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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Fabaceae , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta , Insetos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMO

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Turnera , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta
6.
Biol Lett ; 18(4): 20220022, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440234

RESUMO

While ants are dominant consumers in terrestrial habitats, only the leafcutters practice herbivory. Leafcutters do this by provisioning a fungal cultivar (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) with freshly cut plant fragments and harnessing its metabolic machinery to convert plant mulch into edible fungal tissue (hyphae and swollen hyphal cells called gongylidia). The cultivar is known to degrade cellulose, but whether it assimilates this ubiquitous but recalcitrant molecule into its nutritional reward structures is unknown. We use in vitro experiments with isotopically labelled cellulose to show that fungal cultures from an Atta colombica leafcutter colony convert cellulose-derived carbon into gongylidia, even when potential bacterial symbionts are excluded. A laboratory feeding experiment showed that cellulose assimilation also occurs in vivo in A. colombica colonies. Analyses of publicly available transcriptomic data further identified a complete, constitutively expressed, cellulose-degradation pathway in the fungal cultivar. Confirming leafcutters use cellulose as a food source sheds light on the eco-evolutionary success of these important herbivores.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/microbiologia , Celulose , Fazendeiros , Herbivoria , Humanos , Simbiose
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(5): 284, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476294

RESUMO

Yeasts isolated from the worker caste of the Colombian leaf-cutting ant, Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae) were cultured and identified by molecular methods. Abundant, persistent, and omnipresent species were classified as "prevalent". Experimental data were compared with information gathered from published reports on the yeast species composition in other leaf-cutting ant species. Diversity analysis was conducted using diversity values (q0, q1, and q2) to compare the richness and abundance of yeasts present in different leaf-cutting ant species. Clustering analysis was carried out to assess the similarity of yeast community according to ant species. The yeast species composition was highly variable among the ant species. A. laevigata and A. capiguara showed the highest degree of similarity and differed from the group composed by A. cephalotes, A. sexdens, A. sexdens rubropilosa, and A. texana. The isolation of dominant yeasts in different ant castes within the different compartments of a colony strongly suggests that the identified microorganisms are not transient but are native to the soil surrounding ant colonies and the substrates used by the ants to grow their fungal cultivars. It is apparent that the ant-fungus mutualism does not operate in an environment devoid of other microbes, but rather that the association must be seen within the context of a background of other microorganisms, particularly the dominant yeasts.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/microbiologia , Colômbia , Classe Social , Simbiose , Leveduras/genética
8.
Am Nat ; 199(5): 636-652, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472027

RESUMO

AbstractMany organisms divide limited defenses among heterogeneous assets. Plants allocate defensive chemicals among tissues differing in value, cost of defense, and risk of herbivory. Some ant colonies allocate specialized defenders among multiple nests differing in volume, entrance size, and risk of attack. We develop a general mathematical model to determine the optimal strategy for dividing defenses among assets depending on their value, defendability, and risk of attack. We build on plant defense theory by focusing on defendability, which we define as the functional relationship between defensive investment and successful defense. We show that if hard-to-defend assets cost more to defend, as assumed in resource defense theory, the optimal strategy allocates more defenses to those assets, regardless of risk. Inspired by cavity-nesting ants, we also consider the possibility that hard-to-defend assets have a lower chance to be successfully defended, even when defensive investment is high. Under this assumption, the optimal response to elevated risk is to reduce defensive allocation to hard-to-defend assets, a conservative strategy previously observed in turtle ants (Cephalotes). This new perspective on defendability suggests that in systems where assets differ in the chance of successful defense, defensive strategies may evolve to be sensitive to risk in surprising ways.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Plantas
9.
Biol Lett ; 18(4): 20210518, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382584

RESUMO

Climate change is one of the primary agents of the global decline in insect abundance. Because of their narrow thermal ranges, tropical ectotherms are predicted to be most threatened by global warming, yet tests of this prediction are often confounded by other anthropogenic disturbances. We used a tropical forest soil warming experiment to directly test the effect of temperature increase on litter-dwelling ants. Two years of continuous warming led to a change in ant community between warming and control plots. Specifically, six ant genera were recorded only on warming plots, and one genus only on control plots. Wasmannia auropuctata, a species often invasive elsewhere but native to this forest, was more abundant in warmed plots. Ant recruitment at baits was best predicted by soil surface temperature and ant heat tolerance. These results suggest that heat tolerance is useful for predicting changes in daily foraging activity, which is directly tied to colony fitness. We show that a 2-year increase in temperature (of 2-4°C) can have a profound effect on the most abundant insects, potentially favouring species with invasive traits and moderate heat tolerances.


