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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159178, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202366

RESUMO

Urine diversion in a No-Mix Toilet is a promising approach for sustainable fertilizers and reduction of the nutrient load for wastewater treatment; however, user adoption remains a challenge. This study evaluates the Urine Trap, a passive No-Mix toilet design based on the teapot effect, wherein the urine stream inlet is invisible to the user and therefore it does not impact the user experience for increased adoption. This study evaluated the nutrient separation performance of a Urine Trap flush toilet in a bathroom shared by women in two sites in India. Over three different testing periods, 841 uses of this squat plate were recorded in 50 days. Analytical measurements found 36 % separation efficiency for total nitrogen (TN). While effective, the Urine Trap under test by users did not yield a 70-80 % TN separation efficiency observed under engineering characterization. High temporal resolution data from sensors on waste collection tanks, the opening of the bathroom door, and cleansing water flow were used to gain insights into hygiene practices. The data showed a frequent habit of wetting the squat plate during physiological excretion, a hygienic practice that eases cleaning but degrades the teapot separation effect of the Urine Trap design. By using sensors, we demonstrate a method to non-invasively gain quantitative insights into hygiene practices to inform sanitation technologies deployment strategies for improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Purificação da Água , Feminino , Humanos , Toaletes , Saneamento , Purificação da Água/métodos , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Urina
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1026714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36568759

RESUMO

Toilet sanitation is related to public health and environmental protection. In the context of the toilet revolution in rural China, an ordered probit regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of access to sanitary toilets on rural residents' health. Using data from the China Family Panel Study (CFPS) in 2014, we found that access to sanitary toilets in rural households significantly improved residents' health, and this finding remained robust across a series of checks. Meanwhile, results of the mechanism analysis showed that preventing feces from contaminating water sources was an important mechanism behind the positive effects of sanitary toilet use on health. We also found that the impact of access to sanitary toilets was more pronounced among female, middle-aged, and low-income people. Toilet revolution plays an important role in ensuring residents' health and protecting water sources, thereby underscoring the need for governments in developing countries to invest in sanitary toilets. In addition, the existing policies and sanitation programs in China need to be improved to promote public health.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Toaletes , Saneamento , Saúde Pública , Água
3.
Biocontrol Sci ; 27(4): 193-200, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567115

RESUMO

Electrolyzed water is a novel disinfectant that is widely used in the food industry. We conducted an experimental model-based study to determine the effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) for the daily nozzle cleaning of artificially contaminated tankless and tank-type bidet toilet seats. The toilet seats were designed to automatically self-clean the spray nozzles using tap water or NEW after each use or at specified intervals. The numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli microorganisms in the spray water were measured twice or thrice per week. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the bacterial count in the spray water of various cleaning (NEW) and control (tap water) conditions. The number of bacteria was significantly lower in NEW conditions with and without periodic nozzle cleaning functions than in tap water conditions for both tank-type and tankless bidet toilet seats. Microorganisms were detected only on the surface area around the opening for ejecting spray water and not in the internal piping at the spray nozzle tip. These findings demonstrate that NEW has superior decontamination efficacy over tap water when used as a cleaning agent for the spray nozzles of warm-water bidet toilet seats.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Desinfetantes , Toaletes , Bactérias , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Água
4.
Br J Nurs ; 31(20): 1017, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370393
5.
J Water Health ; 20(2): 300-313, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366988

