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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613178

RESUMO

For many young adults today dating is not taken as a path to marriage, but as a relationship to be considered on its own terms with a beginning, middle, and end. Yet, research has not kept pace as most studies that look at relationships over time focus on marriages. In the present study, we look at individual differences and normative patterns of dating relationship quality over time. We tested a path model of associations between relationship duration, attachment insecurity, and four relationship quality domains (sexual frequency, commitment, satisfaction, and companionship) among a large sample of dating young adults (N = 1345). Based on a conceptual model of romantic relationship development, results supported expectations that dating trajectories are curvilinear, with unique patterns of accent, peak, and decent for each relationship domain. Dating duration also moderated the relationship between dating quality and attachment insecurity with anxious attachment becoming a more salient predictor of lower satisfaction and lower commitment in long-term versus short-term relationships. A quadratic interaction with sexual frequency indicated that insecurity predicted less sexual activity in new relationships, more activity among relationships between two and four years, but then less again in longer-term relationships. Findings suggest patterns of stability and change in dating relationships during emerging adulthood that complement those observed from the marriage literature.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Casamento , Satisfação Pessoal , Ansiedade , Apego ao Objeto , Parceiros Sexuais
2.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 99: 102228, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493729

RESUMO

Current conceptualisations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are driven by biological, learning, and cognitive models that have shaped current treatments of the disorder. The strong influence of these models has resulted in a relative neglect of social mechanisms that can influence traumatic stress. There is abundant evidence from experimental, observational, and clinical studies that social factors can moderate many of the mechanisms articulated in prevailing models of PTSD. In this review it is proposed that attachment theory provides a useful framework to complement existing models of PTSD because it provides explanatory value for social factors can interact with biological, learning, and cognitive processes that shape traumatic stress response. The review provides an overview of attachment theory in the context of traumatic stress, outlines the evidence for how attachment factors can moderate stress responses and PTSD, and considers how harnessing attachment processes may augment recovery from and treatment of PTSD. This review emphasizes that rather than conceptualizing attachment theory as an independent theory of traumatic stress, there is much to gain by integrating attachment mechanisms into existing models of PTSD to accommodate the interactions between cognitive, biological, and attachment processes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Apego ao Objeto , Fatores de Risco
4.
Infant Ment Health J ; 44(1): 54-75, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538474

RESUMO

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is an intervention targeted at enhancing the socioemotional and regulatory functioning of at-risk infants. However, to use the ABC for infants/toddlers with intellectual disabilities/developmental delays (ID/DD) and in novel cultural contexts, such as South Africa, adaptations may be required. This study aimed, therefore, to explore the opinions of clinical experts and perceptions of caregivers regarding the use of ABC for children with ID/DD in South Africa. It also sought to incorporate the experiences of families of children with ID/DD who received, and intervenors who delivered, ABC in its first implementation in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 participants. Thematic analysis explicated 12 main themes: Intervention Strengths, Points of Concern, and Recommendations (Experts); Focus on Caregiver-child Relationship, and Intervention Targets and Duration (Caregivers); Benefits of ABC, and Cultural Considerations (ABC Recipients); Focused and Targeted, Value of Feedback, Supportive Supervision, Working Alliance, and Challenges Experienced (ABC Intervenors). Practice and training recommendations include psychoeducation for parents and training for intervenors that is ID/DD-specific, expanding supervision capacity, building intervenors' cultural/linguistic sensitivity and competence, accessing referral networks, including local Community Health Workers as intervenors, and greater flexibility in how the sessions are organized.


