducing Jurkat cell death by activating both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Therefore, this compound is a new promising candidate drug against leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Leucemia/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4969-4977, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To identify the best of three isatin-based scaffolds in terms of anticancer activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synthesis of isatin-based scaffolds was performed through a reaction to form Schiff bases. In silico analyses consisted of a target prediction with the Swiss Target Prediction tool and a molecular docking by AutoDock Vina. Anticancer activity and cytotoxicity were determined using the WST1 viability assay. RESULTS: Three scaffolds (IA, IB, and IC) were synthesized and confirmed with good reaction yields. The Swiss Target Prediction tool showed a trend towards kinases. Molecular docking assays demonstrated higher affinity of IC towards CDK2. Anticancer activity assays identified IC as the most active against the cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity results in non-cancer cells suggested a lack of selectivity. CONCLUSION: The scaffold IC was identified as the best in terms of anticancer activity and these effects may be due to inhibition of CDK2, as evidenced by molecular docking.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Isatina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Schiff/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Isatina/química , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27361, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596147

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and radiological response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with docetaxel.Forty-one prostate cancer patients who were treated with docetaxel were selected. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to predict the association of baseline NLR as a dichotomous variable with PFS and OS after chemotherapy initiation.In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median PFS (9.8 vs 7.5 months, P = .039, Fig. 1) and OS (17.6 vs 14.2 months, P = .021, Fig. 2) was higher in patients who did not have an elevated NLR than in those with an elevated NLR. In univariate analysis, the pretreatment NLR was significantly associated with PFS (P = .049) and OS (P = .023). In multivariable analysis, patients with a NLR of >3 were at significantly higher risk of tumor progress (hazard ratio 2.458; 95% confidence interval 1.186-5.093; P = .016) and death (hazard ratio 3.435; 95% CI 1.522-7.750; P = .003)than patients with a NLR of ⩽3.NLR may be an independent predictor of PFS and OS in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with docetaxel. The findings require validation in further prospective, big sample-sized studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(10): 1011-1019, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619896

