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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113919, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731944

RESUMO

Coral bleaching has increasingly impacted reefs worldwide over the past four decades. Despite almost 40 years of research into the mechanistic, physiological, ecological, biophysical and climatic drivers of coral bleaching, metrics to allow comparison between ecological observations and experimental simulations still do not exist. Here we describe a novel metric - experimental Degree Heating Week (eDHW) - with which to standardise the persistently variable thermal conditions employed across experimental studies of coral bleaching by modify the widely used Degree Heating Week (DHW) metric used in ecological studies to standardise cumulative heat loading.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Recifes de Corais
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131711, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340115

RESUMO

The levels, fate, and potential sources of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in coral tissues and the surrounding air-seawater system from the South China Sea (SCS) were elucidated for the first time. ∑22OCPs (total concentration of 22 OCPs) (16.1-223 pg L-1) was relatively higher in coastal seawater than in offshore seawater, which may be the widespread influence of coastal pollution inputs under the western boundary current. The atmospheric ∑22OCPs were predominantly distributed in the gas phase (48.0-2264 pg m-3) and were mainly influenced by continental air mass origins. The air-seawater exchange of selected OCPs showed that OCPs tended to migrate from the atmosphere to seawater. The distribution of ∑22OCPs in coral tissues (0.02-52.2 ng g-1 dw) was significantly correlated with that in air samples, suggesting that OCPs may have a migration pattern of atmosphere-ocean corals in the SCS. Corals exhibited higher bioaccumulation ability (Log BAFs: 2.42-7.41) for OCPs. Source analysis showed that the new application of technical Chlordanes (CHLs) was primarily responsible for the current levels of CHLs in the surrounding environment over the SCS, while historical residues were the primary sources of other OCPs.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Água do Mar
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150178, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798733

RESUMO

Coral reefs are likely to be exposed to more intense cyclones under climate change. Cyclone impacts are spatially highly variable given complex hydrodynamics, and coral-specific sensitivity to wave impacts. Predicting reef vulnerability to cyclones is critical to management but requires high resolution environmental data that are difficult to obtain over broad spatial scales. Using 30m-resolution wave modelling, we tested cyclonic and non-cyclonic wave metrics as predictors of coral damage on 22 reefs after severe cyclone Ita impacted the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 2014. Analyses of coral cover change accounting for the type of coral along a gradient of vulnerability to wave damage (e.g., massive, branching, Acroporids) excluded cyclone-generated surface wave metrics (derived from wave height) as important predictors. Increased bottom stress wave environment (near-bed wave orbital velocity) due to Ita (Ita-Ub) explained spatial patterns of 17% to 46% total coral cover loss only when the initial abundance of Acroporids was accounted for, and only when exceeding 35% cover. Greater coral losses occurred closer to the cyclone path irrespective of coral type. Massive and encrusting corals, however, had losses exacerbated in higher non-cyclonic bottom-wave energy environments (nc-Ub). The effect of community composition on structural vulnerability to wave damage was more important predicting damage that the magnitude of the cyclone-generated waves, especially when reefs are surveyed well beyond where damaging waves are expected to occur. Exposure to Ita-Ub was greater in typically high nc-Ub environments with relatively low cover of the most fragile morphologies explaining why these were the least affected overall. We reveal that the common surface-wave metrics of cyclone intensity may not always be able to predict spatial impacts and conclude that reef vulnerability assessments need to account for chronic wave patterns and differences in community composition in order to provide predictive tools for future conservation and restoration.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Animais , Benchmarking , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 828, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796405

