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1.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 823-835, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665774

RESUMO

Access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation is considered as a basic human right. Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin (Rural), launched by the Government of India in 2014, is hailed as an attempt towards that direction. On 2nd October 2019, India was declared free from open defecation, with rural households having full toilet coverage. However, despite Government claims, the existing literature indicates the presence of slippage: where households practice open defecation despite having access to toilets. Equating progress in sanitation interventions with mere toilet provision presents a partial assessment of sanitation. To address the gap, the 'Sanitation Well-being' framework, based on Amartya Sen's concept of justice, has been proposed. It identifies slippage as an outcome of various underlying factors across the sanitation life-cycle. The framework provides a lens to analyse existing frameworks and secondary data sets and finds that they do not capture the dynamism inherent in the sector. The efficacy of the framework has been tested in the rural district of Shravasti, Uttar Pradesh, India, through the rapid rural appraisal method. Through our investigation, we found that slippage exists in the field, and that the framework is a feasible instrument to assess sanitation as a comprehensive phenomenon.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Saneamento , Características da Família , Humanos , Índia , População Rural , Justiça Social , Toaletes
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0253115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that whereas repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) programs have reduced schistosomiasis prevalence to appreciable levels in some communities referred to here as responding villages (R). However, prevalence has remained high or less than anticipated in other areas referred to here as persistent hotspot villages (PHS). Using a cross-sectional quantitative approach, this study investigated the factors associated with sustained high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in some villages despite repeated high annual treatment coverage in western Kenya. METHOD: Water contact sites selected based on observation of points where people consistently go to collect water, wash clothes, bathe, swim or play (young children), wash cars and harvest sand were mapped using hand-held smart phones on the Commcare platform. Quantitative cross-sectional surveys on behavioral characteristics were conducted using interviewer-based semi-structured questionnaires administered to assess water usage/contact patterns and open defecation. Questionnaires were administered to 15 households per village, 50 pupils per school and 1 head teacher per school. One stool and urine sample was collected from 50 school children aged 9-12 year old and 50 adults from both responding (R) and persistent hotspot (PHS) villages. Stool was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for eggs of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Urine samples were tested using the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for detection of S. mansoni antigen. RESULTS: There was higher latrine coverage in R (n = 6) relative to PHS villages (n = 6) with only 33% of schools in the PHS villages meeting the WHO threshold for boy: latrine coverage ratio versus 83.3% in R, while no villages met the girl: latrine ratio requirement. A higher proportion of individuals accessed unprotected water sources for both bathing and drinking (68.5% for children and 89% for adults) in PHS relative to R villages. In addition, frequency of accessing water sources was higher in PHS villages, with swimming being the most frequent activity. As expected based upon selection criteria, both prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni were higher in the PHS relative to R villages (prevalence: 43.7% vs 20.2%; P < 0.001; intensity: 73.8 ± 200.6 vs 22.2 ± 96.0, P < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Unprotected water sources and low latrine coverage are contributing factors to PHS for schistosomiasis in western Kenya. Efforts to increase provision of potable water and improvement in latrine infrastructure is recommended to augment control efforts in the PHS areas.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural , Esquistossomose/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urina/parasitologia
3.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(4): 393-397, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470090