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of combination treatment of photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and antibiotic agent tinidazole (TNZ) against periodontitis both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The Sprague-Dewley (SD) rat periodontitis model was constructed using the method of orthodontic wire ligation. After successful modeling, SD rats were randomly divided into the following 6 groups (3 rats in each group): positive control (Ctrl+), Ce6, TNZ, a mixture of Ce6 and TNZ (Ce6/TNZ), Ce6 with laser irradiation (Ce6+L), a mixture of Ce6 and TNZ with laser irradiation (Ce6/TNZ+L). Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to assess the cytotoxic activities of Ce6 (concentration range: 0-20 mg/L), TNZ (concentration range: 0-16.6 mg/L) and their mixture (Ce6/TNZ) in mouse fibroblast L929 cells. Fluorescence probe method was applied to measure the production of reactive oxygen species in the dental plaque biofilms after various treatments with and without 5-minute laser irradiation at 635 nm at a power density of 0.5 W/cm2 (Ce6+L and Ce6/TNZ+L groups), thus to evaluate the PDT performances. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead staining were used to assess the antibacterial activity in each of the groups and the combination index (CI) of PDT combined with TNZ was calculated subsequently. Flow cytometry was utilized to detect the apoptosis-inducing effects of these treatments in macrophage RAW264.7 cells after processing with the apoptosis detection kit. The inhibitory effects of various treatments on the absorption of alveolar bone of SD rats were further evaluated in the periodontitis rats by using the micro-CT. Results: The survival rates of L929 cells in the preset concentration range were all above 90% in Ce6, TNZ and Ce6/TNZ groups. Upon laser irradiation, the plaque biofilms in Ce6 and Ce6/TNZ groups showed significant green fluorescence, indicating that large amounts of reactive oxygen species were triggered and generated significantly in the dental plaque biofilms. However, the survival rates of dental plaque microorganisms in 5 Ce6/TNZ concentrations were (85.4±5.5)%, (76.0±8.9)%, (61.7±0.6)%, (56.3±2.6)% and (43.5±0.6)% respectively, which were significantly lower than that in Ce6 only and TNZ only groups (P<0.01). The CI levle of each drug concentration group was less than 1.0, which showed a significant synergistic antibacterial efficiency. Stronger apoptotic activities were observed in Ce6+L and Ce6/TNZ+L groups compared with those in Ce6 only and Ce6/TNZ only groups (P<0.01). In periodontitis rats, Ce6/TNZ combined laser irradiation could effectively inhibit the absorption of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone volume and the ratio of bone volume and tissue volume were (1.49±0.07) mm3 and (47.08±0.71)%, respectively. The distances between cementoenamel junction to alveolar bone crest on buccal and palatal sites decreased to (2.13±0.07) mm and (1.94±0.10) mm respectively, showing a high inhibition efficiency. Conclusions: Ce6-mediated PDT combined with TNZ possessed notable synergistic effects against periodontitis, reflecting in the efficient antibacterial effect, the apoptosis-inducing action on macrophages, and the inhibitory efficacy on the alveolar bone absorption in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Periodontite , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Antibacterianos , Camundongos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Ratos
7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4753-4759, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: De-differentiation is a key step for the progression of cancer cells. This study investigated the anti-tumor effect of kartogenin (KGN), which has the ability to differentiate cells, on prostate cancer (PC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of KGN on androgen receptor (AR) nuclear localization, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression, and Smad2 activation as well as the growth of PC cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3) were analyzed. RESULTS: KGN significantly inhibited growth of AR-expressing LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells but not of AR-lacking PC-3 cells. KGN decreased AR nuclear localization and PSA expression, but did not enhance the anti-tumor effect of bicalutamide in LNCaP cells. KGN activated Smad2 both in the absence and presence of TGF-ß1. KGN also inhibited growth of docetaxel-resistant PC cells, 22Rv1DR, and re-sensitized them to the agent. CONCLUSION: KGN has a potential as a novel therapeutic for PC patients after treatment failure.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/farmacologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
8.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4807-4820, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: LY2835219 (LY), a novel CDK4/6 inhibitor, prevents cell proliferation through G1 arrest. Docetaxel (DTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) are cytotoxic drugs targeting tubulin-mediated apoptotic cell death via G2/M arrest. We evaluated the antitumor effects of DTX/PTX and LY individually and in combination in lung adenocarcinoma cells with or without KRAS mutations and xenograft mice harboring KRAS mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated in vitro/in vivo changes in signaling molecules and analyzed cell proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis via flow cytometry and western blotting. RESULTS: LY cytotoxicity was dose-dependent and varied with KRAS mutation status. DTX→LY showed synergistic cytotoxicity regardless of KRAS mutation. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of PTX→LY was significantly greater than that of PTX+LY. DTX→LY remarkably reduced the number of G0/G1 cells and increased the number of G2/M arrested cells, resulting in an increase in apoptosis and subG1 cells. CONCLUSION: DTX→LY has synergistic antitumor effect in lung cancer cells and xenograft mice regardless of KRAS mutation.


Assuntos
Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Taxoides/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 206: 114380, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607204

RESUMO

The effectiveness and safety of anti-tumor drugs are clinically important issues, and their therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. This study aimed to develop an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous TDM and exploration of clinical pharmacokinetics of anti-tumor drugs, including cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, methotrexate, pemetrexed disodium, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, doxorubicin, fulvestrant, tamoxifen, and irinotecan. After magnetic solid-phase extraction of plasma samples, the isotope internal standards and 12 anti-tumor drugs were separated using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (50.0 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) with water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in a total run time of 5.0 min. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was validated based on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, including assessment of specificity, calibration curves, carryover, accuracy, crosstalk, precision, stability, recovery, dilution integrity, incurred sample reanalysis, and matrix effect. The results showed that a simple, fast, reliable, and specific UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated, and all the performance characteristics of the method met the requirements. The response function was established for concentration range of 0.10-25.00 µg/mL for gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, pemetrexed disodium, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin, and 0.05-12.50 µg/mL for doxorubicin, fulvestrant, tamoxifen, and irinotecan, with a coefficient of correlation of>0.9984 for all the compounds. The precision and accuracy of all the analytes were<6.5% and 5.9%, respectively. Hence, it could be used for TDM and exploration of pharmacokinetics of the aforementioned 12 anti-tumor drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27320, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN) is a spectrum of pregnancy-associated tumours emerging from placental tissue. Generally, GTN patients are considered to have a high rate of recovery. However, almost 25 per cent of GTN tumours resist, or have a high probability of relapsing following the first line of chemo treatment. Thus, tumours that resist or relapse requires salvage chemotherapy, sometimes accompanied by surgery. Globally, clinicians utilize a range of salvage regimens. Currently, ongoing debates are centred around choosing the best regimens in terms of safety and efficacy. Therefore, the current research aims to appraise the success and level of safeness using chemotherapy to treat patients with resistant or recurrent GTN. METHODS: The authors will conduct a methodological exploration in online-based databases to find Randomized Controlled Trials related to the adoption of chemotherapy agents as treatment for resistant or recurrent GTN patients. The databases are as follows: EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Database Central, UpToDate, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and WanFang Database. The search will be limited to articles published in either English or Chinese. Moreover, the authors will also perform a search for ongoing trials on online-based clinical trial registries. Two independent authors will screen and select articles for review. A similar process will be followed by two independent authors to complete the extraction of data and evaluate the bias risk. In relevant cases, the authors will contract trial investigators to obtain related, unpublished data. The authors will use the random-effects model for pooling data in RevMan software (v5.3). RESULTS: The present systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy and level of safeness associated with using chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent GTN patients. CONCLUSION: The results of the proposed systematic analysis could summarize the most recent evidence for the use of chemotherapy agents on GTN patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since the proposed study uses pre-published data, an ethical approval is not required. REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: Aug 25, 2021.osf.io/rgzbn. (https://osf.io/rgzbn/).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(5): 303-311, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470936