RESUMO

Within Pacific Small Island Developing States (Pacific SIDS), the ridge-to-reef (R2R) approach has emerged as a framework for monitoring river connectivity between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The study measured water quality, including pH, over 88.40 km of the Ba River in Fiji. The sampling design focused on measuring spatio-temporal variability in pH throughout the sugarcane season with three rapid sampling periods (RSP1, 2 & 3) along the Ba River, together with continuous measurement of temperature and pH using stationary data loggers at two locations upstream and downstream of the sugar mill. Spatial variability in pH and water quality was characterised before (RSP1 and RSP2) and during (RSP3) the sugarcane season. Mean pH measured before the sugarcane crushing season for RSP1 and RSP2 were 8.16 (± 0.49) and 8.20 (± 0.61) respectively. During the sugarcane crushing season (RSP3), mean pH declined by 3.06 units to 6.94 within 42 m downstream of the sugar mill (P ≤ 0.001). The 3.06 unit decline in pH for RSP3 exceeded both the mean diurnal variation in pH of 0.39 and mean seasonal variation in pH of 2.01. This decline in pH could be a potential source of acidification to downstream coastal ecosystems with implications for coral reefs, biodiversity and fishery livelihoods.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Saccharum , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fiji , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estações do Ano
5.
Zootaxa ; 4996(2): 283-300, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810531

RESUMO

A new cryptobenthic gobiid species Hetereleotris nasoramosa sp. nov. is described based on the holotype and five paratypes collected from the north-eastern part of Socotra Island, Arabian Sea, from moderately large pieces of coral rocks with holes at depths of 811 m. Molecular phylogenetic analysis placed the new species within the genus Hetereleotris. Hetereleotris nasoramosa sp. nov., differs from all species of Hetereleotris in having developed tentacles extending from each anterior and posterior nostril and five transverse suborbital papillae rows (instead four or six in other species). The new species superficially resembles the recently described Red Sea endemic species Cerogobius petrophilus by having forward-set, elevated eyes, a short snout, a moderately large mouth, a relatively deep and short caudal peduncle, and developed tentacles on the head, but differs from it by the same characters of developed tentacles extending from each anterior and posterior nostril and five transverse suborbital papillae rows as from other Hetereleotris species. Both species also share a specific habitat preference for tight holes in rock covered by micro-algae. A full description of the species is provided as well as a revised key to the species of Hetereleotris.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Oceano Índico , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 5047(3): 247-272, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810847

RESUMO

Bamboo corals are distinguished from most other octocorals by an articulated skeleton. The nodes are proteinaceous and sclerite-free while the internodes are composed of non-scleritic calcium carbonate. This articulation of the skeleton was thought to be unique and a strong synapomorphy for the family Isididae. Our phylogeny, based on the amplification of mtMutS and 18S, shows an articulating skeleton with sclerite-free nodes has arisen independently at least five times during the evolutionary history of Octocorallia rather than being a synapomorphy characteristic of a monophyletic bamboo coral clade. The family Isididae is currently composed of four subfamilies (Circinisidinae, Isidinae, Keratoisidinae, and Mopseinae). Not only is the family polyphyletic, but our genetic analyses suggest also the subfamily Isidinae is polyphyletic based on current taxonomic classifications, and Mopseinae is not monophyletic. The type, Isis, is found outside of the well-supported Calcaxonia Pennatulacea clade where the other members of Isididae cluster. The current classification of the family Isididae does not reflect the evolutionary history of an articulated skeleton. To better reflect the evolutionary history of these taxa we propose that three of the four the subfamilies, the genus Isidoides, and genera within the subfamily Isidinae, be elevated to family level to produce a classification with five families with a bamboo-like skeleton: Chelidonisididae, Isididae, Isidoidae, Keratoisididae, and Mopseidae.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Zootaxa ; 5047(1): 1-16, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811013

RESUMO

Tubastraea, commonly known as sun coral, is a genus of brightly coloured azooxanthellate corals in the family Dendrophylliidae. The diversity of this genus is low, with only seven recognized species. Herein, we describe Tubastraea megacorallita sp. nov. from Hong Kong based on morphological and molecular analyses. This new species exhibits several characteristics of the genus including being colonial, having a rough texture of corallum and no epitheca. It can be distinguished from its congenerics by bigger corallites, and the Pourtals plan arrangement of its septa. The rDNA gene sequences (consisting of ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, 18S and 28S) showed 2.455.18% divergence from those of its closest relatives, T. coccinea and T. micranthus.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Hong Kong
8.
Zootaxa ; 4999(5): 401-422, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811337

