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1.
Cutis ; 110(1): 21-24, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179228

RESUMO

Aluminum recently was selected as the 2022 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Aluminum contact allergy, which most often is related to its use as an adjuvant in select vaccines and allergen-specific immunotherapies, tends to present with pruritic subcutaneous nodules at the injection site. Allergy to aluminum-containing antiperspirants manifests as axillary vault dermatitis. In this article, we highlight the growing recognition of aluminum contact allergy, particularly in the pediatric population, focusing on distinct presentations of aluminum allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), unique sources of exposure, and nuances of patch testing to this metal.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Criança , Humanos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Antiperspirantes , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/terapia , Testes do Emplastro , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
2.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1055-1062, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634726

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Mulisan decoction (MLS) is a classic formula of traditional Chinese medicine for treating hyperhidrosis. The mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antiperspirant effect and underlying mechanisms of MLS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into control, model, and three doses of MLS intervention groups (n = 10). Rats except for control group were induced diseases features of the applicable scope of MLS via i.p. reserpine (0.5 mg/kg/d) for 10 days. From day 11, MLS groups were administrated orally MLS at 0.6, 3, and 15 g/kg once a day for 14 days, respectively. After the last administration, sweating was induced in all rats via s.c. pilocarpine (25 mg/kg), the right hind foot of rats was stained, and sweat point numbers were observed. Rat serum was collected to detect IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Rat plasma was collected for endogenous metabolite analysis via UPLC-QE-Focus-MS. RESULTS: Rats treated with MLS presented a significant decrease in sweat point numbers (13.5%), increase in body weight (13.2%), and promotion in the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio via increasing IL-2 (38.3%), IFN-γ (20.1%), and TNF-α (22.0%) and decreasing IL-6 (24.7%) compared with the model group (p < 0.05). Plasma metabolomics disclosed 15 potential biomarkers related to model rats, of which two could be significantly reversed by MLS (p < 0.05). The involved pathways were pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, and porphyrin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: MLS demonstrated a good antiperspirant effect and metabolism improvement. These findings inspire more clinical study validation on immune improvement and antiperspirant effect.


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes , Hiperidrose , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Animais , Antiperspirantes/farmacologia , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-2 , Interleucina-6 , Metabolômica , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(9): 11597-11609, 2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213806

RESUMO

Aluminum hydrolysis chemistry is an important part of modern society because of the dominance of Al(III) as a highly effective antiperspirant active. However, the century-old chemistry centered on aluminum chloride (ACL) is not comprehensive enough to address all of the in vivo events associated with current commercial antiperspirants and their mechanism of action. The present study aims to address the knowledge gap among extensively studied benchmark ACL, its modified version aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH), and a more complex but less explored group of aluminum zirconium chlorohydrate glycine complexes (ZAG salts) toward understanding the mechanism of action under consumer-relevant conditions. ACH, which is the Al source used in the manufacture of ZAG salts, provides a bridge between ACL and ZAG chemistry. High viscosity and gel formation driven by pH and a specific Al(III) salt upon hydrolysis are considered the criteria for building an in vivo occlusive mass to retard or stop the flow of sweat to the skin surface, thus providing an antiperspirant effect. Rheological studies indicated that ACL and aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine (TETRA) were the most efficacious salt actives. Spectroscopic studies, diffraction studies, and elemental analysis suggested that small metal oxide and hydroxide species with coparticipating glycine as well as various polynuclear and oligomeric species are the key to gel formation. At a given pH, the key ingredients (NaCl, urea, bovine serum albumin, and lactic acid) in artificial sweat were found to have little influence on Al(III) salt hydrolysis. The effects of the sweat components were mostly limited to local complex formation and kinetic modification. The in vitro comparative experiments with various Al(III) and ZAG salt systems offer unprecedented insights into the chemistry of different salt types, thus paving the way for engineering more efficacious antiperspirant systems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/química , Antiperspirantes/química , Glicina/química , Sais/química , Zircônio/química , Hidrogéis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade , Difração de Raios X
5.
J AAPOS ; 26(1): 42-43, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798293