RESUMO

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Helmintos , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Humanos , República da Coreia , Solo , Trichuris
4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(2): 210-216, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale (m-BSFS) is reliable, valid and user-friendly to use by parents, grandparents, and day childcare employees to evaluate stool consistency in toilet and nontoilet-trained toddlers in the Netherlands. STUDY DESIGN: Translation to Dutch and validity of the m-BSFS (scoring 32 general stool pictures) for 1 to 3 year old toddlers (n = 89) was evaluated by parents, grandparents, and day childcare employees. A subgroup of participants scored an additional 7 pictures of stools in a diaper to validate the m-BSFS for non-toilet-trained toddlers (n = 16). To determine inter-rater reliability, 2-way random effects single-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)consistency was used. Intra-rater reliability was measured by Cohen kappa (κ) by rating the same pictures in random order twice, with at least 1 week between the first and second scoring. RESULTS: Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the m-BSFS were above recommended minimal standards of 0.61 for the 32 general stool pictures as well as for the 7 pictures of stools in a diaper. ICCconsistency for the general stool pictures of the first and second ratings were 0.71 (n = 89) and 0.79 (n = 77), respectively, with a κ of 0.71 (n = 77). ICCconsistency for the stools in diaper pictures of the first and second ratings were 0.93 (n = 16) and 0.93 (n = 15), respectively, with a κ of 0.77 (n = 15). CONCLUSIONS: The m-BSFS is reliable, valid and user-friendly to use by Dutch-speaking parents, grandparents, and day childcare workers to evaluate stool consistency in both toilet- and nontoilet-trained toddlers in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Irrigação Terapêutica
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209616

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the management of non-communicable diseases in health systems around the world. This study aimed to understand the impact of COVID-19 on diabetes medicines dispensed in Australia. Publicly available data from Australia's government subsidised medicines program (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme), detailing prescriptions by month dispensed to patients, drug item code and patient category, was obtained from January 2016 to November 2020. This study focused on medicines used in diabetes care (Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical code level 2 = A10). Number of prescriptions dispensed were plotted by month at a total level, by insulins and non-insulins, and by patient category (general, concessional). Total number of prescriptions dispensed between January and November of each year were compared. A peak in prescriptions dispensed in March 2020 was identified, an increase of 35% on March 2019, compared to average growth of 7.2% in previous years. Prescriptions dispensed subsequently fell in April and May 2020 to levels below the corresponding months in 2019. These trends were observed across insulins, non-insulins, general and concessional patient categories. The peak and subsequent dip in demand have resulted in a small unexpected overall increase for the period January to November 2020, compared to declining growth for the same months in prior years. The observed change in consumer behaviour prompted by COVID-19 and the resulting public health measures is important to understand in order to improve management of medicines supply during potential future waves of COVID-19 and other pandemics.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carne , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148660, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218147

RESUMO

The ongoing Toilet Revolution in China offers an opportunity to improve sanitation in rural areas by introducing new approaches, such as urine source separation, that can contribute to achieving SDG6. However, few studies have systematically assessed the social acceptability of managing human excreta collected in new sanitation systems. Therefore, in this study we performed face-to-face interviews with 414 local residents from 13 villages across three provinces in western China, to analyze the current situation and attitudes to possible changes in the rural sanitation service chain. We found that the sanitation chain was predominantly pit latrine-based, with 86.2% of households surveyed collecting their excreta in a simple pit, 82% manually emptying their pits, and 80.2% reusing excreta in agriculture without adequate pre-treatment. A majority (72%) of the households had a generally positive attitude to production of human excreta-derived fertilizer, but only 24% agreed that urine and feces should be collected separately. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that three factors (level of education, number of permanent household residents, perceived social acceptability) significantly influenced respondents' attitudes to reuse of excreta, although only perceived social acceptability had a high strength of association. Overall, our survey revealed that rural households often misuse toilet systems, fail to comply with government-specified sanitation guidelines, have low awareness of alternative solutions, and are over-reliant on the government to fix problems in the service chain. Thus while new sanitation technologies should be developed and implemented, information campaigns that encourage rural households to manage their excreta safely are also important.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Saneamento , Atitude , China , Humanos , População Rural , Toaletes
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12999, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155278