La intervención de Afectividad y Alcance del Bio-comportamiento (ABC) está dirigida a mejorar el funcionamiento socioemocional y regulatorio de los infantes bajo riesgo. Sin embargo, para usar el ABC para infantes y niños pequeñitos con discapacidades intelectuales / retrasos en el desarrollo (ID/DD) y dentro de nuevos contextos culturales, tal como en Sudáfrica, se requieren adaptaciones. Este estudio se propuso, por tanto, explorar las opiniones de expertos clínicos y las percepciones de quienes prestan el cuidado acerca del uso del ABC con niños con ID/DD en Sudáfrica. También buscaba incorporar las experiencias de familias de niños con ID/DD que recibían, así como de practicantes de la intervención que ofrecían el servicio de ABC durante su primera implementación en Sudáfrica. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas semiestructuradas con 18 participantes. Análisis temáticos explicaron los 12 principales temas: Puntos Fuertes de la Intervención, Puntos que Preocupan y Recomendaciones (Expertos); Enfoque en la Relación Cuidador-Niño y Metas de Enfoque y Duración de la Intervención (Cuidadores); Beneficios del ABC y Consideraciones Culturales (Quienes recibían el ABC); Lo Enfocado y Diseñado como Meta, Valor de Ideas Recibidas, Supervisión con Apoyo, Alianza de Trabajo y Retos Experimentados (Practicantes de la Intervención ABC). Las recomendaciones de práctica y entrenamiento incluyen la psico-educación de padres, entrenamiento a quienes practican la intervención específicamente orientada a ID/DD, expandir la capacidad de supervisión, formar la sensibilidad y competencia cultural/lingüística de quienes practican la intervención, acceso a los sistemas de referencias, incluir Trabajadores de Salud Comunitarios como practicantes de la intervención y mayor flexibilidad en cómo organizar las sesiones.


L'attachement et le rattrapage bio-comportemental (en anglais Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up, soit ABC) est une intervention ciblée sur l'amélioration du fonctionnement socio-émotionnel et régulatoire de bébés à risques. Cependant, pour utiliser l'ABC pour des bébés/jeunes enfants avec des retards intellectuels et des retards du comportement (ID/DD) et dans des contextes culturels nouveaux, comme l'Afrique du Sud, des adaptations pourraient être nécessaires. Par conséquent cette étude s'est donné pour but d'explorer les opinions d'experts cliniques et les perceptions des personnes prenant soin d'un bébé quant à l'utilisation de l'ABC pour des enfants avec ID/DD en Afrique du Sud. On a aussi cherché à incorporer les expériences de familles d'enfants avec ID/DD qui ont reçu l'ABC, ainsi que des intervenants qui l'ont facilité, dans sa première mise en oeuvre en Afrique du Sud. Des entretiens semi-structurés ont été faits avec 18 participants. Une analyse thématique a explicité 12 thèmes principaux: Forces de l'Intervention, Points d'Inquiétude, et Recommandations (Experts); Accent sur la Relation Personne prenant soin de l'enfant-enfant et Cibles d'Intervention et Durée d'Intervention (Personnes prenant soin d'un bébé); Bénéfices de l'ABS, et Considérations Culturels (personnes ayant reçu l'ABC); Ciblé et Centré, Valeur du Retour, Supervision de Soutien, Alliance entre entités, et Défis Vécus (Intervenants ABC). Les recommandations de pratique et de formation incluent une psychoéducation pour les parents, une formation pour les intervenants qui est spécifique à l'ID/DD, l'élargissement de la capacité de supervision, le développement de la sensibilité et de la compétence culturelle/linguistique des intervenants, l'accès aux réseau d'orientation, y compris des Travailleurs de Santé Communautaires en tant qu'intervenants, et une plus grande flexibilité dans la manière dont les sessions sont organisées.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Poder Familiar , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , África do Sul , Apego ao Objeto , Pais/psicologia
5.
Infant Ment Health J ; 44(1): 76-91, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565696

RESUMO

"Attachment and Biobehavioural Catch-Up" (ABC) is a 10 session home visiting program, grounded in attachment theory. It aims to improve child emotion regulation, attachment and behavioral outcomes through changing caregivers' attachment related behaviors. There is increasing evidence with respect to the effectiveness of ABC in producing positive child outcomes, but the intervention's direct effect on parent outcomes remains unclear. This review examined the association of ABC with attachment related parent outcomes. The PubMed, EMBASE, PyschINFO and SCOPUS databases were searched for relevant studies in August 2021, and again in April 2022. The eligibility criteria for included studies were (1) infants aged 0-27 months at time of the ABC intervention, (2) "at risk" parents, (3) controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals and (4) utilized a measure of attachment related parent outcomes. Eleven eligible studies were included. The findings showed ABC had a significant small to medium effect on a variety of attachment related parent outcomes among parents presenting with multiple psychosocial risk factors. "Sensitivity" was measured most frequently, with small to medium main effect sizes recorded at follow-up, compared to controls. Implications for the clinical effectiveness of the ABC program in community settings are discussed. Future research should clarify who ABC is most effective for and how it compares to similar interventions.