Assuntos
Formigas , Termotolerância , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Solo
10.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408553

RESUMO

Despite its cultural and nutritional importance for local Aboriginal people, the unusual insect honey produced by Western Australian honeypot ant (Camponotus inflatus) has to date been rarely investigated. This study reports on the honey's physicochemical properties, its total phenolic, major sugars and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural contents, and its antioxidant activities. The honey's color value is 467.63 mAU/63.39 mm Pfund, it has a pH of 3.85, and its electric conductivity is 449.71 µSiemens/cm. Its Brix value is 67.00, corresponding to a 33% moisture content. The total phenolics content is 19.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g honey. Its antioxidant activity measured using the DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing-antioxidant power) assays is 1367.67 µmol Trolox/kg and 3.52 mmol Fe+2/kg honey, respectively. Major sugars in the honey are glucose and fructose, with a fructose-to-glucose ratio of 0.85. Additionally, unidentified sugar was found in minor quantities.


Assuntos
Formigas , Mel , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Austrália , Frutose , Glucose , Mel/análise , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Açúcares
11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(4)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363317

RESUMO

Hybridization occupies a central role in many fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation or adaptation. Yet, despite its pivotal importance in evolution, little is known about the actual prevalence and distribution of current hybridization across the tree of life. Here we develop and implement a new statistical method enabling the detection of F1 hybrids from single-individual genome sequencing data. Using simulations and sequencing data from known hybrid systems, we first demonstrate the specificity of the method, and identify its statistical limits. Next, we showcase the method by applying it to available sequencing data from more than 1,500 species of Arthropods, including Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Archnida. Among these taxa, we find Hymenoptera, and especially ants, to display the highest number of candidate F1 hybrids, suggesting higher rates of recent hybridization between previously isolated gene pools in these groups. The prevalence of F1 hybrids was heterogeneously distributed across ants, with taxa including many candidates tending to harbor specific ecological and life-history traits. This work shows how large-scale genomic comparative studies of recent hybridization can be implemented, uncovering the determinants of first-generation hybridization across whole taxa.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/genética , Pool Gênico , Genoma , Genômica , Hibridização Genética
12.
Zootaxa ; 5105(2): 253-268, 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391303

RESUMO

The ant genus Monomorium is one of the most species-rich but taxonomically problematic groups in the hyperdiverse subfamily Myrmicinae. An East Asian species, M. triviale Wheeler, produces both reproductive queens and sterile workers via obligate thelytokous parthenogenesis. Here, we describe the immature forms of M. triviale based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations, with a note on the striking caste dimorphism in the last larval instar. The last-instar queen larvae were easily recognized by their large size, aphaenogastroid body shape, and rows of doorknob-like tubercles on the lateral and dorsal body surface. This type of queen-specific structure has not been found in ants in general, let alone congeneric species found in Japan. In stark contrast to the queen larvae, worker larvae showed a pheidoloid body shape and a body surface similar to other ants. The worker larvae were estimated to have three instars, consistent with previously described congeners. The pupae of both castes had no cocoon, a characteristic commonly described in other Myrmicinae species. In total, the developmental period from egg to adult worker averaged 59 days under 25C. We discuss possible functions of the tubercles of queen larvae based on previous studies.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Larva , Partenogênese , Pupa , Reprodução
15.
Zootaxa ; 5111(1): 1-211, 2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391389