RESUMO

Public toilets may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection via airborne transmission; however, related research is limited. We aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection risk through respiratory transmission using a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework by retrieving SARS-CoV-2 concentrations from the swab tests of 251 Thai patients. Three virus-generating scenarios were investigated: an infector breathing, breathing with a cough, and breathing with a sneeze. The infection risk (95th percentile) was as high as 10-1 with breathing and increased to 1 with a cough or a sneeze. No significant gender differences for toilet users (receptors) were noted. The highest risk scenario, namely breathing with a sneeze, was further evaluated for risk mitigation measures. Mitigation to a lower risk under 10-3 succeeded only when the infector and the receptor both wore N95 respirators or surgical masks. Ventilation of up to 20 air changes per hour (ACH) did not decrease the risk. However, an extended waiting time of 10 min between an infector and a receptor resulted in approximately 1.0-log10 further risk reduction when both wore masks with the WHO-recommended 12 ACH. The volume of expelled droplets, virus concentrations, and receptor dwell time were identified as the main contributors to transmission risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Humanos , Aparelho Sanitário , Tosse , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Saúde Pública , Tailândia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 812, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder overdistension in labor may lead to prolonged postpartum urinary retention. We hypothesized that nulliparas mobilizing to toilet is more likely to achieve satisfactory micturition. METHODS: One hundred sixteen (58 in each arm) term nulliparas in labor with filled bladders were randomized to mobilizing to the toilet or using bedpan to micturate. Primary outcome was satisfactory micturition defined as ultrasound derived post-void bladder volume < 150 ml. Following unsatisfactory micturition, participants crossover to the opposed intervention. Participants were catheterized if after crossover, residual bladder volume was ≥250 ml. RESULTS: Satisfactory micturition rates were 55/58 (95%) vs. 43/58 (74%) RR 1.28 95%CI 1.08-1.51 NNTb 4.8 95%CI 3.0-12.4 P = 0.008, failure to micturate 1/58 (2%) vs. 8/58 (14%) RR 0.13 95%CI 0.02-0.97 NNTb 8.3 95%CI 4.6-38.7 P = 0.047. After cross over following unsatisfactory bladder voiding, satisfactory micturition rates were 0/3 (0%) vs 13/15 (87%) P = 0.024, bladder catheterization rates were 3/58 (5%) vs. 2/58 (4%) RR 95%CI 1.5 (0.26-8.65) P = 0.648, maternal satisfaction with allocated intervention 55/58 (95%) vs. 9/58 (16%) RR 95%CI 6.1 (3.3-11.2) NNTb 95%CI 1.3 (1.1-1.5) P <  0.0001 and preference for mobilizing to the toilet if micturition was needed again during labor 55/58 (95%) vs. 53/58 (92%) for mobilizing to the toilet compared to bedpan use arms respectively. Labor and neonatal outcomes were similar. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory micturition was more frequently achieved with mobilization to the toilet than bedpan use. Women in both arms overwhelmingly prefer to mobilize to the toilet to urinate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with ISRCTN on 17/07/2019 with trial identification number: ISRCTN17787339 . First participant was recruited on 31/07/2019. The last patient was recruited on 18/12/2019.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Micção , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateterismo Urinário
7.
Biocontrol Sci ; 27(3): 153-162, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216567

RESUMO

Bidet-toilets are widely used in households and public spaces in Japan. The effect of nozzle cleanliness on spray water quality of warm-water bidet toilet seats is unknown. We conducted a long-term experimental model-based study (2015-2016) and two survey-based studies (A: 2018-2019 and B: 2020-2021) at a university campus. Survey A measured the effect of nozzle cleansing on total viable count (TVC) and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) in spray water. Survey B measured the total organic carbon, residual chlorine concentration, TVC, and HPC of different fractions of sprayed water. We found no upstream migration of microbes from the nozzle to water tanks. While daily cleaning of the nozzle surface could reduce bacterial count in spray water, continuous discharge of water washed away bacterial contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria were in traces in spray water, indicating proper maintenance of these toilet seats.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Toaletes , Bactérias , Carbono , Cloro/farmacologia , Humanos
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 965150, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148348