"El Alcance de Afectividad y Biocounducta" (ABC) es un programa de visita a casa en 10 sesiones, fundamentado en la teoría de la afectividad. Su meta es mejorar en el niño los resultados de la regulación de la emoción, de afectividad y de comportamiento por medio de cambiar el comportamiento relacionado con la afectividad de quien presta el cuidado. La evidencia con respecto a la eficacia de ABC para producir resultados positivos en el niño va en aumento, pero el efecto directo de la intervención sobre el resultado en el progenitor aún no está claro. Esta revisión examinó la asociación entre ABC y los resultados en el progenitor relacionados con la afectividad. Se investigaron los bancos de datos PubMed, EMBASE, PyschINFO y SCOPUS en agosto de 2021 en busca de estudios relevantes, lo cual se hizo otra vez en abril de 2022. Los criterios para elegir los estudios que se incluirían fueron (1) infantes de edad entre 0 y 27 meses al momento de la intervención ABC, (2) progenitores "bajo riesgo," (3) ensayos controlados publicados en revistas de aceptación profesional rigurosa y (4) la utilización de una medida de afectividad relacionada con los resultados en el progenitor. Se incluyeron once estudios que reunían los criterios. Lo que encontramos mostró que ABC tenía un efecto entre significativamente pequeño y medio en cuanto a una variedad de afectividad relacionada con los resultados en el progenitor entre progenitores que presentaban múltiples factores de riesgo sicosociales. La "sensibilidad" fue medida con mayor frecuencia, con anotación de la dimensión de los efectos de pequeños a medianos al momento del seguimiento, en comparación con el grupo de control. Se discuten las implicaciones para la eficacia clínica de ABC en la comunidad. La investigación futura debe aclarar para quién es ABC más eficaz y cómo se compara con intervenciones similares.


"L'attachement et le rattrapage bio-comportemental" (Attachment and Biobehavioural Catch-Up, soit ABC) est un programme de visite à domicile de 10 sessions, basé sur la théorie de l'attachement. Il a pour but d'améliorer la régulation de l'émotion de l'enfant, l'attachement et les résultats de comportement en changeant les comportements liés à l'attachement de la personne prenant soin du bébé. On a de plus en plus de données pour ce qui concerne l'efficacité de l'ABC à donner des résultats positifs pour l'enfant, mais l'effet direct de l'intervention sur le résultat parental n'est pas très clair. Ce compte-rendu a examiné le lien de l'ABC avec les résultats d'attachement liés au parent. Les bases de données PubMed, EMBASE, PyschINFO et SCOPUS ont fait l'objet d'une recherche pour des études pertinentes à ce sujet en août 2021 et à nouveau en avril 2022. Les critères d'éligibilité pour les études inclues ont été (1) bébés âgés de 0-27 mois au moment de l'intervention ABC, (2) parents "à risque", (3) essais contrôlés publiés dans des publications à comité de lecture et (4) ayant utilisé une mesure d'attachement liée aux résultats du parent. Onze études éligibles ont été inclues. Les résultats ont montré que l'ABC avait un effet relativement petit à moyen sur plusieurs résultats du parent liés à l'attachement chez les parents présentant plusieurs risques psychosociaux. La "sensibilité" a été mesurée le plus fréquemment, avec des tailles d'effet de petit à moyen enregistrées au suivi, comparés aux contrôles. Les implications pour l'efficacité clinique de l'ABC dans un contexte de communauté sont discutées. Les recherches futures devraient clarifier pour qui l'ABC est le plus efficace et comment on peut le comparer à des interventions similaires.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Poder Familiar , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Pais/psicologia , Cuidadores
6.
Child Abuse Negl ; 130(Pt 2): 105308, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high incidence of Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) has been reported for children with experiences of trauma and other forms of adversity. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to explore symptoms of RAD and DSED in children in two protection alternatives (international adoption and residential care) after experiences of early adversity. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The participants were 146 children: 40 children adopted into Spanish families from Russia, 49 children in residential care in Spanish institutions (40.8% in long-term foster centers) and 57 community comparison children. METHODS: The Relationship Problems Questionnaire was used to explore both RAD and DSED. All adoptive parents and institutional caregivers retrospectively reported the problems at time of placement (Wave 0), as well as the symptoms observed at the time of the study, with children aged 4-8 years old (Wave 1). At this stage, the assessment of the community comparison group was added. RESULTS: Adopted and children in residential care presented high levels of RAD and DSED symptoms at placement. For adoptees, previous experiences of abuse and neglect were marginally associated with the initial presence of RAD symptoms and a significant recovery was observed after an average of three years in their families, with a certain level of longitudinal continuity between initial and later assessments. In children currently placed in long-term residential centers in Spain, DSED symptoms worsened from W0 to W1. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption appears to be an effective intervention that promotes recovery of RAD and DSED symptomatology after early adversity, whereas institutionalization causes negative effects.