RESUMO

Acute-onset anisocoria or mydriasis in children carries a broad differential diagnosis and includes both benign and life-threatening causes, ranging from systemic or topical drug use to peripheral or central nervous system disease. The topical anticholinergic agent glycopyrronium (approved by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2018) is used to treat hyperhidrosis. We present the first case series of pediatric patients presenting with acute mydriasis due to exposure to glycopyrronium wipes. Six cases (ages 12-16) were identified: 3 presented emergently and 3 to a primary care physician. Additional symptoms included blurry vision (4/6) and unilateral headache (1/6). In 3 cases, use of glycopyrronium wipes was not elicited initially, neuroimaging was obtained, and ophthalmology (2/3) or neurology (1/3) was consulted. One patient remained undiagnosed and presented emergently again 2 months later. In all patients, symptoms resolved without further treatment.


Assuntos
Hiperidrose , Midríase , Adolescente , Anisocoria/induzido quimicamente , Anisocoria/diagnóstico , Antiperspirantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Glicopirrolato , Humanos , Hiperidrose/induzido quimicamente , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Midríase/induzido quimicamente , Midríase/diagnóstico
6.
Soft Matter ; 17(35): 8022-8026, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525157

RESUMO

Are aluminium ions unavoidable in antiperspirants? To answer this question, we present confocal microscopy images of dendritic plugs appearing in sweat flowing across a microfluidic channel in the presence of aluminium salts. By comparing with numerical simulations, we identify the mechanisms forming this structured protein gel inside the pore.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Suor , Antiperspirantes , Sais , Sudorese
7.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 43(6): 627-635, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The human axilla is colonized by a wide array of microorganisms that contribute to the generation of body odour. Traditional antiperspirant/deodorant products are used to reduce perspiration in the axillary region and to treat or prevent the growth of bacteria in this region, thereby reducing or eliminating body odour. However, they may also compromise the axillary microbiome balance. The personal care industry has been seeking new ingredients, such as prebiotics or probiotics, to maintain a healthy balance of the skin microbiome by inhibiting odour-causing bacteria, whilst maintaining and promoting the growth of good bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prebiotic effect of a skin-care ingredient, 2-butyloctanol, on the human axillary microbiome. METHODS: An in vitro growth inhibition/promotion assay was performed to test whether 2-butyloctanol inhibited or promoted skin bacterial growth. The impact of 2-butyloctanol on the axillary microbiome was also investigated in a human clinical study using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: In-vitro testing showed that 2-butyloctanol significantly inhibited the growth of corynebacteria at concentrations of 0.64%, 2.56% and 5.12%, whilst the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis was maintained at the same concentrations. The impact of 2-butyloctanol on the axillary microbiome was also validated in a human clinical study. A deodorant roll-on product containing 3% of 2-butyloctanol significantly reduced the relative abundance of corynebacteria, whilst increasing the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and the ratio of Staphylococcus to corynebacteria after four weeks of application, whilst the placebo showed no significant change. CONCLUSION: For the first time, it was demonstrated that 2-butyloctanol had a potential prebiotic effect on the human underarm microbiome in inhibiting odour-causing Corynebacterium, whilst maintaining and promoting skin-friendly Staphylococcus in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Therefore, 2-butyloctanol could be used as a potential prebiotic ingredient in personal care products for underarm microbiome protection.