RESUMO

Five new species of deep-sea antipatharian corals are described from the North Pacific primarily collected off the coast of Alaska and on adjacent seamounts. All the species are referred to the family Schizopathidae. Described as new are: Alternatipathes mirabilis, Bathypathes ptiloides, Bathypathes tiburonae, Bathypathes alaskensis, and Parantipathes pluma. Illustrations of the type material of Bathypathes patula, B. patula var. plenispina and B. tenuis are provided for comparative proposes. Bathypathes patula var. plenispina is here recognized as a species distinct from B. patula, and B. tenuis is considered incertae sedis due to the poor condition of the type material.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Mirabilis , Animais
9.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3312-3319, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739787

RESUMO

Coral reefs are cornerstone of global marine ecosystems, providing shelter for over one third of marine organisms. Currently, along with global warming and increased human activities, large-scale decline of coral reefs has become a severe ecosystem problem, and now quantitative detection of heat shock protein (HSP) gene by nanotechnology has become a research hotspot in this field. However, Acropora muricata is one of the most important dominant reef-building corals in Indo- Pacific region, encounter an urgent obstacle on the HSP detection research by nanoscience and nanotechnology for lack of sequence background. Here, we combined PacBio single molecular real-time (SMRT) and HiSeq X Ten sequencing technologies to perform full-length transcriptome sequencing of heat shock proteins in Acropora muricata, a reef-building coral dominant in many Indo-Pacific reefs, to annotate them. Thirteen functional heat shock proteins (HSPs) were identified using phylogenetic analysis, classified into three subgroups as HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90. HSPs are widely distributed in all animal phyla, having evolved from the last prokaryotic common ancestor. Additionally, phylogenetic and tertiary nanostructure analyses suggested that HSP70 is the most diverse HSP in A. muricata, with extensive sequence and structure differences indicating adaptations to warming water and suggesting its utility in studies of El Niño and other warming events. A greater understanding of the HSP gene family is likely to also be of value in studies of coral nanotechnological detection that can be used to protect reef ecosystems.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Ecossistema , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Filogenia
10.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 815, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mRNA provisioning of oocytes regulates early embryogenesis. Maternal transcripts are degraded as zygotic genome activation (ZGA) intensifies, a phenomenon known as the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Here, we examine gene expression over nine developmental stages in the Pacific rice coral, Montipora capitata, from eggs and embryos at 1, 4, 9, 14, 22, and 36 h-post-fertilization (hpf), as well as swimming larvae (9d), and adult colonies. RESULTS: Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis revealed four expression peaks, identifying the maternal complement, two waves of the MZT, and adult expression. Gene ontology enrichment revealed maternal mRNAs are dominated by cell division, methylation, biosynthesis, metabolism, and protein/RNA processing and transport functions. The first MZT wave occurs from ~4-14 hpf and is enriched in terms related to biosynthesis, methylation, cell division, and transcription. In contrast, functional enrichment in the second MZT wave, or ZGA, from 22 hpf-9dpf, includes ion/peptide transport and cell signaling. Finally, adult expression is enriched for functions related to signaling, metabolism, and ion/peptide transport. Our proposed MZT timing is further supported by expression of enzymes involved in zygotic transcriptional repression (Kaiso) and activation (Sox2), which peak at 14 hpf and 22 hpf, respectively. Further, DNA methylation writing (DNMT3a) and removing (TET1) enzymes peak and remain stable past ~4 hpf, suggesting that methylome programming occurs before 4 hpf. CONCLUSIONS: Our high-resolution insight into the coral maternal mRNA and MZT provides essential baseline information to understand parental carryover effects and the sensitivity of developmental success under increasing environmental stress.