RESUMO

Cabozantinib (CAB) is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against MET, VEGFR2, and AXL, among others. This drug is considered to exert excellent antitumor effects by inhibiting these targets simultaneously. Significant improvement in the primary endpoint (overall survival or PFS) were observed in patients on CAB in comparison with controls in a phase-III study in patients with renal cell carcinoma, progressed after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents, and in another phase-III study in patients with previously treated, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. These results led to the approval of CAB in Japan in 2020 as a therapeutic agent for unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinoma and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma progressed after cancer chemotherapy, under the trade name of CABOMETYX® (20 mg, and 60 mg tablets). It has been suggested that CAB may modulate the immune system in favor of antitumor immunity and combined use with PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors may exert a synergistic effect. In a phase-III study that examined the efficacy of combination therapy with CAB and nivolumab in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, progression-free survival was significantly increased in patients on combination therapy over patients on sunitinib monotherapy. Three global phase-III clinical studies of combination therapy with atezolizumab and CAB in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, are in progress to confirm the efficacy of CAB.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anilidas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Piridinas
12.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 620-627, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494535

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistance(MDR)refers to the loss of sensitivity of tumor cells to traditional chemotherapeutics agents under the mediation of various mechanisms,resulting in the reduction of chemotherapy efficacy.Current studies suggest that a variety of factors,including cell membrane transporter-mediated efflux of anti-tumor drugs,special microenvironment in tumor tissue,DNA self-repair and anti-apoptotic process,and epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation,may contribute to the formation of MDR.Cell membrane transporter-mediated drug efflux refers to an increase in the amount of anti-tumor drug pumped out of the cell through the up-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter on tumor cell membrane,which reduces the concentration of the drug in the cell,thus forming MDR.An effective method to inhibit the efflux pump caused by overexpression of membrane transporters plays an important role in overcoming MDR.As a promising drug delivery system,multifunctional nanoparticles have demonstrated many advantages in antitumor therapy.Meanwhile,nanoparticles with tailored design are capable of overcoming MDR when combined with a variety of strategies.This paper described in detail the studies relevant to the use of multifunctional nano-sized drug delivery system combined with different strategies,such as co-delivery of agents,external responsiveness or target modification for intervention with efflux pump in order to reverse MDR.This paper provides reference for the development of nano-sized drug delivery system and the formulation of reversal strategy in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Membrana Celular , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 434, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in precision medicine is accurate prediction of individual patient's response to drugs. A great number of computational methods have been developed to predict compounds activity using genomic profiles or chemical structures, but more exploration is yet to be done to combine genetic mutation, gene expression, and cheminformatics in one machine learning model. RESULTS: We presented here a novel deep-learning model that integrates gene expression, genetic mutation, and chemical structure of compounds in a multi-task convolutional architecture. We applied our model to the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) datasets. We selected relevant cancer-related genes based on oncology genetics database and L1000 landmark genes, and used their expression and mutations as genomic features in model training. We obtain the cheminformatics features for compounds from PubChem or ChEMBL. Our finding is that combining gene expression, genetic mutation, and cheminformatics features greatly enhances the predictive performance. CONCLUSION: We implemented an extended Graph Neural Network for molecular graphs and Convolutional Neural Network for gene features. With the employment of multi-tasking and self-attention functions to monitor the similarity between compounds, our model outperforms recently published methods using the same training and testing datasets.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(32): 5424-5437, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an oral drug that prolongs overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Adverse events, including hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), lead to permanent sorafenib discontinuation. AIM: To clarify the association between interventions for adverse events and patient prognosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of patients treated with sorafenib monotherapy between May 2009 and March 2018. We developed a mutual cooperation system that was initiated at the start of sorafenib treatment to effectively manage adverse events. The mutual cooperation system entailed patients receiving consultations during which pharmacists provided accurate information about sorafenib to alleviate the fear and anxiety related to adverse events. We stratified the patients into three groups: Group A, patients without HFSR but with pharmacist intervention; Group B, patients with HFSR and pharmacist interventions unreported to oncologists (nonmutual cooperation system); and Group C, patients with HFSR and pharmacist interventions known to oncologists (mutual cooperation system). OS and time to treatment failure (TTF) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We enrolled 134 patients (Group A, n = 41; Group B, n = 30; Group C, n = 63). The median OS was significantly different between Groups A and C (6.2 vs 13.9 mo, p < 0.01) but not between Groups A and B (6.2 vs 7.7 mo, P = 0.62). Group A vs Group C was an independent OS predictor (HR, 0.41; 95%CI: 0.25-0.66; P < 0.01). In Group B alone, TTF was significantly lower and the nonadherence rate was higher (P < 0.01). In addition, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between OS and TTF in each group were 0.41 (Group A; P < 0.01), 0.13 (Group B; P = 0.51), and 0.58 (Group C; P < 0.01). There was a highly significant correlation between OS and TTF in Group C. However, there was no correlation between OS and TTF in Group B. CONCLUSION: The mutual cooperation system increased treatment duration and improved prognosis in patients with HFSR. Future prospective studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) and improved adherence could help prevent OS underestimation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Niacinamida/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500557