OBJECTIF: les aisselles humaines sont colonisées par un large éventail de micro-organismes qui contribuent à la génération de l'odeur corporelle. Les produits antitranspirants/déodorants traditionnels sont utilisés pour réduire la transpiration et traiter ou prévenir la croissance des bactéries dans la région axillaire, réduisant ou éliminant ainsi l'odeur corporelle. Cependant, ils peuvent également compromettre l'équilibre du microbiome axillaire. Le secteur des soins personnels recherche de nouveaux composants, tels que des prébiotiques ou des probiotiques, afin de maintenir un équilibre sain du microbiome cutané, en inhibant les bactéries responsables des odeurs tout en maintenant et en favorisant la croissance des bonnes bactéries. L'objectif de cette étude était d'étudier l'effet prébiotique sur le microbiome axillaire humain du 2-butyloctanol, un composant indiqué dans les soins cutanés. MÉTHODES: un test in vitro d'inhibition/de promotion de la croissance a été mené afin de déterminer si le 2-butyloctanol inhibait ou favorisait la croissance bactérienne cutanée. Les effets du 2-butyloctanol sur le microbiome axillaire a également fait l'objet d'une étude clinique chez l'homme qui reposait sur le séquençage du gène ARNr 16S. RÉSULTATS: les tests in vitro ont montré que le 2-butyloctanol inhibait significativement la croissance des corynébactéries à des concentrations de 0,64 %, de 2,56 % et de 5,12 %, tandis que la croissance de Staphylococcus epidermidis se maintenait aux mêmes concentrations. Une étude clinique chez l'homme a également permis de confirmer les effets du 2-butyloctanol sur le microbiome axillaire. Un produit déodorant à bille contenant 3 % de 2-butyloctanol a réduit significativement l'abondance relative des corynébactéries, tout en augmentant l'abondance relative de Staphylococcus et le rapport entre Staphylococcus et les corynébactéries après quatre semaines d'application, tandis que le placebo n'a montré aucun changement significatif. CONCLUSION: pour la première fois, des études in vitro et in vivo ont démontré que le 2-butyloctanol avait un possible effet prébiotique sur le microbiome axillaire humain, en inhibant Corynebacterium, la bactérie responsable des odeurs, tout en maintenant et en favorisant la croissance de Staphylococcus, une bactérie respectueuse de la peau. Par conséquent, le 2-butyloctanol pourrait servir de possible composant prébiotique dans les produits de soins personnels pour la protection du microbiome axillaire.


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes/farmacologia , Axila/microbiologia , Desodorantes/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44587-44597, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196863

RESUMO

The concern about aluminum (Al) toxicity has been proven in various cases. Some cases are associated with the fact that Al is a neurotoxic substance that has been found in high levels in the brain tissues of Alzheimer's disease (AD), epilepsy, and autism patients. Other cases are related to infants, especially premature infants and ones with renal failure, who are at the risk of developing the central nervous system (CNS) and bone toxicity. This risk is a result of infants' exposure to Al from milk formulas, intravenous-feeding solutions, and possibly from aluminum-containing vaccinations. Furthermore, most antiperspirants contain  aluminum compounds that raise human exposure to toxic Al. This review paper is intended to discuss in detail the above concerns associated with aluminum, and hence urges the need for more studies exploring the effects of overexposure to Al and recommending mitigation actions.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Doença de Alzheimer , Alumínio/análise , Antiperspirantes , Exposição Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente
9.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(4): e15020, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085372

RESUMO

Aluminium chloride-based antiperspirants are an effective topical therapeutic option for mild to moderate states of excessive perspiration. Its use is primarily limited by the occurrence of skin irritation, especially in sensitive skin types. The objective of this study was to compare the antiperspirant efficacy and tolerability of a novel antiperspirant with 12.5% aluminium lactate, and a 12.5% aluminium chloride-based antiperspirant. This cohort study was conducted as a two-sided self-assessment comparison between both preparations in healthy volunteers to generate selfcare-related data. Almost half of the participants stated that aluminium chloride was more efficacious than aluminium lactate; 22% stated aluminium lactate was more efficacious than aluminium chloride; 28% observed no difference in the efficacy of both preparations (p = 0.04). However, 88% described greater tolerability with aluminium lactate (p < 0.0001). In this study, aluminium lactate showed significantly greater tolerability than aluminium chloride, although the latter tended to show slightly greater efficacy.