RESUMO

The taxonomic knowledge of the pselaphine tribe Batrisini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from the Tibet Autonomous Region is summarized, with 80 species placed in 13 genera. Two genera and 68 species are described as new, aided with illustrations of habitus and diagnostic characters: Arthromelodes alpitorus sp. nov., A. angulatus sp. nov., A. aniqiao sp. nov., A. bicolor sp. nov., A. complexus sp. nov., A. cona sp. nov., A. crassicornis sp. nov., A. criniger sp. nov., A. cylindricus sp. nov., A. flosculus sp. nov., A. gyamda sp. nov., A. intricatus sp. nov., A. lage sp. nov., A. langjicuo sp. nov., A. latithorax sp. nov., A. lebus sp. nov., A. lotus sp. nov., A. markam sp. nov., A. monba sp. nov., A. nepaeformis sp. nov., A. nomurai sp. nov., A. songxiaobini sp. nov., A. speciosus sp. nov., A. torus sp. nov., A. zhangmu sp. nov., A. zhentangensis sp. nov., Batriscenaulax campestris sp. nov., Batrisiella acclivis sp. nov., Batrisiella beibeng sp. nov., Batrisiella bomea sp. nov., Batrisiella concisa sp. nov., Batrisiella curvitibialis sp. nov., Batrisiella ganma sp. nov., Batrisiella guttata sp. nov., Batrisiella zhujianqingi sp. nov., Batrisodes guoguotang sp. nov., Batrisodes hanmi sp. nov., Coryphomimus levigatus gen. et sp. nov., Coryphomodes budda sp. nov., Coryphomodes cephalicus sp. nov., Coryphomodes chenzhilini sp. nov., Gyrongita uniformis gen. et sp. nov., Sathytes aequalis sp. nov., S. asura sp. nov., S. caichenyangi sp. nov., S. dawai sp. nov., S. duojii sp. nov., S. laticornis sp. nov., S. pengzhongi sp. nov., S. proclivis sp. nov., S. pseudograndis sp. nov., S. sympatricus sp. nov., S. virupaksa sp. nov., S. yigongensis sp. nov., Tribasodites bari sp. nov., T. cellulanus sp. nov., T. constrictus sp. nov., T. dilophus sp. nov., T. elongatus sp. nov., T. grandiceps sp. nov., T. gyirong sp. nov., T. kiypu sp. nov., T. mirabilis sp. nov., T. prolixicornis sp. nov., T. pugiunculus sp. nov., T. vertexalis sp. nov., T. yatung sp. nov., and Trisinus quadrilobus sp. nov. The genus Plocamarthrus Jeannel, 1960 is proposed as a subjective junior synonym of Arthromelodes Jeannel 1954, syn. nov., resulting in Arthromelodes championi (Jeannel, 1960) comb. nov. (type species of Plocamarthrus), A. cameroni (Jeannel, 1960) comb. nov., A. planiceps (Jeannel, 1960) comb. nov., and A. abdominalis (Jeannel, 1960) comb. nov. Arthromelodes championi and Sathytes simplex Lbl, 1979 are reported to occur in Tibet, which are also new country records for China. Additional collecting data are provided for Hingstoniella lata Jeannel, 1960, Sathytes panzhaohuii Yin Shen, 2020, Sathytes transversus Yin Shen, 2020, and Sathytes xizangensis Yin Shen, 2020. Keys for identification of the genera and species are presented. Maps showing the distribution of each species are provided, supplemented with habitat photos. Lists of Tibetan species of Batrisini and of other pselaphine groups are given, adding up to 95 species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Tibet
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5970, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396496