Assuntos
Adoção , Criança Institucionalizada , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Problema , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância , Adoção/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Institucionalização , Internacionalidade , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/diagnóstico , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/epidemiologia , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/psicologia , Instituições Residenciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Participação Social/psicologia , Espanha
7.
J Pers Disord ; 36(6): 731-748, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454157

RESUMO

This study examined patients' personality traits as operationalized by the five-factor model in relation to early alliance and reduction of interpersonal distress through an intensive group treatment program for personality dysfunction. A sample of 79 consecutively admitted psychiatric outpatients with personality dysfunction who attended an 18-week intensive group treatment program completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory at pretreatment, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems at pre- and posttreatment, and the Edmonton Therapeutic Alliance Scale, a measure of the therapeutic alliance with the program therapist, at Session 5. Results indicated that patients who were relatively extraverted tended to rate the alliance with their program therapist higher and subsequently reported more improvement of interpersonal distress. The presence of a personality disorder did not moderate this mediation. Patients' extraversion likely promotes a bonding with the therapist and facilitates the interpersonal group work necessary for improvement. Assessing patients' level of extraversion before starting intensive group treatment might indicate which intervention strategies could be useful with that patient within the program frame.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Aliança Terapêutica , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Personalidade , Apego ao Objeto , Hospitalização
8.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454730

RESUMO

Attachment is an innate human relational mechanism that develops progressively from early childhood, influences individuals' representations and behaviors, shapes relationships, and affects the social and cultural environment. Parental bonding refers to the ability of parents to be emotionally and behaviorally available to the child during infancy. Attachment style refers to the individual's relational attitude in close relationships that influences adult love, bonding, handling relationships, and social exploration. The role of intergenerational, cultural and developmental factors influencing the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and the parental bonding style recalled during childhood has been debated. This study explores the relationships between recalled parental bonding, adult attachment style, and cultural background in a sample of Spanish, Italian, and Japanese adults using a cross-sectional and cross-cultural design. For this purpose, the validated versions of the Experience in Close Relationship Scale and the Parental Bonding Instrument were administered to a non-clinical population of three hundred and five participants in the three countries. Results show that the most frequent adult attachment style is the secure style, followed by the dismissing-avoidant, the preoccupied, and the fearful-avoidant style. The dismissing-avoidant style was the most frequent insecure attachment style in the Japanese sample whereas the preoccupied style was the most frequent insecure attachment style in the Italians and Spaniards. Japanese are more anchored to the memory of maternal and paternal overprotection, which is related to more avoidance in actual close relationships. Spaniard's current relationships are mildly independent of recalled parental bonding, showing an association between lower current avoidance to primary parental care. In the Italian sample, there is no significant relationship between current adult close relationships and recalled parental bonding. These results suggest that different cultural models influence adult attachment representations differently, in terms of the weight placed on attachment-related avoidance, attachment-related anxiety, care, and overprotection in infant and adult relationships.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Pais , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Japão , Hispânico ou Latino
9.
Evol Psychol ; 20(4): 14747049221146433, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567506