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anticancer effect of benzimidazole derivatives on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and investigate its underlying mechanism of action. Several types of cancer and normal breast cells including MDA-MB-231, radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) MDA-MB-231, and allograft mice were treated with six benzimidazole derivatives including mebendazole (MBZ). Cells were analyzed for viability, colony formation, scratch wound healing, Matrigel invasion, cell cycle, tubulin polymerization, and protein expression by using Western blotting. In mice, liver and kidney toxicity, changes in body weight and tumor volume, and incidence of lung metastasis were analyzed. Our study showed that MBZ significantly induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and downregulation of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and OCT3/4, and cancer progression-related ESM-1 protein expression in TNBC and RT-R-TNBC cells. In conclusion, MBZ has the potential to be an effective anticancer agent that can overcome treatment resistance in TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Mebendazol/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500603

RESUMO

The past few decades have witnessed significant progress in anticancer drug discovery. Small molecules containing heterocyclic moieties have attracted considerable interest for designing new antitumor agents. Of these, the pyrimidine ring system is found in multitude of drug structures, and being the building unit of DNA and RNA makes it an attractive scaffold for the design and development of anticancer drugs. Currently, 22 pyrimidine-containing entities are approved for clinical use as anticancer drugs by the FDA. An exhaustive literature search indicates several publications and more than 59 patents from the year 2009 onwards on pyrimidine derivatives exhibiting potent antiproliferative activity. These pyrimidine derivatives exert their activity via diverse mechanisms, one of them being inhibition of protein kinases. Aurora kinase (AURK) and polo-like kinase (PLK) are protein kinases involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. Within the numerous pyrimidine-based small molecules developed as anticancer agents, this review focuses on the pyrimidine fused heterocyclic compounds modulating the AURK and PLK proteins in different phases of clinical trials as anticancer agents. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of synthetic strategies for the preparation of pyrimidine derivatives and their associated biological activity on AURK/PLK. It will also present an overview of the synthesis of the heterocyclic-2-aminopyrimidine, 4-aminopyrimidine and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine scaffolds, and one of the pharmacophores in AURK/PLK inhibitors is described systematically.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500615