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes , Ácido Láctico , Cloreto de Alumínio , Compostos de Alumínio , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactatos , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(5): 523-528, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938689

RESUMO

Hyperhidrosis (HH) is defined as perspiration beyond the level required to maintain temperature regulation. HH affects nearly 4.8% of the population in the United States. It can have a great impact on patient’s quality of life by disturbing daily activity, performance, confidence, social interactions, and mental health. In the majority of patients with HH (93%), the etiology of excess sweating is idiopathic, which classifies it as primary focal HH. Mild HH may be controlled with topical antiperspirants and lifestyle modifications. Based on the location of involvement, iontophoresis and botulinum toxin may be considered if the patient does not respond to topical therapies. Despite minimizing sweating, chronic use of systemic anticholinergics, in particular oxybutynin, may result in detrimental adverse effects such as dementia. Local surgery, radiofrequency, microwave, and lasers are other potential modalities for HH. Sympathectomy can be a last resort for the treatment of focal HH of the palmar, plantar, axillary, and craniofacial areas after failure of less invasive therapeutic options. In this review, we conducted a comprehensive search in the PubMed electronic database to summarize an algorithmic approach for the treatment of HH. This can help broaden options for managing this difficult disease. J Drugs Dermatol. 20(5): doi:10.36849/JDD.5774.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/métodos , Hiperidrose/terapia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Antiperspirantes , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Dermatologia/normas , Humanos , Hiperidrose/diagnóstico , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Hiperidrose/psicologia , Iontoforese/métodos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Terapia por Radiofrequência/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Radiofrequência/instrumentação , Terapia por Radiofrequência/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glândulas Sudoríparas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Sudoríparas/efeitos da radiação , Simpatectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(8): 654-659, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861633

RESUMO

Background: Aluminum exposure may originate from numerous sources, including antiperspirants. Aluminum toxicity can cause a wide range of neurological impairments. Infants are exposed to aluminum through human milk (HM), formulas, total-parenteral-nutrition and vaccines. Due to potential risk of toxicity to both infants and women, it has been advised that lactating women decrease their use of aluminum-based products and antiperspirants. Our study aimed to determine whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirants (ABA) affects aluminum levels in HM. Methods: This cross-sectional study included healthy mothers who exclusively breastfed infants (1 week to 5 months). Questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics, antiperspirant use and aluminum exposure. Mothers were instructed to express HM during the morning at first breastfeeding session. Aluminum levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry with a 5 ppb limit of detection. Results: Fifteen of the 58 (26%) recruited mothers used an aluminum-free antiperspirant (AFA) and 43 (74%) used an ABA. The range of aluminum concentration in HM was 0-100.8 µg/L (mean 11.4 ± 17.4 µg/L). The median aluminum level (Q1-Q3) was 6.5 µg/L (5.2-11.9) and 5.2 µg/L (3.46-9.4) in the AFA and ABA groups, respectively (p = 0.19). The aluminum levels were not affected by maternal age, education, diet, number of children, infant age, lactation stage or self-reported aluminum exposure. Conclusion: The data from this preliminary study demonstrate that the use of an ABA by lactating mothers does not increase their HM aluminum content. Additional studies with a larger cohort are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Antiperspirantes , Alumínio/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Leite Humano/química
12.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(5): 613-619, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644863

RESUMO

Excessive sweating and body odors in many cultures can cause negative perceptions of an individual and in many cases is related to poor hygiene. Personal hygiene products have been developed with the intention of preventing these undesirable issues. The aim of this paper is to review the main active ingredients used in marketed deodorant and antiperspirant formulations as well as to identify new strategies and future methods to optimize such products and prevent malodor. PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were used to search for studies reporting the use of deodorants and antiperspirants, the compounds used in the formulations, their mechanisms of action and associated controversies, as well as new trends and approaches in the area. Even today, we are still using well-known and established actives such as triclosan and aluminum salts, and these are still the most used compounds in deodorants with bactericidal and antiperspirant properties. These substances have been on the market for more than 40 years, and still there are many questions concerning the safety of both actives. There is a general increased interest globally for lifestyles that focus on sustainability and more natural products such as plant sources and the use of, for example, essential oils. The research that focuses in the area of antiperspirants and deodorants is now more focused on studies of the armpit biochemistry and function and control of the microbiota present in this area. Other possible areas of interest are biotechnological solutions and finding new compounds that will interfere with the biochemistry of the process of sweat decomposition. Further approaches include formulations with probiotics which would maintain the balance of axillary microbiota.