RESUMO

Biological invasions are a grave threat to ecosystems. The black garden ant (Lasius niger) is a pest species in Europe. Current literature states that L. niger occupies a disjunct native distribution in the Holarctic, however, based on recent work, we re-evaluate this distribution. The native range of L. niger is reconsidered based on phylogenetic relationships (nine mitochondrial and nuclear markers, 5670 bp), DNA-barcoding (98 Holarctic specimens), morphometry (88 Holarctic specimens, 19 different measurements) and subjective assessment of phenotype. The potential spread of this species is estimated using ecological niche modeling. Lasius niger is more closely related to other Palearctic species than to the Nearctic ants known under this name. The latter are described as a distinct species, L. ponderosae sp. nov. However, DNA-barcoding discovered established populations of L. niger in metropolitan areas in Canada (Vancouver and Halifax). We describe a morphometrical method to delineate L. ponderosae sp. nov. and L. niger. MtDNA diversity and divergence is high within L. ponderosae sp. nov., but low within L. niger. More than 1,000,000 km2 are suitable as a habitat for L. niger in North America. This case emphasizes the critical role of integrative taxonomy to detect cryptic species and identify potential biological invasions in their nascent stages.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Filogenia
17.
Elife ; 112022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384839

RESUMO

A key hypothesis for the occurrence of senescence is the decrease in selection strength due to the decrease in the proportion of newborns from parents attaining an advanced age - the so-called selection shadow. Strikingly, queens of social insects have long lifespans and reproductive senescence seems to be negligible. By lifelong tracking of 99 Cardiocondyla obscurior (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) ant colonies, we find that queens shift to the production of sexuals in late life regardless of their absolute lifespan or the number of workers present. Furthermore, RNAseq analyses of old queens past their peak of reproductive performance showed the development of massive pathology while queens were still fertile, leading to rapid death. We conclude that the evolution of superorganismality is accompanied by 'continuusparity,' a life history strategy that is distinct from other iteroparous and semelparous strategies across the tree of life, in that it combines continuous reproduction with a fitness peak late in life.


Assuntos
Formigas , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Fertilidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Longevidade , Reprodução
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1851): 20210146, 2022 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369748

RESUMO

Interspecific competition influences the composition of ecological communities. Species may differ in their needs for different resources, therefore resource availability may determine the outcome of interspecific interactions. Species often compete over food, shelter or both. When more than one resource is limited, different species may prioritize different resources. To determine the impact of resource availability on the competitive relationship between an invasive and a native species, we examined interactions between groups of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the native odorous ant (Tapinoma sessile) over (1) food, (2) shelter or (3) both simultaneously. We further examined the mechanisms underlying the competitive relationship, asking whether aggressive interactions, exploratory behaviour or the order of arrival at a resource explained resource use. Shelter was preferred by both species when no competitors were present. In a competitive setting, L. humile groups controlled shelter through aggressive displacement but lost control over food due to investment of workers in the control of shelter. Thus, there are tradeoffs when competing over multiple resources and aggressive interactions allow invasive species to displace native species from a preferred resource. This article is part of the theme issue 'Intergroup conflict across taxa'.


Assuntos
Formigas , Agressão , Animais , Ecologia , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267547, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486575

RESUMO

Temperature and competition are two of the main factors determining ant community assemblages. Temperature may allow species to forage more or less efficiently throughout the day (in accordance with the maximum activity temperature of each species). Competition can be observed and quantified from species replacements occurring during resource exploitation. We studied the interspecific competitive interactions of ant communities from the Doñana Biological Reserve (southern Spain). Ants were sampled from pitfall traps and baits in three habitats with contrasted vegetation physiognomy (savin forest, pine forest, and dry scrubland). We measured the temperature during the competitive interactions between species and created a thermal competition index (TCI) to assess the relative contribution of temperature and numerical dominance to the competitive outcomes. Temperature had unequal effects on ant activity in each type of habitat, and modulated competitive interactions. The TCI showed that a species' success during pair interactions (replacements at baits) was driven by the proportion of workers between the two competing species and by the species-specific effect of temperature (how advantageous the temperature change is for each species during bait replacement). During competitive interactions, the effect of temperature (higher values of TCI) and numeric supremacy (higher worker proportion) gave higher success probabilities. Interspecific competitive relationships in these Mediterranean ant communities are habitat dependent and greatly influenced by temperature.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
20.
Science ; 376(6591): 359, 2022 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446641

RESUMO

There is much to learn from the farming practices of ants, termites, and other insects.


Assuntos
Formigas , Falconiformes , Isópteros , Agricultura , Animais , Humanos , Insetos
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