RESUMO

Juniper representatives are natural sources of plenty of bioactive metabolites and have been used since ancient times as folk remedies against tapeworms, warts, cancer, etc. The antiproliferative activities of junipers are attributed to podophyllotoxin (PPT), which is a precursor for the synthesis of efficient anticancer drugs. However, the natural sources of PPT, Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying and Podophyllum peltatum L., are already endangered species because of their intensive industrial exploitation. Therefore, identification of other sources of PPT is necessary. This study is a broad comparative investigation of junipers, for which original sources have been accessed from different continents of the world. The present research is aimed at the identification of species, producing PPT and other lignans at concentrations that are sufficient for the high antiproliferative activity of the corresponding extracts. Cytotoxic juniper leaf extracts demonstrated a broad spectrum of activity on a panel of cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative properties of junipers were attributed to the combined activity of great diversity of lignans (podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin, ß-peltatin, yatein, matairesinol, anhydropodorhizol, etc.), detected by UHPLC-HRMS and LC-ESI-MS/MS in the corresponding extracts. Several species of the genus Juniperus L. were outlined as perspective sources of drug precursors with potential pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Podofilotoxina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Células K562 , Lignanas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia
18.
Oncology ; 99(10): 641-651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515171

RESUMO

AIM: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (atezo + bev) shows a good overall survival (OS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the OS of patients with nonviral infection is quite worse than that in those with viral infection. The present study investigated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in patients with nonviral infection, who were unlikely to obtain benefit from atezo + bev. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that included 139 advanced HCC patients treated with lenvatinib between March 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The median age was 72 years, and 116 patients (83.5%) were male. Based on the etiology of liver disease, 84 (60.4%) and 55 patients (39.6%) were assigned to the viral infection and nonviral infection groups, respectively. The significant extents in patient characteristics were not observed in both groups. The objective response rate per mRECIST and progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ significantly between the viral infection and nonviral infection groups (36.0 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.85; and 7.6 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.94, respectively). The 1-year survival rates were 68.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57.7-79.7%) in the viral infection group and 59.5% (95% CI 45.2-73.8%) in the nonviral infection group. The viral infection group was not a significant factor associated with the PFS or OS in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib shows no significant difference in response between patients with and without viral infection. Treatment strategies based on the etiology of liver disease may lead to good clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Infecções/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viroses/diagnóstico
19.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 225-247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limitations of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in cancer treatment and the increase in the application of nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine have promoted the use of nanomaterials in combination with radiotherapy for cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To improve the efficiency of cancer treatment, curcumin-naringenin loaded dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CUR-NAR-D-MNPs) were used as chemotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy to verify their effectiveness in treating tumors. METHODS: CUR-NAR-D-MNPs were prepared and studied by several characterization methods. Median inhibitory concentration (IC50) and cellular toxicity were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cell death and radiosensitization were studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. RESULTS: CUR-NAR-D-MNPs induce apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. CUR-NAR-D-MNPs used alone had a certain therapeutic effect on tumors. CUR-NAR-D-MNPs plus radiotherapy significantly reduced the tumor volume and led to cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis through modulation of P53high, P21high, TNF-αlow, CD44low, and ROShigh signalingCONCLUSIONS:CUR-NAR-D-MNPs are effective in the treatment of tumors when combined with radiotherapy, and show radiosensitization effects against cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Curcumina/química , Flavanonas/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiorradioterapia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Dextranos/química , Feminino , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 481, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf serine/threonine receptor tyrosine kinases and inhibits tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. Cutaneous toxicities of sorafenib are common, including cutaneous eruptions (such as truncal erythema and seborrheic-dermatitis-like changes) and hand-foot syndrome. Keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas have been reported previously; however, we report a case of multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas in the form of Grzybowski syndrome after initiation of sorafenib. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male who developed multiple cutaneous eruptive keratoacanthomas after starting sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. He had a known history of hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and previously had actinic keratosis and skin squamous cell carcinoma excision. Approximately two and a half months after starting sorafenib, the patient initially developed two lesions, one on each forearm, and after excision, these lesions demonstrated histological features of squamous cell carcinoma. One month later, the patient presented with approximately 48 new skin lesions of varying size on the back, bilateral upper limbs, and face requiring excisional biopsy of a large number of these lesions. Histopathology showed eruptive invasive keratoacanthomas (Grzybowski syndrome). Sorafenib was temporarily stopped and subsequently restarted at a lower dose. Acitretin 25 mg daily was commenced after few weeks, and no further keratoacanthomas developed during his treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique case of sorafenib-associated Grzybowski syndrome. Temporary interruption and dose reduction of sorafenib and use of acitretin appeared to prevent further development of keratoacanthomas.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Exantema , Ceratoacantoma , Dermatopatias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ceratoacantoma/induzido quimicamente , Ceratoacantoma/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos
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