Assuntos
Desodorantes , Microbiota , Antiperspirantes/efeitos adversos , Desodorantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Suor , Sudorese
14.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 43(2): 181-190, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Axillary wetness represents an unwanted effect of the physiologically vital sweating mechanism, especially when it becomes excessive. Cosmetic products reducing sweat secretion rely on aluminium salts as the active ingredient acting by physically blocking the sweat gland. Driven by the interest to better understand the sweat mechanism and to develop alternative technologies against excessive sweating a search for an effective testing approach started as up to now, cost- and time-consuming in vivo studies represent the standard procedure for testing and identifying these alternatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The herein described in vitro test system is based on the measurement of intracellular changes of the ion equilibrium in cultured eccrine sweat gland cells. Subsequently, in vivo studies on the back of volunteers were conducted to verify the sweat-reducing effect of in vitro newly discovered substance. RESULTS: In this study, we describe an effective cell-based in vitro method as a potent tool for a more targeted screening of alternatives to aluminium salts. Testing the commonly used aluminium chlorohydrate as one example of an aluminium-based active in this screening procedure, we discovered a distinct influence on the ion equilibrium: Intracellular levels of sodium ions were decreased while those of chloride increased. Screening of various substances revealed a polyethyleneimine, adjusted to pH 3.5 with hydrochloric acid, to evoke the same alterations in the ion equilibrium as aluminium chlorohydrate. Subsequent in vivo studies showed its substantial antiperspirant action and confirmed the high efficiency of the polyethyleneimine solution in vivo. Further, specific investigations connecting the chloride content of the tested substances with the resulting sweat reduction pointed towards a substantial impact of the chloride ions on sweating. CONCLUSION: The newly described in vitro cell-based screening method represents an effective means for identifying new antiperspirant actives and suggests an additional biological mechanism of action of sweat-reducing ingredients which is directed towards unbalancing of the ion equilibrium inside eccrine sweat gland cells.


OBJECTIF: l'humidité axillaire représente un effet indésirable du mécanisme physiologiquement vital de la sudation, en particulier lorsqu'elle devient excessive. Les produits cosmétiques réduisant la sécrétion de sueur reposent sur les sels d'aluminium comme principe actif agissant en bloquant physiquement la glande sudoripare. Motivée par l'intérêt de mieux comprendre le mécanisme de la sudation et de développer des technologies alternatives contre l'hypersudation, une recherche pour une approche de test efficace a commencé car, jusqu'à présent, les études in vivo coûteuses et chronophages représentent la procédure standard pour tester et identifier ces alternatives. MATÉRIELS ET MÉTHODES: le système de test in vitro décrit ici est basé sur la mesure des changements intracellulaires de l'équilibre ionique dans les cellules des glandes sudoripares exocrines cultivées. Par la suite, des études in vivo sur le dos de volontaires ont été menées pour vérifier l'effet réducteur de la sudation d'une substance nouvellement découverte in vitro. RÉSULTATS: dans cette étude, nous décrivons une méthode cellulaire efficace in vitro en tant qu'outil puissant pour un dépistage plus ciblé des alternatives aux sels d'aluminium. En testant le chlorohydrate d'aluminium couramment utilisé comme exemple d'un principe actif à base d'aluminium dans cette procédure de dépistage, nous avons découvert une influence distincte sur l'équilibre ionique : les taux intracellulaires d'ions sodium ont diminué tandis que ceux du chlorure ont augmenté. La recherche de diverses substances a révélé une polyéthylèneimine, ajustée au pH 3,5 avec de l'acide chlorhydrique, pour évoquer les mêmes altérations de l'équilibre ionique que le chlorohydrate d'aluminium. Des études in vivo ultérieures ont montré son action anti-transpirante substantielle et ont confirmé la haute efficacité de la solution de polyéthylèneimine in vivo. De plus, des études spécifiques établissant un lien entre la teneur en chlorure des substances testées et la réduction de la sudation qui en résulte ont indiqué que les ions chlorure ont un impact substantiel sur l'hypersudation. CONCLUSION: la nouvelle méthode de dépistage cellulaire in vitro décrite représente un moyen efficace d'identifier de nouveaux agents anti-transpirants actifs et suggère un mécanisme d'action biologique supplémentaire des ingrédients réducteurs de la sudation, dirigé vers le déséquilibre de l'équilibre ionique à l'intérieur des cellules des glandes sudoripares exocrines.