RESUMO

Attachment styles are frequently viewed from within the evolutionary conceptual framework; however, their associations with evolutionary fitness are very rarely empirically explored. In the present research (N = 448), we analyzed the relations between romantic attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and various fitness indicators in Serbian adults: matting patterns (short and long-term mating), reproductive motivation, reproductive success (age of first birth, number of children, and grandchildren), and kin care (care for biological relatives in general and care for children). Congruent negative associations between insecure styles and fitness outcomes were found: this is particularly true for avoidance, which is negatively related to long-term mating, reproductive motivation, number of children, and kin care. Furthermore, the data showed that reproductive motivation and long-term mating may mediate the links between avoidance and the number of children. Anxiety was negatively related to reproductive motivation and the number of children; this attachment style was also negatively associated with care for children, but only in males. The present data suggest that secure romantic bonding may be evolutionary adaptive; the obtained results contradict some evolutionary theories that assume that insecure attachment has some adaptive benefits as well. Findings provide new insights into the role of romantic attachment in the behavioral ecology of pair bonding.


Assuntos
Motivação , Reprodução , Adulto , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Relações Interpessoais
10.
Soins Psychiatr ; 43(342): 27-30, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522029

RESUMO

At the heart of the knotting of an addiction during the adolescent process is the possibility of conceptualizing the dynamics of an addictive behavior through the prism of attachment theory. From the inheritance of a family gift, through the coloring of attachment objects, to the adolescent oedipal reactivation, the addictive behavior finds a functional echo in compensation for an inaugural lack. This lack, this deficiency from an insecure family space, conditions the appearance of a symptomatic defense embodied by the dependent attachment to external objects. The case of Mohamed illustrates these problems in the relationship to the Other while providing a clinical window on the identity issues palliated by addictive behaviors. Witha logic of having rather than being, shaped by a relationship to language oscillating between the unspeakable and the reification of his speech, Mohamed invites us, singularly, to glimpse an avenue of clinical reflection.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Adolescente , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 71(8): 688-704, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511589

RESUMO

Attachment narratives are increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in the therapeutic work with children in middle childhood. This, however, demands extensive procedures to ensure its adequate analysis and reliability.Thus, a new diagnostic instrument has been developed. It is a short version of the coding procedure used in the German Attachment Story Completion Task (GASCT) andmakes use of the idea of traffic lights. It can be understood quite intuitively and can be applied time-economically in practice. Instead of a qualitative classification into four attachment groups it results in a five-graded clinical assessment of the child's attachment security towards his or her attachment figures. This can be compared to the attachment security score of the GASCT. Psychometric qualities of the "Attachment Story Completion Light" were analyzed in a sample of 50 patients of a child and adolescent psychiatric hospital aged between four and eight years. Reliability was high, validity of the new instrument was also satisfying, regarding it's association with the original GASCT. For applying the new attachment screening tool a supervised training is required.The tool will enable practitioners to better recognize strengths and difficulties in the attachment representations of children and to plan adequate individualized therapy. As a rating identifying developmental risks, the instrument can help to clarify therapeutic procedures as well as service delivery for child and family.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Psicoterapia , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria , Narração
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 774, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36494788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pervasive pregnancy denial is a rare condition associated with distress and unassisted delivery. CASE PRESENTATION: The case involves a 38-year-old woman (NN), with two older children (ages 8 and 11), who was unaware, until delivery, that she had been pregnant. The case is discussed in the context of a 12-week observation of postpartum mood, stress, and mother-child attachment. NN and other 558 non-depressed women (mean age 32.41 years) were selected from the pool of participants in the RIPOD (risk of postpartum depression) study. All participants were recruited within 1-6 days of delivery. In addition to surveying depressed mood at childbirth, remote assessments of mood, mother-child attachment, and perceived stress were conducted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks postpartum. Every other day, the participants also reported their current perceived stress levels based on a scale from 1 (low) to 10 (high). During the entire period of postpartum observation, NN reported no symptoms on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, similar to only 1.6% of the sample, no stress as 0.7% of the sample, and above-average mother-infant bonding akin to only 4.6% of the sample. Her daily stress levels showed no disturbance, which was the case for only 3.32% of the total sample. On the day of delivery, NN reported a stress level of 1 (the minimum possible level), which was reported by only 4.2% of the total sample. However, NN reported the experience of delivery to be traumatic given that the child had fallen to the floor. CONCLUSION: The experience of a denied pregnancy did not appear to disturb NN at any time point, not even on the day of delivery. Compared to NN, the other non-depressed participants reported wide fluctuations in stress levels during the observation period. NN did not report any risk factors for denied pregnancy. Thus, she belonged neither to any group of typical pregnancy deniers, as reported in the literature, nor to a typical postpartum group. We postulate, therefore, that the extent to which pregnancy denial can be deemed a normal variation, unrelated to a psychological or physiological condition, depends largely on personal traits.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto
13.
Attach Hum Dev ; 24(6): 661-689, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384470