RESUMO

Background: China has launched a large "toilet revolution" in rural areas, but the results show that sanitation has not always been markedly improved. Few scholars have paid attention to this issue, and the list of the reasons is scattered and incomplete. Method: Using the qualitative research method, this study interviewed seven village cadres and 39 villagers in three villages of Jiaozuo City to examine the implementation barriers to rural toilet retrofitting (RTR) projects in China. Results: Using the Van Meter and Van Horn policy implementation approach, the research has found that: (a) unreasonable standards and objectives fail to incorporate local conditions and improve the actual quality; (b) lack of capital and human resources cannot renovate new toilets; (c) uncoordinated inter-organizational communication and enforcement activities by top-down mechanism lead to policy implementers and target groups' dissatisfaction with the policy; (d) weak and unenthusiastic, inadequate implementing agencies, reduce their working ability; (e) inappropriate economic, social and political conditions impede the villagers' acceptance; and (f) an attitude of passive acceptance by the implementers reduce the working motivation. Conclusion: To improve sanitation in rural China, it is necessary to solve the six barriers. The findings of this study can provide recommendations and guidance for implementing the RTR and related public health policies.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , China , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Saneamento
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1690, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hygiene behaviors in public toilets are important to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, especially during the pandemic. All through the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, governments in many countries published guidance on personal hygiene for the general population to prevent disease transmission. This study aimed to investigate improvements in residents' hygiene awareness and behaviors in public toilets before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited 316 residents between November and December 2018 before the pandemic, and 314 residents between December 2020 and January 2021 during the pandemic in the same study sites in Hangzhou, a well-developed city in China. Residents' hygiene behaviors in public toilets, hygiene awareness, risk perception, and sociodemographic factors were collected. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test the differences between the two rounds. We conducted an observational study to record the provision of hygiene amenities at toilets during the pandemic. RESULTS: After controlling for sociodemographic factors (gender, marital status, age, education level, and monthly household income), compared with respondents recruited before the pandemic, respondents recruited during the pandemic were more likely to perceive the risks of infection when using public toilets (aOR = 1.77, 95%CI [1.20, 2.60]), and were more likely to be aware of the risks of touching contaminated toilet facilities (aOR = 1.72, 95%CI [1.17, 2.54]) and the risks of not using soap to wash one's hands after using the toilet (aOR = 1.93, 95%CI [1.38, 2.72]). They were more likely to always clean their toilet seat with alcohol (aOR = 1.88, 95%CI [1.01, 3.51]), wash hands with soap (aOR = 1.52, 95%CI [1.09, 2.10]) and dry their hands with a dryer (aOR = 1.78, 95%CI [1.16, 2.71]), but they were less likely to always wash their hands after using the toilets (aOR = 0.57, 95%CI [0.32, 1.00]). Among 70 public toilets observed, 9 provided alcohol for toilet seat disinfection, 52 provided soap, 33 provided paper towels, and 41 had working hand dryers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the overall improvement, residents' hygiene behaviors in public toilets and the supply of hygiene amenities were still suboptimal during the pandemic. Further hygiene education and an adequate supply of hygiene amenities in public toilets are needed to promote residents' hygiene behaviors.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Sabões
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 589-596, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073442

RESUMO

According to the amendment (2020) of the Act on the Promotion of Smooth Transportation, etc. of Elderly Persons, Disabled Persons, etc. in Japan, public primary and junior high schools, which are newly built/renovated/extended, should be designed to be physically accessible for students with special needs. In addition, existing schools should also make efforts to improve accessibility. On this background, this paper focuses on the methods to effectively promote accessibility in schools that is achieved through user involvement for inclusive education. The survey subjects were all 164 public schools in Saitama city. A questionnaire to all schools was conducted to find out 1) the features of physical obstacles impeding inclusive education and 2) examples of user involvement in the planning stage of accessibility. In the results, accessible toilets have been installed progressively. However, inaccessible routes and spaces remained because there were no lifts in most existing schools. Regarding user involvement, a good practice was discovered in one case of restroom renovation which reflected parents' requests. In reality, because of the limitation of the budget of the municipality, it was obviously difficult to provide sufficient accessibility in all 164 schools in the short period. To achieve fully accessible schools for everyone, it is crucial to create short/mid/long-term facility management strategies and to share knowledge/skills regarding accessibility improvement among administrative officers, architects, and users, so that they can find efficient and effective ways to promote accessibility.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Pessoas com Deficiência , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
12.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04057, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073661

RESUMO

Background: An absence of gender-sensitive sanitation facilities in schools and the negative effects this has on girls has been widely discussed among advocacy groups, though less examined in academic spheres. Drawing on triangulated data, we outline current challenges and respondent-driven solutions to enhance the female-friendly nature of toilets in a context of extreme poverty. Methods: This mixed-methods study was informed by the tenets of human-centred design. We first quantitatively assessed facilities in 14 secondary schools in the Kossi Province of Burkina Faso. We then collected qualitative data, including 15 focus group discussions and 53 in-depth interviews among schoolgirls, mothers, teachers and key informants. We applied photo-elicitation, a novel method, to explore perceptions of facilities and the desirability and feasibility of interventions to improve gender-friendly sanitation facilities. Results: No school met international water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) standards for schools. Roughly one third of schools did not have water and, when present, there was no reliable way to use it within the toilet complex. Schoolgirls shared feelings of shame and stress when menstruating at school, and said that they would avoid using school toilets, if possible. Schoolgirls described water access as the most urgent need to address, followed by fostering privacy and facilitating cleanliness within facilities. Mothers and teachers mostly aligned with these priorities, while key informants additionally emphasised the need to raise awareness on both general and menstrual hygiene and to develop maintenance systems. Photo-elicitation engaged and empowered participants to pinpoint priorities and concrete solutions, namely a need for doors and locks, water containers and cleaning materials. Conclusions: WASH needs in many schools remain unmet. Women and girls should be involved in decision-making across stages of intervention design and implementation. Young women's voices merit greater inclusion in academic literature. Future interventions should enhance access to water and privacy. Future research could explore maintenance and monitoring strategies to develop guidance on sustainable solutions.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Higiene , Burkina Faso , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Água
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011699