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes/farmacologia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/metabolismo , Glândulas Écrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Íons/metabolismo , Glândulas Sudoríparas/citologia
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 53403-53408, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191727

RESUMO

Metal-based antiperspirants have been in use for centuries; however, there is an increasing consumer demand for a metal-free alternative that works effectively. Here, we develop an artificial sweat duct rig and demonstrate an alternative, metal-free approach to antiperspiration. Instead of clogging sweat ducts with metal salts, we use a hygroscopic material to induce the evaporation of sweat as it approaches the outlet (i.e. pore) of the sweat duct. As a result, the sweat dehydrates almost completely while still being inside of the duct, forming a natural gel-like salt plug that halts the flow. We show that the critical pressure gradient within the duct (∼3 kPa), beneath which clogging occurs, can be rationalized by balancing the mass flow rates of the liquid (Poiseuille's law) and the evaporative vapor (Fick's law).


Assuntos
Órgãos Artificiais , Suor/química , Antiperspirantes/química , Antiperspirantes/farmacologia , Metais/química , Pressão , Sais/química , Sudorese/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Dermatitis ; 31(6): 335-349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186331

RESUMO

: Cutaneous exposure to aluminum may occur via contact with metal items, medications, and personal care products. Despite the widespread use of aluminum, allergic contact dermatitis is relatively rare. Sensitization is often incidentally identified during patch testing with aluminum-based chambers. This article presents several cases along with a literature review summarizing prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous reactions to aluminum, recommendations for patch testing, sources of aluminum, and reproducibility of aluminum allergy over time.


Assuntos
Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Antiácidos/química , Antiperspirantes/química , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Tatuagem , Cremes Dentais/química , Vacinas/química
17.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(12): 1128-1133, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether coating prosthesis liners with a 5% aluminium zirconium tetrachlorohydrate antiperspirant solution (AZCH) reduces local sweating on the thigh. DESIGN: Double-blinded counter-balanced crossover design METHODS: Fourteen able-bodied participants (age: 28±5 y; body mass: 73.9±7.9kg, height: 1.73±0.09m; peak oxygen consumption [VO2peak]: 50.7±9.1 mlO2⋅kg-1⋅min-1) simultaneously wore a prosthesis liner on each leg, one treated with AZCH and one untreated, for four days prior to running at 50% of VO2peak for 60min in a temperate (23.7±0.7°C and 42.2±2.6% relative humidity) or hot (34.0±1.6°C and 40.8±6.1% relative humidity) environment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and whole-body sweat rates (WBSR) were measured to characterize thermal strain. Local sweat rate (LSR) was measured bilaterally underneath the liners, continuously, and heat-activated-sweat gland density (HASGD) was measured bilaterally every 15min. RESULTS: In temperate condition, the mean change in Tre was 1.2±0.4°C and WBSR was 723±129g⋅h-1, whereas in the hot condition, change in Tre was 1.2±0.5°C and WBSR was 911±231g⋅h-1. In the temperate condition, AZCH treatment did not alter LSR (treated: 0.50±0.17 mg·cm-2min-1, untreated: 0.50±0.17 mg·cm-2min-1; P=0.87) or HASGD (treated: 54±14 glands·cm-2, untreated 55±14 glands·cm-2; P=0.38). In the hot condition, AZCH treatment paradoxically increased LSR (treated: 0.88±0.38 mg·cm-2min-1, untreated: 0.74±0.28 mg·cm-2min-1; P=0.04) but not HASGD (treated: 52±17 glands·cm-2, untreated: 48±19 glands·cm-2; P=0.77). CONCLUSION: These results indicate coating prosthesis liners with 5% AZCH is ineffective at reducing local sweating.