RESUMO

Clinical practitioners are frequently encouraged, through literature, training, and policy, to learn, understand, refer to and use their knowledge of attachment theory and research when working to meet the needs of children and families. However, there has been very little empirical study of how practitioners understand and perceive the relevance of attachment concepts and methods. Q-methodology was used to examine the perceptions of attachment knowledge and its applications for practice among 30 UK clinicians working with children and an international group of 31 attachment researchers. Factor analysis revealed three perspectives, described as: i) pragmatic, developmental, and uncertain, ii) academic, and iii) autodidactic and therapeutic. Participants agreed on core tenants of theory, their aspirations for clinical practice and the inaccessibility of current assessment measures for practitioners. Yet they diverged on their understandings of attachment insecurity, disorganisation, and the implications of both for various aspects of child development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Apego ao Objeto , Criança , Humanos
14.
Psychiatr Pol ; 56(3): 551-570, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the most important questions in personality psychology and psychopathology is whether working models of attachment change during lifetime. It is assumed that early childhood experiences influence the formation of secure or insecure internal working models of attachment The belief that attachment representations formed in childhood are relatively stable is no longer so obvious: new reports have appeared, according to which important life experiences may lead to a change in attachment style from insecure to secure or the other way around. The main aim of the present project was to investigate whether and in what manner positive and negative life experiences lead to changes in internal working models of attachment. METHODS: The specific style of attachment to mother, father, partner, and friend was measured with the ECR-RS, while global attachment was assessed based on the SAAM and ECR-RS G. The number and intensity of positive and negative life experiences was assessed by means of the LES-M. We analyzed the results for a sample of 156 adults. RESULTS: The study revealed significant relations between the level of positive life experiences and global and specific styles of attachment to a friend and partner. However, no significant relationships were observed between the intensity of negative life events and attachment style. Between-group comparisons showed that in the group in which a change of attachment style from insecure to secure had taken place the experience of positive events was significantly stronger than in the group in which there had been no such change. The compared groups did not differ in the level of negative life experiences. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the hypothesis about a change of global attachment style and selected specific aspects of insecure attachment to a secure style as a result of experiencing positive life events.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Apego ao Objeto , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Humanos
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19071, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351967

RESUMO

The parental bonding instrument (PBI) is often used to examine the perceptions of children and adolescents regarding parenting practices. Previous studies have investigated the factor structure of the PBI. However, although it is important to examine the relationships between the perceived parenting practices and perinatal mental health, few studies have included perinatal women. We aimed to accurately clarify which PBI factor structure was useful in assessing perinatal women (n = 4633). Furthermore, we evaluated the measurement invariance between primipara and multipara groups, and between the paternal and maternal PBI forms. Our exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a three-factor PBI structure was most plausible for perinatal women. Moreover, we found complete invariance (residual invariance) of the PBI ratings across primipara and multipara women for the paternal and maternal forms. In contrast, we found weak invariance (metric invariance) of the PBI ratings across the paternal and maternal forms. Our participants tended to rate fathers as less caring and less overprotective than mothers. This three-factor structure shows measurement invariance in perinatal women and can be used to accurately determine how the perceived parenting style before adolescence influences women's mental health in the perinatal period.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pai , Relações Pais-Filho
16.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 43(329): 38-41, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435523