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of packaged interventions for operation and maintenance (O&M) on the usability and cleanliness of toilets in public schools in the Philippines. In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, the divisions of Roxas City and Passi City were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Schools in Roxas City (n = 14) implemented the packaged O&M interventions; schools in Passi City (n = 16) formed the control group. Outcome variables were toilet usability-defined as accessible, functional and private-and toilet cleanliness, measured using the Sanitation Assessment Tool (SAT) and the Cleaner Toilets, Brighter Future (CTBF) instruments at baseline and at four months follow-up through direct observation of school toilets. SAT results showed that intervention schools had a 32.0% (4.6%; 59.3%) higher percentage of usable toilets than control schools at follow-up after full adjustment (p = 0.024). CTBF results found a similar result, although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.119). The percentage of toilets that were fully clean was 27.1% (3.7%; 50.6%) higher in intervention schools than in control schools after adjustment (p = 0.025). SAT results also showed an improvement in cleanliness of toilets in intervention schools compared to those in controls, but this did not remain significant after adjustment. The findings indicate that the additional implementation of O&M interventions can further stimulate progress towards reaching Water, Sanitation and Hygiene service levels aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Filipinas , Saneamento/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Toaletes
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011720

RESUMO

School toilets have been identified by sexuality and gender diverse (SGD) students as the least safe spaces in educational institutions. They are sites of verbal, physical and sexual victimisation. Providing gender-neutral toilets in primary and secondary schools may reduce the bullying and victimisation of SGD students, particularly those who are transgender or gender-diverse. This study explored factors influencing the inclusion of gender-neutral toilets in primary and secondary schools in Western Australia. Thirty-four interviews were conducted from May to December 2020 with policy makers or practitioners (n = 22) and school staff (n = 12) in Perth, Western Australia. Interviews were conducted online and face-to-face using semi-structured interview guides. A thematic analysis of the cross-sectional qualitative data was undertaken. School staff, policy makers, and practitioners identified school toilets as sites of bullying and victimisation of SGD youth and expressed support for gender-neutral toilets as an anti-bullying strategy. Perceived barriers to introducing gender-neutral toilets in schools included financial and spatial costs, building code compliance constraints, resistance from parents and students, privacy and confidentiality concerns, and cultural appropriateness. Including gender-neutral toilets in schools may reduce school-based bullying and victimisation, and improve the mental and physical health of SGD youth.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Bullying , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sexualidade , Austrália Ocidental
15.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115964, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007385

