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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1079, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658164

RESUMO

Appetite loss, a common but serious issue in older patients, is an independent risk factor for sarcopenia, which is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have explored the phenomenon of appetite loss after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of appetite loss and relationship between appetite loss and depression in patients living at home 12 months after intensive care. This study involved secondary analysis of data obtained from a published ambidirectional study examining post-intensive care syndrome 12 months after discharge (SMAP-HoPe study) conducted in 12 ICUs in Japan. We included patients aged > 65 years. The Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics and a multilevel generalized linear model were used to clarify the relationship between appetite loss and depression. Data from 468 patients were analyzed. The prevalence of appetite loss was 25.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.5-29.4). High severity of depression was associated with a high probability of appetite loss (odds ratio, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.14-1.28; p = 0.00). Poor appetite is common 12 months after intensive care and is associated with the severity of depression.


Assuntos
Apetite , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Alta do Paciente , Sobreviventes
2.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678160

RESUMO

Targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor by antibodies and antagonists was a breakthrough in migraine prevention and treatment. However, not all migraine patients respond to CGRP-based therapy and a fraction of those who respond complain of aliments mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, CGRP and migraine are associated with obesity and metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Therefore, CGRP may play an important role in the functioning of the gut-brain-microflora axis. CGRP secretion may be modulated by dietary compounds associated with the disruption of calcium signaling and upregulation of mitogen-activated kinase phosphatases 1 and 3. CGRP may display anorexigenic properties through induction of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as cholecystokinin and/or inhibit orexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y and melanin-concentrating hormone CH, resulting in the suppression of food intake, functionally coupled to the activation of the hypothalamic 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The anorexigenic action of CGRP observed in animal studies may reflect its general potential to control appetite/satiety or general food intake. Therefore, dietary nutrients may modulate CGRP, and CGRP may modulate their intake. Therefore, anti-CGRP therapy should consider this mutual dependence to increase the efficacy of the therapy and reduce its unwanted side effects. This narrative review presents information on molecular aspects of the interaction between dietary nutrients and CGRP and their reported and prospective use to improve anti-CGRP therapy in migraine.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Animais , Anticorpos , Apetite , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Estado Nutricional , Humanos
3.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678176

RESUMO

There has been no validated digital tool for measuring appetite with a visual analog scale (VAS) through a mobile app using participants' smart phones for data collection in virtual settings. To fill the gap, we developed a digital VAS and conducted a digital cross-over clinical trial by comparing appetite responses measured by this digital tool versus paper-based VAS in 102 participants in a free-living environment. Participants consumed either a 230 or 460 kcal breakfast in randomized order in two virtual sessions, and their appetite was measured over the next 4 h using both tools. The results revealed no significant difference in hunger, fullness, satiety, or desire to eat measured by digital and paper VAS. Paper VAS resulted in a higher prospective consumption score than digital VAS; the difference (1.1 out of 100 points) was statistically significant but not practically relevant. Bland and Altman analysis also indicated consistency in the results from the two methods. In conclusion, digital VAS on a smart phone is a validated tool for appetite measurement in the real world; it provides a new way for researchers to leverage participants' mobile devices for appetite data collection in digital trials.


Assuntos
Apetite , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Apetite/fisiologia , Escala Visual Analógica , Estudos Prospectivos , Fome/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia
4.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678203

RESUMO

Expert groups argue to raise the recommended daily allowance for protein in older adults from 0.8 to 1.2 g/kg/day to prevent undernutrition. However, protein is thought to increase satiety, possibly through effects on gut microbiota and central appetite regulation. If true, raising daily protein intake may work counterproductively. In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of dietary advice aimed at increasing protein intake to 1.2 g/kg adjusted body weight/day (g/kg aBW/day) on appetite and gut microbiota in 90 community-dwelling older adults with habitual protein intake <1.0 g/kg aBW/day (Nintervention = 47, Ncontrol = 43). Food intake was determined by 24-h dietary recalls and gut microbiota by 16S rRNA sequencing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were performed in a subgroup of 48 participants to evaluate central nervous system responses to food-related stimuli. Both groups had mean baseline protein intake of 0.8 ± 0.2 g/kg aBW/day. At 6 months' follow-up this increased to 1.2 ± 0.2 g/kg aBW/day for the intervention group and 0.9 ± 0.2 g/kg aBW/day for the control group. Microbiota composition was not affected, nor were appetite or brain activity in response to food-related stimuli. Increasing protein intake in older adults to 1.2 g/kg aBW/day does not negatively impact the gut microbiota or suppress appetite.


