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1.
Rev Infirm ; 70(274): 22-24, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565531

RESUMO

Long relegated to the background of modern medicine, food is now a major public health issue echoing to the old idea that what we eat is potentially a cure, or a poison. But, beyond its nutritional dimension, food takes on a set of facets that make up our unique identities that should not be overlooked in the context of care.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Alimentos , Humanos , Saúde Pública
3.
Hum Biol ; 92(3): 181-187, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057330

RESUMO

The study of human variation is central to both social and biomedical sciences, but social and biomedical scientists diverge in how variation is theorized and operationalized. Race is especially problematic because it is a cultural concept that contains implicit and explicit understandings of how collective bodies differ. In this moderately updated article, originally published in Human Biology in 2015 (vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 306-312), we propose an operationalization of race that addresses both racial experience and human biological diversity, placing them within the same ontological sphere. Furthermore, this approach can more effectively advance antiracist pedagogy and politics. We argue that human biological diversity does not have to be in opposition to constructivist notions of race. Rather, racial experience is emphasized as an embodied experience that is as real and as valid as biological variation. By focusing on both racial experience and biological diversity, it becomes more feasible to operationalize race to fruitfully inform the pedagogy and politics of antiracism. To do so, racial experience must be more broadly conceived and should not always equate to negative outcomes. With the recognition that racial experience has the potential to be something other than damaging, an antiracist anthropology can more effectively address issues pertaining to racial health disparities.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Biodiversidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Humanos , Política
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0248086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951047

RESUMO

Mass graves are usually key historical markers with strong incentive for archeological investigations. The identification of individuals buried in mass graves has long benefitted from traditional historical, archaeological, anthropological and paleopathological techniques. The addition of novel methods including genetic, genomic and isotopic geochemistry have renewed interest in solving unidentified mass graves. In this study, we demonstrate that the combined use of these techniques allows the identification of the individuals found in two Breton historical mass graves, where one method alone would not have revealed the importance of this discovery. The skeletons likely belong to soldiers from the two enemy armies who fought during a major event of Breton history: the siege of Rennes in 1491, which ended by the wedding of the Duchess of Brittany with the King of France and signaled the end of the independence of the region. Our study highlights the value of interdisciplinary approaches with a particular emphasis on increasingly accurate isotopic markers. The development of the sulfur isoscape and testing of the triple isotope geographic assignment are detailed in a companion paper [13].


Assuntos
Antropologia , Sepultamento , Datação Radiométrica , Paleopatologia
5.
Nature ; 592(7853): 193-194, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790435
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798098

RESUMO

Elucidating when Neanderthal populations disappeared from Eurasia is a key question in paleoanthropology, and Belgium is one of the key regions for studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Previous radiocarbon dating placed the Spy Neanderthals among the latest surviving Neanderthals in Northwest Europe with reported dates as young as 23,880 ± 240 B.P. (OxA-8912). Questions were raised, however, regarding the reliability of these dates. Soil contamination and carbon-based conservation products are known to cause problems during the radiocarbon dating of bulk collagen samples. Employing a compound-specific approach that is today the most efficient in removing contamination and ancient genomic analysis, we demonstrate here that previous dates produced on Neanderthal specimens from Spy were inaccurately young by up to 10,000 y due to the presence of unremoved contamination. Our compound-specific radiocarbon dates on the Neanderthals from Spy and those from Engis and Fonds-de-Forêt demonstrate that they disappeared from Northwest Europe at 44,200 to 40,600 cal B.P. (at 95.4% probability), much earlier than previously suggested. Our data contribute significantly to refining models for Neanderthal disappearance in Europe and, more broadly, show that chronometric models regarding the appearance or disappearance of animal or hominin groups should be based only on radiocarbon dates obtained using robust pretreatment methods.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Extinção Biológica , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(2): 267-273, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201869

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Chile ha experimentado un aumento de la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico (SM) entre la población adulta. Se sugiere que las manifestaciones fisiopatológicas de los componentes de este síndrome estarían relacionadas con el desarrollo de un posible ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico. OBJETIVO: determinar la frecuencia y las características del SM en una muestra de adultos después de un ACV isquémico. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo y transversal que consistió en revisar las variables relacionadas con el SM en 180 pacientes adultos ingresados a una clínica por ACV isquémico entre los años 2011 y 2017. Se consideraron las mediciones del peso y la talla para obtener el IMC y el estado nutricional. También se midieron la circunferencia de la cintura (CC), la presión arterial sistólica (PAS) y la diastólica (PAD), el colesterol total, el colesterol-HDL, el colesterol-LDL, los triglicéridos (TG) y la glucemia. RESULTADOS: el 62,8 % de la muestra presentaba SM. El IMC (IC: 28,5-29,9; p = 0,001), la CC (IC: 101,3-105,3; p = 0,001), la PAS (IC: 147,4-155,7; p = 0,000), la PAD (IC: 87,7-93,6; p = 0,000), la glucemia (IC: 132,9-159,2; p = 0,000) y los TG (IC: 181,2-228,8; p = 0,000) eran mayores en el grupo con SM. El colesterol-HDL (IC: 35,5-39,2; p = 0,000) era más bajo en este mismo grupo. La mayor edad (p = 0,007), el género masculino (p = 0,017) y el estado nutricional de exceso (p = 0,000) presentaron una asociación positiva con el SM. Entre los sujetos con SM, no hubo diferencias al comparar los componentes que definen el SM entre hombres y mujeres. CONCLUSIÓN: nuestros hallazgos revelan una alta frecuencia de SM en las personas adultas ingresadas a una clínica por diagnóstico de ACV isquémico