RESUMO

An ever-increasing number of medical staff use mobile phones as a work aid, yet this may pose nosocomial diseases. To assess and report via a survey the handling practices and the use of phones by paediatric wards healthcare workers. 165 paediatric healthcare workers and staff filled in a questionnaire consisting of 14 questions (including categorical, ordinal and numerical data). Analysis of categorical data used non-parametric techniques such as the Chi-squared test. Although 98% of respondents (165 in total) report that their phones may be contaminated, 56% have never cleaned their devices. Of the respondents that clean their devices, 10% (17/165) had done so with alcohol swabs or disinfectant within that day or week; and an additional 12% respondents (20/165) within that month. Of concern, 52% (86/165) of the respondents use their phones in the bathroom, emphasising the unhygienic environments in which mobile phones/smartphones are constantly used. Disinfecting phones is a practice that only a minority of healthcare workers undertake appropriately. Mobile phones, present in billions globally, are therefore Trojan Horses if contaminated with microbes and potentially contributing to the spread and propagation of micro-organisms as per the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the world.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário/virologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Telefone Celular/instrumentação , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Hospitais Pediátricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(2): e20201040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of two methods of hospital bedpan reprocessing. METHODS: cross-sectional study. Hospital bedpans containing a biological material contamination simulator or organic matter were submitted to manual cleaning followed by disinfection with 70% alcohol solution or thermodisinfection. Permanence of simulated contamination was evaluated by using the fluorescence technique and presence of organic matter was verified by carrying out the protein detection test. RESULTS: the contamination simulator was found in bedpans submitted to both processes. The seat was dirtier after manual cleaning (p=0.044) in comparison with the result obtained with thermodisinfection. Automatized decontamination led to worse results when compared to the manual procedure for the scoop and external bottom (p=0.000). The protein detection test was positive in two items after thermodisinfection. CONCLUSIONS: manual cleaning followed by rubbing with 70% alcohol solution proved more effective than automatized cleaning in the reprocessing of hospital bedpans. There are relevant issues regarding reuse of hospital bedpans.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Infecção Hospitalar , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Hospitais , Humanos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148341, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146809

RESUMO

Public toilets and bathrooms may act as a contact hub point where community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs between users. The mechanism of spread would arise through three mechanisms: inhalation of faecal and/or urinary aerosol from an individual shedding SARS-CoV-2; airborne transmission of respiratory aerosols between users face-to-face or during short periods after use; or from fomite transmission via frequent touch sites such as door handles, sink taps, lota or toilet roll dispenser. In this respect toilets could present a risk comparable with other high throughput enclosed spaces such as public transport and food retail outlets. They are often compact, inadequately ventilated, heavily used and subject to maintenance and cleaning issues. Factors such as these would compound the risks generated by toilet users incubating or symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, toilets are important public infrastructure since they are vital for the maintenance of accessible, sustainable and comfortable urban spaces. Given the lack of studies on transmission through use of public toilets, comprehensive risk assessment relies upon the compilation of evidence gathered from parallel studies, including work performed in hospitals and prior work on related viruses. This narrative review examines the evidence suggestive of transmission risk through use of public toilets and concludes that such a risk cannot be lightly disregarded. A range of mitigating actions are suggested for both users of public toilets and those that are responsible for their design, maintenance and management.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , COVID-19 , Aerossóis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Toaletes
10.
Water Environ Res ; 93(10): 1837-1845, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153156

RESUMO

Prior measurements at bench scale revealed that waterless urinal cartridges containing oily sealant fluids are capable of partitioning pharmaceuticals from urine and therefore reducing their concentration in wastewater. We sought to measure pharmaceutical removal from in-use waterless urinals. We developed a method to quantify pharmaceuticals in the sealant phase, which resulted in 79 ± 30% and 71 ± 30% recovery of eight pharmaceuticals from two sealant fluids, respectively. The method was applied to sealant samples collected over three weeks from in-use waterless urinals on a university campus. Six of eight pharmaceuticals were present in the sealant samples from 1.4 µg/L to 241 µg/L. Loads of the six pharmaceuticals detected in the sealants were removed from the receiving wastewater from 0.02 µg/day to 3.4 µg/day across the sampling period. The concentration of the pharmaceuticals were similar over time, indicating rapid saturation and washout of the sealant. We also observed relatively rapid loss of sealant at maintenance intervals consistent with the manufacturer's instructions. These findings indicate that while waterless urinals do remove some pharmaceuticals from the wastewater stream, meaningful changes to wastewater concentrations will only result if the sealant fluid and/or the urinal cartridge are significantly modified. PRACTITIONER POINTS: We developed a quantification method for pharmaceuticals in oily waterless urinal sealants. Pharmaceuticals were present at relatively low concentrations in the sealant phase of two in-use waterless urinals. We identify engineering challenges that must be overcome to meaningfully reduce pharmaceutical loads in wastewater with waterless urinals.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210600. 28 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1253799