Assuntos
Antozoários , RNA Mensageiro Estocado , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , RNA Mensageiro Estocado/genética , Zigoto
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770603

RESUMO

The increasing integration of technology in our daily lives demands the development of more convenient human-computer interaction (HCI) methods. Most of the current hand-based HCI strategies exhibit various limitations, e.g., sensibility to variable lighting conditions and limitations on the operating environment. Further, the deployment of such systems is often not performed in resource-constrained contexts. Inspired by the MobileNetV1 deep learning network, this paper presents a novel hand gesture recognition system based on frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar, exhibiting a higher recognition accuracy in comparison to the state-of-the-art systems. First of all, the paper introduces a method to simplify radar preprocessing while preserving the main information of the performed gestures. Then, a deep neural classifier with the novel Depthwise Expansion Module based on the depthwise separable convolutions is presented. The introduced classifier is optimized and deployed on the Coral Edge TPU board. The system defines and adopts eight different hand gestures performed by five users, offering a classification accuracy of 98.13% while operating in a low-power and resource-constrained environment.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Radar , Algoritmos , Animais , Gestos , Mãos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
12.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 47-61, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789587

RESUMO

Sponges are fundamental components of coral reef communities and, unfortunately, like other major benthic members, they too have been impacted by epizootic and panzootic events. We report on the prevalence of disease-like conditions affecting populations of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta across shallow and mesophotic coral reefs off La Parguera Natural Reserve (LPNR) and Mona Island Marine Reserve (MIMR) in Puerto Rico. Four different conditions affecting X. muta were observed during our surveys, of which 3 have been previously reported: cyclic spotted bleaching (CSB; apparently non-lethal), Xestospongia-tissue wasting disease (X-TWD; apparently lethal), and sponge orange band disease (SOB; sparsely associated with X-TWD infected individuals). Additionally, we describe a fourth condition, Xestospongia-tissue hardening condition (X-THC), a previously unreported disease recently observed along the insular shelf margin off LPNR and MIMR. Within LPNR, a total of 764 specimens of X. muta were inspected and measured. Of these, 590 sponges (72.2%) had CSB, 25 (3.27%) had signs of X-TWD, 7 (0.92%) had SOB, and the remaining 142 (18.6%) were apparently healthy. Three colonies inhabiting upper mesophotic depths on the LPNR insular shelf showed signs of CSB and X-TWD. At MIMR, video-transect surveys revealed a total of 514 colonies, of which 40 (7.78%) had signs of CSB and/or XTWD, 14 (2.72%) were affected by X-THC, while the remaining 460 (89.5%) showed no external signs of disease and appeared healthy. The presence of 4 concomitant disease-like conditions in barrel sponges of Puerto Rico is alarming, and indicative of the deteriorating status of Caribbean coral reefs.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Xestospongia , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Porto Rico/epidemiologia
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105490, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628146

RESUMO

Emerging evidence have been supporting the idea that the better known South Atlantic coral reefs (located between 18°S and 24°S) are now essentially senescent structures that have experienced little or no additional vertical reef growth over the past millennia. This has often coincided with a shift to a dominance of non-coral calcifying organisms becoming the main CaCO3 producers in these high latitude and marginal marine settings. Here, we used Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) and census-based methods to measure non-coral rates of CaCO3 production on the geologically senescent reef and adjacent rhodolith beds within the southernmost subtropical Atlantic reef (i.e., Queimada Grande Reef, QGR). The reef habitat is currently producing CaCO3 at rates of ∼126 g m-2 yr-1. In contrast, fragments of dead corals skeletons deposited adjacent to the reef over the last ∼2000 years are now colonized by crustose coralline red algae. These form a rhodolith bed that produces CaCO3 at rates of 858 g m-2 yr-1. Our results indicate that, whilst not sufficient to promote active net framework accumulation, CaCO3 production by coralline algae and bryozoans on the QGR appears to be sufficient to at least limit net large-scale erosion of the underlying reef structure, allowing the reef structure to persist in a state close to budgetary stasis. Finally, our results are also of relevance for providing insights regarding the balance of CaCO3 production/dissolution/erosion processes in coral reefs, especially in these less understood marginal reefs.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Briozoários , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema
14.
Mar Genomics ; 60: 100877, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627550