BACKGROUND: Chile has experienced an increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among the adult population. MS is proposed as a predictor for the occurrence of vascular defects causing ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency and characteristics of MS in a sample of adults after an ischemic ACV. METHODS: a descriptive, cross-sectional study that consisted of reviewing variables related to MS in 180 adult patients admitted to a clinic for an ischemic stroke between the years 2011 and 2017. Weight and height measurements were considered to obtain BMI and nutritional status. Waist circumference (CC), systolic (PAS) and diastolic blood pressure (PAD), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and glycemia were also measured. RESULTS: 62.8 % of the sample had MS. BMI (CI, 28.5-29.9; p = 0.001), CC (CI, 101.3-105.3; p = 0.001), PAS (CI, 147.4-155.7; p = 0.000), PAD (CI, 87.7-93.6; p = 0.000), glycemia (CI, 132.9-159.2; p = 0.000), and TG (CI, 181.2-228.8; p = 0.000) were higher in the group with SM. HDL-cholesterol (CI, 35.5-39.2; p = 0.000) was lower in this same group. Older age (p = 0.007), male gender (p = 0.017), and excess nutritional status (p = 0.000) had a positive association with MS. Of the subjects with MS, there were no differences obtained when comparing the components that define MS between men and women. CONCLUSION: our findings reveal a high frequency of MS in adults admitted to a clinic for ischemic stroke


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Estado Nutricional , Índice Glicêmico , Peso-Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropologia
11.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(2): 141-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689211

RESUMO

Among mammals, humans are exquisitely sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an environmentally pervasive bacterial cell membrane component. Very small doses of LPS trigger powerful immune responses in humans and can even initiate symptoms of sepsis. Close evolutionary relatives such as African and Asian monkeys require doses that are an order of magnitude higher to do the same. Why humans have evolved such an energetically expensive antimicrobial strategy is a question that biological anthropologists are positioned to help address. Here we compare LPS sensitivity in primate/mammalian models and propose that human high sensitivity to LPS is adaptive, linked to multiple immune tactics against pathogens, and part of multi-faceted anti-microbial strategy that strongly overlaps with that of other mammals. We support a notion that LPS sensitivity in humans has been driven by microorganisms that constitutively live on us, and has been informed by human behavioral changes over our species' evolution (e.g., meat eating, agricultural practices, and smoking).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sepse , Animais , Antropologia , Humanos , Primatas
12.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(3): 185-198, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764627

RESUMO

An accurate reconstruction of habitual activities in past populations and extinct hominin species is a paramount goal of paleoanthropological research, as it can elucidate the evolution of human behavior and the relationship between culture and biology. Variation in muscle attachment (entheseal) morphology has been considered an indicator of habitual activity, and many attempts have been made to use it for this purpose. However, its interpretation remains equivocal due to methodological shortcomings and a paucity of supportive experimental data. Through a series of studies, we have introduced a novel and precise methodology that focuses on reconstructing muscle synergies based on three-dimensional and multivariate analyses among entheses. This approach was validated using uniquely documented anthropological samples, experimental animal studies, histological observations, and geometric morphometrics. Here, we detail, synthesize, and critically discuss the findings of these studies, which overall point to the great potential of entheses in elucidating aspects of past human behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Cultural , Hominidae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia , Comportamento , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Estresse Ocupacional
13.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 79: 102137, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647534

RESUMO

Partially or totally skeletonized bodies are undoubtedly the most challenging scenario to deal with for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Indeed, in such cases, being able to figure out the cause and manner of death is often tricky. Human remains require to be washed and cleaned before a thorough assessment of any signs of trauma. However, bones and any fragment of more or less putrefied soft tissues may be home to crucial traces for investigative purposes. They are often located in the context of apparently meaningless dirt and, sometimes they are even invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, their careless cleaning inevitably leads to an unintentional loss of such traces with a negative impact on subsequent investigations. For these reasons before proceeding with cleaning, exhaustive examination and sampling must be carried out. In particular fragments of soft tissues, even if putrefied, are absolutely not to be considered as a hindrance for forensic purposes, since they could still provide valuable information after histological examination. Finally, forward-thinking professionals should think about the possible presence of exogenous micro-traces of forensic concern and collect specimens to be analyzed through in-depth analyses, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM/EDX). The present series of cases demonstrates that crucial forensic information can be obtained through the analysis of apparently meaningless residues and even of micro-traces not visible to the naked eye and mixed with trivial dirt.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Manejo de Espécimes , Antropologia , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Glicoforinas , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Cristalino , Masculino , Metais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espectrometria por Raios X , Coloração e Rotulagem
14.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(2): 128-140, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580579