RESUMO

La guía contiene los procedimientos sanitarios para la prevención y control de la COVID-19 en los viajeros que ingresan y salen del país por vía aérea, terrestre y fluvial en el contexto de la Emergencia Sanitaria por la pandemia de la COVID-19. Incluye modificatorio con R.M. N° 831-2021.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Controle , COVID-19 , Guias como Assunto
12.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(2): 85-93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092718

RESUMO

Toilet malodor is one of the most concerned malodor in residential houses, so that many technologies and products have been developed by which is aiming to remove or reduce such toilet malodor. Toilet malodour is generated from human faecal matters left inside of toilet bowl and from that deposited outside of toilet bowl such as toilet floors. In order to remove or prevent the malodor generated outside of toilet bowl, it is effective to do more frequent cleaning of toilet room surfaces or place a deodorizer which mask the malodour by perfume. We developed a toilet deodorizer which is preventing malodor generation outside of toilet bowl more effectively by delivering antibacterial efficacy on toilet room permeable surfaces. We analyzed microbiological quality of residential toilet rooms and found that toilet floor is the most contaminated location by bacteria, so that we developed a test method using materials frequently used for residential toilet floors such as vinyl cushion and using bacteria commonly found in toilet room environment. As the results, we found the product can provide bacterial growth prevention efficacy on permeable materials and prevent toilet malodor effectively.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Bactérias , Humanos
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 303: 114062, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175712

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic led to panic buying in many countries across the globe, preventing vulnerable groups from accessing important necessities. Some reports inaccurately referred to the panic buying as hoarding. Although hoarding is a separate issue characterised by extreme saving behaviour, the two problems may be influenced by similar factors. Participants from Australia and the United States (final N = 359) completed online self-report measures of panic buying, hoarding, shopping patterns, perceived scarcity, COVID-19 illness anxiety, selfishness, and intolerance of uncertainty. Our findings showed that panic buying was related to hoarding symptoms (r's = .23 - .36), and yet, both were uniquely associated with different psychological factors. Whilst panic buying was most strongly related to greater perceived scarcity (r's = .38 - .60), hoarding was most related to a general intolerance of uncertainty (r's = .24 - .57). Based on our findings, future strategies to prevent panic buying should focus on reducing perceived scarcity cues in the community, as this seems to be the primary driver of panic buying. Another preventative strategy to reduce excessive acquiring and saving may be to implement educational programs to increase people's ability to tolerate distress and uncertainty.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , COVID-19 , Colecionismo , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(11): 3317-3324, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999258