RESUMO

The settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are the bottleneck of coral recruitment. They are critical for the extension of coral population, which is the basis of the restoration of degraded coral reef ecosystem. In this study, we described the genomic characteristics of Metabacillus sp. cB07, which can efficiently induce larvae settlement and metamorphosis of coral Pocillopora damicornis. This function is first reported in the genus Metabacillus. Strain cB07 was isolated from the coral Porites pukoensis, and comprised one circular chromosome of 4,148,576 bp (44.14 mol% G + C content), containing 4148 protein coding sequences. To explore the potential mechanism of coral larvae settlement and metamorphosis induced by Metabacillus sp. cB07, we predicted that numerous genes related to the bacterial inductive ability. The genome of Metabacillus sp. cB07 will be helpful for further insights into the mechanism of bacterial induction of settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Larva/genética , Metamorfose Biológica
15.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 145-156, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672264

RESUMO

Although research on coral diseases is increasing worldwide, it remains limited in Taiwan. Taiwan is located at the Tropic of Cancer and contains both tropical and subtropical reefs. We conducted spatial and cross-seasonal surveys in Taiwan in 2018 and identified 7 types of disease and nondisease lesions and 6 potential factors influencing coral health. The overall mean prevalence of disease and nondisease lesions varied considerably across the reef regions, and host susceptibility differed among the coral taxa. The overall mean prevalence of disease and nondisease lesions was highest in Kenting (mean ± SEM: 8.58 ± 1.81%) and lowest on the Southern Islands (2.12 ± 0.73%). Although the prevalence of diseases did not differ significantly between the seasons, cyanobacteria-related diseases-including black band disease (BBD), BBD-like syndrome, and other cyanobacterial syndromes-were slightly more prevalent in autumn than in spring. Furthermore, 3 of the potential factors influencing coral health (i.e. turf algae, bioeroding sponges, and coral bleaching) were strong predictors of disease and nondisease lesion prevalence. These results advance our understanding of coral disease ecology in Taiwan and highlight the need for further research on the correlations between diseases, hosts, and environment.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Cianobactérias , Animais , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112919, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706475

RESUMO

Anthropogenic debris (AD) including plastics, foams and fishing debris, are an undesirable accompaniment to beaches worldwide, arriving through direct deposition (littering) and oceanic transport. We investigated the standing stocks of 12 types of AD on inhabited islands, uninhabited islands and mainland locations, and the potential factors relating to AD deposition. We undertook beach-transects and sea-surface trawl surveys; comparing 13 uninhabited offshore islands, four inhabited/touristed coastal islands and 81 mainland beaches in Queensland, Australia. The abundance and type of AD differed between sites. Geographic factors had stronger relationships with AD density on islands than mainland beaches. Hard plastic density was linked with forcing from wind and sea surface currents. Beach width and onshore/side-shore forcing were the most important factors affecting AD loads (predominantly hard plastics) on islands. We found an inverse relationship between the density of beached plastic and plastic floating at the sea surface nearby and suggest that islands may act as a local sink for buoyant plastic.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Resíduos , Animais , Austrália , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Plásticos , Queensland , Resíduos/análise
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705938

RESUMO

The extensive marine biodiversity has proved to be a promising source of substances with biomedical potential. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the Brazilian octocoral Phyllogorgia dilatata (Gorgoniidae) was evaluated against two tumor cell lines and three bacterial strains. The methanol/dichloromethane crude extract presented no antibacterial activity up to the highest concentration tested (512 µg/mL), however it revealed a noteworthy antiproliferative effect against HCT-116 (80%) and MCF-7 (54%) cell lines at 50 µg/mL. Therefore, guided by the cytotoxic activity, a multistep chemical fractionation of the extract provided the subfraction 5 (PDPH2-5) with IC50 values of 3.18 and 17.80 µg/mL against HCT-116 and MCF-7, respectively. The LC-HRMS/MS analysis of PDPH2-5 showed ions of m/z 219.1742 and 219.1743, characterized as (E,E) and (Z,E) germacrone, after a LC-DAD-SPE/NMR analysis of the hexanic fraction and comparisons of NMR data with the literature. Previously reported assessments to the cytotoxic activity of the (E,E)-diastereoisomer disclosed higher IC50 values than that obtained for the PDPH2-5 fraction, suggesting, herein, a potentiated effect of the diastereoisomeric mixture. Such remark encourage further bioactivity studies with stereoisomer mixtures and reduce the urge for compound isolation.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Antineoplásicos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antozoários/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7
18.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641295