RESUMO

The development of attachment in toddlers is linked to the quality of their early interactions with their mother and father. The impact of interactive dysfunctions, in relation to different parental circumstances, constitutes an important risk for the development of disorganized attachment. Although this aspect is fairly well known, few studies have been done on the children of people with borderline personality disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Poder Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Tato , Apego ao Objeto , Mães
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429549

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aim of the presented research was to examine if emotional intelligence (EI) could be regarded as a mechanism mediating the relationship between attachment and loneliness. The authors also tested the moderating role of this variable, investigating whether EI was a protective factor against loneliness in insecurely attached individuals. (2) Methods: In two cross-sectional studies (N = 246 in Study 1 and N = 186 in Study 2), participants completed a set of questionnaires measuring attachment styles, trait emotional intelligence, and loneliness. (3) Results: Both studies revealed a consistent pattern of results, indicating a dual role of EI in the relationships between attachment styles and loneliness. Firstly, EI was a mediator between attachment and loneliness-both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with a low level of EI, which in turn translated into increased loneliness. Secondly, EI moderated the relationship between anxious attachment and loneliness. It turned out that the strength of the positive relationship between anxious attachment and loneliness decreased with an increase in EI. (4) Conclusions: These results point to EI as an underlying mechanism between insecure attachment and loneliness. They also suggest that EI is an important psychological resource protecting anxiously attached individuals against a subjective sense of social isolation.


Assuntos
Solidão , Apego ao Objeto , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional , Isolamento Social
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17676, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271108

RESUMO

Different Old World primates show conspicuous anogenital swelling, with the Maximum Swelling Phase (MSP) signaling the ovulatory phase. MSP synchronization between females has been linked to social dynamics. In bonobos, characterized by female dominance, MSP is not a fully reliable signal of fertility because it may cover anovulatory periods. We investigated whether bonobo females synchronized their MSP and whether this phenomenon was modulated by social factors. Data were collected at La Vallée des Singes (France). In the period 2009-2022, swelling cycles data were collected daily on bonobo females (N = 9). In the period 2018-2022, ethological data (aggression/affiliation/socio-sexual behaviors) were also collected. We found that: (i) females synchronized their MSP and most likely experienced MSP onset following the MSP onset in other females; (ii) synchronization increased as the years spent together by females increased; (iii) synchronization preferentially occurred between females that affiliated less; (iv) synchronization on the MSP was linked to increased female-female socio-sexual contacts, which probably favored MSP synchronization maintenance. Hence, in bonobos MSP can be modulated by social factors and its synchronization, possibly underlying autonomic contagion, might have been positively selected during evolution in relation to the benefits females obtain in terms of intra-group cohesion.


Assuntos
Pan paniscus , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Agressão , Fertilidade , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Social
19.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(6): 910-920, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265041

RESUMO

According to attachment theory, an infant-mother attachment is universal, and infants who develop an insecure attachment relationship with their mother are likely to show mental health problems compared to those who develop a secure attachment relationship. These hypotheses have been empirically supported in Western cultures. However, the cross-cultural evidence is still insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between Japanese infants' attachment insecurity and mental health problems. We studied 81 Japanese infants (Mage = 14.64 months, SD = 1.43, females = 54%) mostly from middle-class families. The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and Attachment Q-sort (AQS) assessed infant attachment security. Infant externalizing and internalizing problems were rated concurrently by the mother and 6 months later by the mother and another adult (father or grandmother). Japanese infants' attachment insecurity measured by the AQS was associated with their externalizing problems concurrently and 6 months later. Infants with insecure-resistant attachment measured by the SSP had higher externalizing problems compared to those with secure attachment concurrently (not 6 months later). Attachment insecurity was not related to internalizing problems. These findings partly supported the association between attachment insecurity and mental health problems. This research also recommends observing infant attachment at home.