RESUMO

Poor quality of school toilets is reportedly an issue in many countries and has been correlated with toilet refusal in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between perceived school toilet quality, behaviour regarding toilet visits, and symptoms of bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD). Pupils in Danish schools were invited to complete online questionnaires regarding toilet behaviour, perception of school toilet standards/quality, and symptoms of BBD. Teachers at the same schools were asked about the quality of the toilets. We recruited 19,577 children from 252 different schools. More than half of the children (50% boys and 60% girls) were dissatisfied with the toilet facilities. One-fourth of the children (28% of girls, 23% of boys) reported avoiding the use of school toilets. We found a strong correlation between being dissatisfied with school toilets, toilet avoidance, and symptoms of BBD.Conclusion: The majority of Danish children are unhappy with their school toilet facilities. Symptoms of BBD are associated with subjective toilet dissatisfaction and toilet visit postponement. Because children spend a significant part of their day at school, access to satisfactory toilet facilities is of utmost importance for their well-being. What is Known • Bladder and bowel dysfunction is common in childhood with urinary incontinence, constipation, and faecal incontinence being cardinal symptoms. • Behaviour regarding toilet visits contributes to the aetiology, and we know that toilet avoidance can lead to abnormal bladder and bowel function. What is New • Most children are not satisfied with their school toilets, and many avoid toilet visits. • Dissatisfaction with the school toilets is related to toilet avoidance and bladder and bowel dysfunction in school children regardless of age and gender.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes , Bexiga Urinária
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251696, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014969

RESUMO

The provision of adequate and equitable sanitation services is one of the world's urgent challenges. Optimizing the layout of tourist toilets is key to both meeting the sanitation demand of the visiting public and building an inclusive and civilised society. Nevertheless, the need for a consistent optimization of tourist toilets is overlooked in developing countries, especially in ethnic regions that are highly dependent on tourism. Taking Dunhua, a city in an ethnic region renowned for tourism on China's border with North Korea as an example, this study enables an optimization framework of a comprehensive tourist toilet layout based on Holling's concept of resilience by constructing an AHP index, obtaining Point of Interest (POI) data through Python, and aided by GIS visual analysis and Location-allocation (LA) modelling, aiming to support scientific planning and decision making of public facilities in tourist destinations like Dunhua. It also serves as a reference for places of tourism in other countries dedicated to promoting ecotourism and public health.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Saúde Pública , Saneamento , Turismo , China , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Humanos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920238

RESUMO

Due to the fixed size of the structure or the possibility of only simple manual adjustment, the traditional toilet wheelchair cannot easily be adapted to the size of the user or the toilet. In this paper, a planar two-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism with coupling branch chains is proposed to enable both seat height adjustment and body posture adjustment of a toilet chair, solving the problems of posture adaptability between the user and the machine, and height matching in the process of using the wheelchair-assisted toilet. The model of the parallel mechanism was designed after analyzing the general rules of posture transformation in the human body before and after the toilet process, and the dimensions of each linkage were then determined according to the constraint conditions. By analyzing the degree of freedom, kinematics, workspace, singularity and position of the center of gravity, the rationality of the design was ensured. The weighted average function was used to find the optimal fixed point of the horizontal moving slider, and the actual trajectory at the end of the single driving mode was close to the ideal trajectory. The experimental results show that the adjustable seat height range is 290~550 mm and the adjustable angle range is 0~90°, which can enable disabled people to use the toilet independently.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Pessoas com Deficiência , Cadeiras de Rodas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Postura
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(32): 43842-43852, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840021

RESUMO

Recent studies on the microbial community composition of human excrement after rural household toilet treatment are unclear regarding the effects and risks of using recycled products as fertilizers in agriculture. In this study, we used Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the microbial community structure of the excrement from 50 Chinese rural household toilets on a spatial scale, and we evaluated the impact of select geochemical factors on the bacterial and fungal communities in the human excrement. Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant spatial differentiation of the human excrement in microbial communities after all toilet treatments. Twenty dry toilet samples and thirty septic tank samples had similar bacterial (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) and fungal phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), differing only in the proportions of the microorganisms. For both dry toilet samples and septic tank samples, the pH and ammonium nitrogen were found to be the major driving forces affecting the changes in bacterial community structures (p<0.05), while there was no correlation found for the fungal community with environmental factors in China (p>0.05), except in the northern regions, where the total phosphorus was found to be significantly correlated with the fungal community (p<0.05). Network analysis confirmed that NH4+-N had the most significant impact on the content of pathogens. Certain pathogens were still detected after toilet treatment, such as Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Aspergillus, and Chrysosporium, and the proportion of potential pathogenic bacteria in dry toilets was higher than that in septic tanks, suggesting that septic tanks were better than dry toilets in treating human excrement. These results provide an ecological perspective for understanding the large-scale geographic distribution of household excrement microbial communities in rural areas and for improving human excrement treatment technologies and avoiding the risks of agricultural applications.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias , China , Humanos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 131(6): 2705-2714, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899991