Assuntos
Apetite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Idoso , Vida Independente , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Dieta
5.
Appetite ; 182: 106445, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592798

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the appetite-related responses to breaking up prolonged sitting with physical activity bouts differing in frequency and duration among adult females. Fourteen sedentary females aged 34 ± 13 years with a body mass index of 27.1 ± 6.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) took part in a randomised crossover trial with three, 7.5 h conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with short frequent 2-min moderate-intensity walking breaks every 30 min (SHORT-BREAKS), and (3) sitting with longer duration, less frequent 10-min moderate-intensity walking breaks every 170-180 min (LONG-BREAKS). The intensity and total duration of physical activity was matched between the SHORT-BREAKS and LONG-BREAKS conditions. Linear mixed models were used to compare the outcomes between conditions with significance being accepted as p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant between-condition differences in hunger, satisfaction, prospective food consumption or overall appetite area under the curve (AUC) (all p ≥ 0.801). Absolute ad libitum energy intake and relative energy intake (REI) did not differ significantly between conditions (all p ≥ 0.420). Acylated ghrelin and total peptide YY incremental and total AUC did not differ significantly between conditions (all p ≥ 0.388). Yet, there was a medium effect size for the higher acylated ghrelin incremental AUC in SHORT-BREAKS versus SIT (d = 0.61); the reverse was seen for total AUC, which was lower in SHORT-BREAKS versus SIT (d = 0.69). These findings suggest that breaking up sitting does not lead to compensatory changes in appetite, appetite hormones or energy intake regardless of physical activity bout duration and frequency among adult females.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Grelina , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura Sentada , Comportamento Sedentário
6.
J Frailty Aging ; 12(1): 1-6, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629077

RESUMO

The Appetite loss in older people is an important unmet clinical need in geriatrics. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) organized a Task Force on April 20th 2022, in Boston, to discuss issues related to appetite loss in older people, in particular, the assessment tools currently available, its evaluation in the primary care setting, and considerations about its management. There is a high heterogeneity in terms of the etiology of appetite loss in older people and a gold standard assessment tool for evaluating this condition is still absent. Although this may render difficult the management of poor appetite in clinical practice, validated assessment tools are currently available to facilitate early identification of appetite loss and support care decisions. As research on biomarkers of appetite loss progresses, assessment tools will soon be used jointly with biomarkers for more accurate diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, efforts to foster the development of drugs with a favorable risk/benefit ratio to combat poor appetite should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Idoso , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/complicações , Fragilidade/complicações , Apetite , Anorexia , Biomarcadores
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 19: 1-11, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647392

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is a global pandemic that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Natural herbs are commonly used for weight reduction and appetite suppression. Therefore, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of Nigella sativa (NS) and ginger on weight reduction and appetite regulation. Methods: This experimental study was performed at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. Twenty-five female rats were distributed into 5 groups: NS (oral 1000mg/kg), Ginger (500 mg/kg), NS-ginger (both interventions), a positive control (intraperitoneal 50 µg/kg Liraglutide), and a negative control. Each intervention was given for 9 weeks. Food intake and body weight were assessed weekly. Serum lipid profile and peptides involved in appetite control (cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, peptide YY, and orexin) were assayed at the end of the experiment. Results: None of the interventions showed a statistically significant difference regarding food consumption or weight gain (p > 0.05). However, the three interventions significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), NS and NS-ginger significantly increased HDL, NS increased ghrelin and ginger increased orexin. Conclusion: The present dose and duration of NS, ginger, or in combination did not demonstrate a significant change in body weight or food consumption in comparison to the negative or positive controls. However, NS or ginger has improved the lipid profile by reducing TC and increasing HDL. In addition, NS or ginger can influence some of the peptides involved in appetite regulation such as the increase in ghrelin induced by NS and the reduction of orexin induced by ginger. We believe that these latter effects are novel and might indicate a promising effect of these natural products on appetite regulation.