De acuerdo con la teoría de la afectividad, una unión afectiva infante-madre es universal y los infantes que desarrollan una insegura relación de afectividad con sus madres están propensos a mostrar problemas de salud mental, comparados con aquellos que desarrollan una relación afectiva segura. Estas hipótesis han sido empíricamente apoyadas en las culturas occidentales. Sin embargo, la evidencia entre las culturas es aún insuficiente. El propósito de este estudio fue examinar la asociación entre la inseguridad de la afectividad de los infantes japoneses y los problemas de salud mental. Estudiamos a 81 infantes japoneses (edad promedio = 14.64 meses, SD = 1.43, niñas = 54%), principalmente de familias de clase media. El Procedimiento de la Situación Extraña (SSP) y la Afectividad Q-sort (AQS) evaluaron la seguridad de afectividad del infante. Las madres, concurrentemente, les dieron un puntaje a los problemas de externalización e internalización del infante, y seis meses después los hicieron la madre y otro adulto (el padre o la abuela). La inseguridad de la afectividad de los infantes japoneses, tal como se midió por medio de AQS, se asoció con sus problemas de externalización concurrentemente y seis meses después. Los infantes con una afectividad insegura y de resistencia, tal como se midió por SSP, tenían más altos problemas de externalización comparados con aquellos con una afectividad segura concurrentemente (no a los seis meses después). La inseguridad de la afectividad no se relacionó con problemas de internalización. Estos resultados en parte apoyan la asociación entre la inseguridad de la afectividad y los problemas de salud mental. Esta investigación también recomienda observar la afectividad del infante en casa.


Selon la théorie de l'attachement, l'attachement bébé-mère est universel, et les bébés qui développent une relation d'attachement insécure avec leur mère sont à même de présenter des problèmes de santé mentale comparés à ceux ayant développé une relation d'attachement sécure. Ces hypothèses ont été soutenues empiriquement dans les cultures occidentales. Cependant l'évidence transculturelle demeure insuffisante. Le but de cette étude était d'examiner le lien entre la sécurité de l'attachement des nourrissons japonais et les problèmes de santé mentale. Nous avons étudié 81 nourrissons japonais (Mâge = 14,64 mois, SD = 1.43, filles = 54%) en grande partie issues de la classe moyenne. La Procédure de Situation Etrange (SSP) et l'AQS (en anglais Attachment Q-sort) ont évalué la sécurité de l'attachement du bébé. Les problèmes d'externalisation et d'internalisation du bébé ont été évalués en même temps par la mère et six mois plus tard par la mère et un autre adulte (père ou grand-mère). L'insécurité de l'attachement des bébés japonais mesurée par le AQS était liée à des problèmes d'externalisation simultanément et six mois plus tard. Les bébés avec un attachement insécure-résistant mesuré par le SSP avaient des problèmes d'externalisation plus importants comparé à ceux avec un attachement sécure simultané (pas six mois plus tard). L'insécurité de l'attachement n'était pas liée à des problèmes d'internalisation. Ces résultats soutiennent partiellement le lien entre l'insécurité de l'attachement et les problèmes de santé mentale. Cette recherche recommande aussi d'observer l'attachement du bébé à domicile.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Adulto , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Q-Sort , Japão , Mães/psicologia
20.
Int J Psychoanal ; 103(5): 726-743, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200359

RESUMO

The impact of intergenerational transmissions of trauma and the dissociative states of mind that cross from parents to their children has become an important expansion of psychoanalytic theory. Clinical material will be discussed showing how an early death of a mother haunted the lives of many generations of mothers and daughters. Considerations of attachment rupture, trauma, envy, deadly and deadening aggression and shame are discussed as part of transgenerational transmission phenomena and how they are worked on in the analytic relationship. Envious attacks, though painful to tolerate, nonetheless need to be processed in order to transform transmissions from the past.


Assuntos
Ciúme , Apego ao Objeto , Criança , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Teoria Psicanalítica
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