RESUMO

Due to sedentary lifestyle and harsh environmental conditions, gorgonian coral extracts are recognized as a rich source of novel compounds with various biological activities, of interest to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The presented study aimed to perform chemical screening of organic extracts and semi-purified fractions obtained from the common Adriatic gorgonian, sea fan, Eunicella cavolini (Koch, 1887) and explore its abilities to exert different biological effects in vitro. Qualitative chemical evaluation revealed the presence of several classes of secondary metabolites extended with mass spectrometry analysis and tentative dereplication by using Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking online platform (GNPS). Furthermore, fractions F4 and F3 showed the highest phenolic (3.28 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g sample) and carotene (23.11 ± 2.48 mg ß-CA/g sample) content, respectively. The fraction F3 inhibited 50% of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazolin-6-yl) sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentrations of 767.09 ± 11.57 and 157.16 ± 10.83 µg/mL, respectively. The highest anti-inflammatory potential was exhibited by F2 (IC50 = 198.70 ± 28.77 µg/mL) regarding the inhibition of albumin denaturation and F1 (IC50 = 254.49 ± 49.17 µg/mL) in terms of soybean lipoxygenase inhibition. In addition, the most pronounced antiproliferative effects were observed for all samples (IC50 ranging from 0.82 ± 0.14-231.18 ± 46.13 µg/mL) against several carcinoma cell lines, but also towards non-transformed human fibroblasts pointing to a generally cytotoxic effect. In addition, the antibacterial activity was tested by broth microdilution assay against three human pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The latter was the most affected by fractions F2 and F3. Finally, further purification, isolation and characterization of pure compounds from the most active fractions are under investigation.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Biológicos/química , Fatores Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Metabolismo Secundário , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634065

RESUMO

Mesophotic habitats could be sheltered from natural and anthropogenic disturbances and act as reproductive refuges, providing propagules to replenish shallower populations. Molecular markers can be used as proxies evaluating the connectivity and inferring population structure and larval dispersal. This study characterizes population structure as well as horizontal and vertical genetic connectivity of the broadcasting coral Pocillopora verrucosa from Ludao, a small oceanic island off the eastern coast of Taiwan. We genotyped 75 P. verrucosa specimens from three sites (Gongguan, Dabaisha, and Guiwan) at three depth ranges (Shallow: 7-15 m, Mid-depth: 23-30 m, and Deep: 38-45 m), spanning shallow to upper mesophotic coral reefs, with eight microsatellite markers. F-statistics showed a moderate differentiation (FST = 0.106, p<0.05) between two adjacent locations (Dabaisha 23-30 and Dabaisha 38-45 m), but no differentiation elsewhere, suggesting high levels of connectivity among sites and depths. STRUCTURE analysis showed no genetic clustering among sites or depths, indicating that all Pocillopora individuals could be drawn from a single panmictic population. Simulations of recent migration assigned 30 individuals (40%) to a different location from where they were collected. Among them, 1/3 were assigned to deeper locations, 1/3 to shallower populations and 1/3 were assigned to the right depth but a different site. These results suggest high levels of vertical and horizontal connectivity, which could enhance the recovery of P. verrucosa following disturbances around Ludao, a feature that agrees with demographic studies portraying this species as an opportunistic scleractinian.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Animais , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Geografia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade , Taiwan
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105505, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717128

RESUMO

Concrete cubic frames and decommissioned steel naval vessels have been deployed in Thailand liberally to act as artificial substrates for coral restoration and marine recreation. We assessed recruitment at such substrate types at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand, and compared the community structure of scleractinian corals between artificial substrates and nearby natural reefs. Our results from a sample of 2677 recruits from nine sites highlighted significant differences in community structure between both reef types. Investigations of variables including time since deployment, distance from the natural reef, and seafloor depth revealed only the latter as a possible influencing factor. The diversity of recruits could not be explained by dynamics in coral spawning, and were found to represent groups with lower structural complexity. Our results suggest that coral community structure on artificial and natural reefs differs and supports distinct ecological and functional roles.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Tailândia
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