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes , Membros Artificiais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Roupa de Proteção , Suor/efeitos dos fármacos , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Soluções , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 147(5): 387-395, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248967

RESUMO

The terms deodorants and antiperspirants very frequently used interchangeably despite the fact that they employ completely different active substances and mechanisms of action. Antiperspirants are necessarily deodorants due to the lack of substrate to decompose. They nevertheless represent a group of very specific substances that create particular problems due to the presence of aluminium chlorohydrate, or ACH, (Al2(OH)5Cl, 2H2O), aluminium sesquichlorohydrate and aluminium-zirconium complex, which, after hydrolysis, causes intense acidification of the skin, hence the importance of inclusion of emollients and pH regulators in formulations. Moreover, systemic aluminium is thought to be genotoxic and to promote breast cancer, and it is thus at the centre of numerous scientific controversies. Nevertheless, its potential toxicity following topical application is related to its ability to penetrate skin, which is as yet poorly understood but considered very low, a fact that may provide some degree of reassurance regarding its use in cosmetic products. Its role in Alzheimer's disease has not been proven. On the other hand, zirconium salts are considered toxic and are partly regulated in Europe. The problems associated with deodorants are those arising from the presence of antiseptics (triclosan, usnic acid) capable of inducing bacterial resistance, but more particularly, the presence of axillary dermatitis due to the allergenic potential of the fragrances and essential oils used (e.g. isoeugenol, citronellal, lyral, cinnamic aldehyde, etc.).


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes , Desodorantes , Antiperspirantes/efeitos adversos , Antiperspirantes/química , Desodorantes/efeitos adversos , Desodorantes/química , Humanos
19.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol ; 33(1): 1-8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adverse health effects such as neurotoxic and carcinogenic effects through aluminum from cosmetic products have been repeatedly discussed. The dermal uptake and impact on the systemic aluminum load is still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of daily antiperspirant use on the systemic aluminum load under real-life conditions. METHODS: 21 healthy subjects meeting certain selection criteria to ensure a low systemic aluminum background load were asked to use a commercial aluminum-containing antiperspirant for 14 days. A questionnaire enquired about shaving habits and other sources of aluminum. Aluminum levels were measured before and after the exposure in 24-h urine and plasma using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Urine samples (n = 6) with <700 mg/day creatinine excretion or more than 30% difference in 24-h creatinine excretion were excluded from further analysis. RESULTS: No significant increase in plasma aluminum concentration or total excreted aluminum per day before and after exposure was measurable. No sample exceeded the reference values of the general population (maximum: 9.42 µg/g creatinine and 2.1 µg/L plasma). Shaving habits did not have a significant influence on the systemic aluminum load. Also, no correlation between the total amount of antiperspirant applied and the systemic aluminum level could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: No measurable contribution to the overall systemically available aluminum load due to daily use of an antiperspirant for 14 days could be shown, but real-life data concerning long-term use or higher concentrations are still lacking. Considering toxicological occupational exposure data, adverse neurotoxic changes are unlikely in the case of urinary excretion of <50 µg aluminum/g creatinine (= no observed adverse effect level), even following long-term exposure.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/farmacocinética , Alumínio/sangue , Alumínio/urina , Antiperspirantes/farmacocinética , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 4219-4226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828701

RESUMO

The present study assessed the exposure to methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) from antiperspirants in serum of 24 women aged 20-30 years old and an in vitro skin assay. An effective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of MP and PP levels in serum was developed and validated in the range of 10-100 µg/L; the method was fast, simple, sensitive, linear, precise, and accurate. In addition, a simple and rapid liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method for the determination of MP and PP levels in antiperspirants was developed and validated in the range of 2-26 mg/L, which presented satisfactory linearity, precision, and accuracy. Using these two methods, 20 commercial antiperspirants were evaluated, and only three showed MP and PP in the formulation. The antiperspirant containing 0.2% and 0.1% w/w MP and PP, respectively, was given to the volunteers, to estimate the internal dose, and submitted to a pig ear skin permeation assay in Franz diffusion cells, presenting a permeation flux of 32% for MP and 71% for PP. In this assay, both MP and PP permeated the skin; however, there was no correlation between antiperspirant use and paraben serum concentration in the volunteers. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antiperspirantes/análise , Parabenos/análise , Absorção Cutânea , Pele , Adulto , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Soro/química , Suínos , Adulto Jovem
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