RESUMO

Anthropogenic disruptions to animal sensory ecology are as old as our species. But what about the effect on human sensory ecology? Human sensory dysfunction is increasing globally at great economic and health costs (mental, physical, and social). Contemporary sensory problems are directly tied to human behavioral changes and activity as well as anthropogenic pollution. The evolutionary sensory ecology and anthropogenic disruptions to three human senses (vision, audition, olfaction) are examined along with the economic and health costs of functionally reduced senses and demographic risk factors contributing to impairment. The primary goals of the paper are (a) to sew an evolutionary and ecological thread through clinical narratives on sensory dysfunction that highlights the impact of the built environment on the senses, and (b) to highlight structural, demographic, and environmental injustices that create sensory inequities in risk and that promote health disparities.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Sensação/fisiologia , Órgãos dos Sentidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Antropologia , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , História Antiga , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Órgãos dos Sentidos/anatomia & histologia , Órgãos dos Sentidos/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414467

RESUMO

Rapid environmental change is a catalyst for human evolution, driving dietary innovations, habitat diversification, and dispersal. However, there is a dearth of information to assess hominin adaptions to changing physiography during key evolutionary stages such as the early Pleistocene. Here we report a multiproxy dataset from Ewass Oldupa, in the Western Plio-Pleistocene rift basin of Olduvai Gorge (now Oldupai), Tanzania, to address this lacuna and offer an ecological perspective on human adaptability two million years ago. Oldupai's earliest hominins sequentially inhabited the floodplains of sinuous channels, then river-influenced contexts, which now comprises the oldest palaeolake setting documented regionally. Early Oldowan tools reveal a homogenous technology to utilise diverse, rapidly changing environments that ranged from fern meadows to woodland mosaics, naturally burned landscapes, to lakeside woodland/palm groves as well as hyper-xeric steppes. Hominins periodically used emerging landscapes and disturbance biomes multiple times over 235,000 years, thus predating by more than 180,000 years the earliest known hominins and Oldowan industries from the Eastern side of the basin.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Meio Ambiente , Hominidae , Paleontologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Arqueologia , Biomarcadores , Carvão Vegetal , Dieta/história , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Plantas , Pólen , Tanzânia , Tecnologia
19.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(1): 40-49, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986264

RESUMO

The sharp distinction between biological traits and culturally based traits, which had long been standard in evolutionary approaches to behavior, was blurred in the early 1980s by mathematical models that allowed a co-dependent evolution of genetic transmission and cultural information. Niche-construction theory has since added another contrast to standard evolutionary theory, in that it views niche construction as a cause of evolutionary change rather than simply a product of selection. While offering a new understanding of the coevolution of genes, culture, and human behavior, niche-construction models also invoke multivariate causality, which require multiple time series to resolve. The empirical challenge lies in obtaining time-series data on causal pathways involved in the coevolution of genes, culture, and behavior. This is a significant issue in archeology, where time series are often sparse and causal behaviors are represented only by proxies in the material record.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Evolução Cultural , Modelos Biológicos , Antropologia , Indústria de Laticínios/história , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(1): 11-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104274

RESUMO

Recent discussions have revolved around the concept of ancestry and ancestry estimation; however, the associated terminology and its theoretical underpinnings have not been similarly examined. This research evaluates the concepts (e.g., race, ancestry, ethnicity) currently in use, examines if they are consistent with the groups employed to illustrate them (e.g., Black, European, Hispanic), and looks for patterns in language usage. Articles in the Anthropology, Odontology, and General sections of the Journal of Forensic Sciences between 2009 and 2019 were evaluated for ancestry-related language use. For each article, the concepts, examples, and bibliographic information were recorded, and the relationship between concept and example was examined. These data were cross-tabulated to evaluate relationships between the variables. Cramer's V was used to assess the strength of association of these relationships. In this sample, ancestry predominates, especially recently The concept used is significantly associated with all variables except publication date and authors' institution(s). Despite the prevalence of the ancestry concept, racially based terms for individual groups were common. The use of ancestry, over race, in forensic contexts has been suggested to be a primarily linguistic change; these results may support that assertion. Inconsistent language usage leads to a lack of clarity in meaning among researchers and misinterpretation of the data. It is critical to recognize that inconsistencies exist, but also to understand why they exist. These results underscore the long overdue need for the inclusion of diverse perspectives in forensic anthropology, especially in the current conversations surrounding ancestry and ancestry estimation.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Terminologia como Assunto , Antropologia , Ciências Forenses , Humanos
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