RESUMO

The goal of good toilet hygiene is minimizing the potential for pathogen transmission. Control of odours is also socially important and believed to be a societal measure of cleanliness. Understanding the need for good cleaning and disinfecting is even more important today considering the potential spread of emerging pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 virus. While the flush toilet was a major advancement in achieving these objectives, exposure to pathogens can occur from failure to clean and disinfect areas within a restroom, as well as poor hand hygiene. The build-up of biofilm within a toilet bowl/urinal including sink can result in the persistence of pathogens and odours. During flushing, pathogens can be ejected from the toilet bowl/urinal/sink and be transmitted by inhalation and contaminated fomites. Use of automatic toilet bowl cleaners can reduce the number of microorganisms ejected during a flush. Salmonella bacteria can colonize the underside of the rim of toilets and persist up to 50 days. Pathogenic enteric bacteria appear in greater numbers in the biofilm found in toilets than in the water. Source tracking of bacteria in homes has demonstrated that during cleaning enteric bacteria are transferred from the toilet to the bathroom sinks and that these same bacteria colonize cleaning tools used in the restroom. Quantitative microbial risk assessment has shown that significant risks exist from both aerosols and fomites in restrooms. Cleaning with soaps and detergents without the use of disinfectants in public restrooms may spread bacteria and viruses throughout the restroom. Odours in restrooms are largely controlled by ventilation and flushing volume in toilet/urinals. However, this results in increased energy and water usage. Contamination of both the air and surfaces in restrooms is well documented. Better quantification of the risks of infection are needed as this will help determine what interventions will minimize these risks.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , COVID-19 , Humanos , Higiene , SARS-CoV-2 , Toaletes
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 234: 113745, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799074

RESUMO

Given the increasing frequency and duration of humanitarian emergencies worldwide, there is a need to identify a greater range of effective and contextually appropriate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. Typical sanitation systems may be poorly suited for some of the conditions in which humanitarian emergencies can occur, such as in drought-prone regions. Urine-diversion dry toilets (UDDTs) are one potential alternative sanitation option which can be used in these conditions. Between 2014 and 2016, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with local agencies to evaluate the acceptability of UDDTs in a refugee camp in Ethiopia. The overall goals were to provide evidence regarding the level of adoption and satisfaction with UDDTs in this emergency context and the factors associated with satisfaction. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted 18-months apart, using a stratified design to sample UDDT and latrine users for comparison. The proportion who reported to use their UDDT consistently was 88.8% (95% CI 85.1-92.5) in the first survey and 93.4% (95% CI 90.6-96.2) in the second survey. Reported satisfaction levels were significantly higher among respondents in the second survey (p < 0.0001), where 97.0% (95% CI 95.1-98.9) of respondents stated either that they were mostly or very satisfied with their UDDT. There was no significant difference detected in satisfaction between UDDT and latrine users (p = 0.28). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified several factors associated with a higher level of satisfaction with UDDTs. Those who had previously (before coming to the camp) used a pit latrine (AOR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.4-12.7) or had no sanitation system (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4) relative to a pour-flush toilet, had a clean UDDT (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.7-4.6), had been in the camp for a longer time period (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0), did not share their UDDT (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.0) and had used their UDDT for a longer time period (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.4) had higher odds of satisfaction. The findings demonstrate that UDDTs have been effectively introduced and utilized in this context and this may have implications for other humanitarian settings where they can be similarly managed.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Campos de Refugiados , Saneamento , Toaletes
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