RESUMO

The ongoing "toilet revolution" in China provides new opportunities to improve the rural living environment and sanitation, and the introduction of new sanitation facilities such as urine diverting composting toilets (UDCTs) is conducive to the effective treatment and resource utilization of feces. This study revealed the degradation performance and microbial community dynamics of UDCTs and clarified the influence mechanism of fecal volume in aerobic composting treatment. The results showed that UDCTs could effectively decompose human feces, with an organic matter degradation rate of 25%⁓30%. The temperature, water content, NH4+-N and nutrient accumulation were higher in the high fecal volume treatment than in the low fecal volume treatment. Bacterial community composition and structure in UDCTs varied with composting stage and fecal volume. The diversity and richness of bacterial community in compost were changed with different fecal volumes, but the dominant groups were similar. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that nitrogen and organic carbon were the main drivers of bacterial community changes during composting. Highly nutritious and non-phytotoxic compost products were suitable for agronomic uses. Based on these results, UDCTs can be an effective way to solve the problem of fecal pollution in rural areas, and fecal dosage is a potential influencing factor in the operation and maintenance of composting systems.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Compostagem , Bactérias , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Saneamento , Solo/química
16.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(4): 836-839, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Constipation is a common complaint in the general population. Squatting (using a toilet stool) is associated with faster and more complete bowel emptying, and could therefore help prevent or treat constipation. We analyzed the reviews of online buyers of a toilet stool to assess perceived effectiveness, overall satisfaction and potential side effects. METHODS: In this exploratory mixed-method study, we collected all plain text reviews left between November 2013 and March 2020 by buyers of a toilet stool on Amazon. We adapted the Framework method to perform a seven-step process to analyze user reviews. We assigned numerical values from -5 (minimum) to +5 (maximum) to perceived effectiveness and overall satisfaction. RESULTS: We included comments left by 10,027 customers who purchased 19 different types of toilet stools (79.1% seven-inch stools, 16.1% folding stools, 4.8% other stools). Perceived effectiveness and overall satisfaction were high (median = 5 and interquartile range = 0 for both variables). Eighty-one individuals reported adverse events related to toilet stool use, mainly musculoskeletal pain (N = 26), numbness in the lower limbs (N = 16), falls (n = 11), constipation (N = 9), anorectal symptom (N = 8), and cramps (N = 6). CONCLUSION: Perceived effectiveness and overall satisfaction were rated high by those who purchased a toilet stool online. In addition, their use seems to be safe (<1% reported adverse effects). Our results suggest a good risk-benefit ratio. The device may offer an inexpensive option to treat or prevent constipation, and may reduce the frequency of medical visits and the risks associated with long-term use of laxatives.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances , Satisfação Pessoal
17.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 05 10.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736357

RESUMO

A good nasal passage is crucial for neonates and infants, as they rely on obligate nasal breathing. Feeding problems and dyspnoea are commonly seen in infants with nasal obstruction.In this article, we emphasize the importance of relieving nasal congestion caused by an infection. An effective therapy to reduce nasal obstruction, caused by mucus, is rinsing with saline. Xylometazoline can be added if the effect of saline is insufficient. However, guidelines are often cautious with prescribing nasal decongestants in infants. These recommendations are mainly based on case reports, and often concern overdoses or other medication than xylometazoline. The risk of severe side effects with xylometazoline in young children is low if the dosage is adequate.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Obstrução Nasal , Rinite , Aparelho Sanitário/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imidazóis , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Descongestionantes Nasais/efeitos adversos , Obstrução Nasal/complicações , Obstrução Nasal/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269980, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704665

RESUMO

While poverty-targeted subsidies have shown promise as a means of reducing financial constraints on low-income populations to invest in new latrines, concerns have been raised about whether they may reduce demand for new latrines among non-eligible, non-poor populations, especially in geographically limited or closed markets. Using quasi experimental methods, we investigate the interaction effects of the "CHOBA" subsidy, a partial poverty-targeted monetary incentive to build a toilet, and a sanitation marketing program (SanMark) on new latrine uptake among households from different income segments in 110 rural villages across six Cambodian provinces. These programs were implemented either jointly with or independently. Overall, we find strong complementarity of the CHOBA subsidy with SanMark where the coupled implementation of the programs increased latrine uptake across all households as compared to exclusive deployment of the programs independently. Additionally, the CHOBA subsidy alone resulted in higher gains among the poor compared to SanMark suggesting that financial constraint is indeed a significant demand barrier for new latrines. The presence of the poverty-targeted subsidies did not reduce demand for new latrine purchases among ineligible households. Instead, we find some evidence for a positive spillover effect of subsidies on uptake of latrines among ineligible households in villages where both programs were implemented indicating that the presence of sanitation subsidies and the decision to purchase latrines among non-beneficiaries can be viewed as complements. We employ multivariate logistic regressions as well as further robustness checks to estimate the effects of the different interventions, with qualitatively consistent results.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Saneamento , Camboja , Humanos , Marketing , Pobreza , População Rural , Saneamento/métodos , Toaletes
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 293: 119-120, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592970

RESUMO

People with physical limitations face significant challenges when using existing toilets. User requirements work shows the wide range of user needs and confirms the high demand for innovative toilets, enabling people to leave home more often and participate more in societal life. The Toilet For Me too (T4ME2) project aims to implement and test a new ICT-based toilet system capable of physically supporting users, allowing autonomous and safe use outside the home.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Coleta de Dados , Emprego , Humanos , Toaletes
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