Assuntos
Depressores do Apetite , Gengibre , Nigella sativa , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Apetite , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Peso Corporal , Grelina/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Lipídeos , Orexinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Redução de Peso
8.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615865

RESUMO

Salt ingestion by animals and humans has been noted from prehistory. The search for salt is largely driven by a physiological need for sodium. There is a large body of literature on sodium intake in laboratory rats, but the vast majority of this work has used male rats. The limited work conducted in both male and female rats, however, reveals sex differences in sodium intake. Importantly, while humans ingest salt every day, with every meal and with many foods, we do not know how many of these findings from rodent studies can be generalized to men and women. This review provides a synthesis of the literature that examines sex differences in sodium intake and highlights open questions. Sodium serves many important physiological functions and is inextricably linked to the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis. Indeed, from a motivated behavior perspective, the drive to consume sodium has largely been studied in conjunction with the study of thirst. This review will describe the neuroendocrine controls of fluid balance, mechanisms underlying sex differences, sex differences in sodium intake, changes in sodium intake during pregnancy, and the possible neuronal mechanisms underlying these differences in behavior. Having reviewed the mechanisms that can only be studied in animal experiments, we address sex differences in human dietary sodium intake in reproduction, and with age.


Assuntos
Apetite , Sódio na Dieta , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Sódio , Sede/fisiologia , Modelos Animais
9.
Physiol Behav ; 258: 114008, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341834

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In addition to the low energy expenditure induced by sedentary behaviors such as sitting, it has been shown that intense cognitive work can lead to an increase in food intake. Walking Desk provide the opportunity for office workers to replace prolonged sitting at work with light intensity physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of sitting vs standing vs walking during a cognitive task on energy intake, appetite sensations, food reward and overall energy balance. METHODS: Fifteen normal weight (BMI: 24.1 ± 1.2 kg m-2) young men (23.4 ± 2.1 years) randomly performed three conditions: sitting desk (SitD), standing desk (StD) and walking desk (WD), while performing a 45-min cognitive task. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, regular appetite sensations were assessed using visual analogue scales, energy intake measured during an ad libitum meal and the relative energy intake calculated. Pre and post-test meal food reward was evaluated through the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. RESULTS: Relative energy intake decreased by 150 kcal in WD compared with SitD, however it did not reach statistical significance. There were no differences in appetite sensations nor food reward between the three conditions. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in WD (141.8 ± 13 kcal) than in SitD (78.7 ± 5 8 kcal) and StD (85.9 ± 8 kcal) (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Walking desk use can decrease sedentary time while working without any appetitive compensation. The small reduction in energy balance with walking while working could induce significant health benefits if repeated over time. Future longer studies need to clarify whether active desks can contribute to the prevention or management of weight gain.


Assuntos
Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Caminhada , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Caminhada/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Cognição
10.
Physiol Behav ; 259: 114051, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481197

RESUMO

Gastric distension and detection of macronutrients (calories) in the gut are determinants of satiation and satiety. We tested effects of these variables on body sensations after eating, and their connection with visual-analogue scale (VAS) hunger and fullness ratings. Participants completed VAS ratings and quality and location of body sensations tasks after consumption of milk chocolate (38 g, 200 kcal) versus fresh apple fruit matched for weight (38 g, 20 kcal) and matched for calories (380 g, 200 kcal). Effects of food weight (380 vs 38 g) were large and located predominantly in the abdominal region. They also occupied a greater body area and occurred sooner after eating than effects related to calories (200 vs 20 kcal). The same pattern was apparent in the results from the quality of sensations task. VAS ratings indicated that hunger was affected by food volume and calories, whereas fullness was affected primarily by food volume. Together, these results provide evidence of dissociation of the perceived after-effects of food ingestion related to food volume and food calorie content in humans. Additionally, the studies demonstrate the utility of two rarely used, semi-quantitative tasks, which generate information on the identity, intensity, valence, and location of eating-related sensations.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Malus , Humanos , Fome , Saciação , Ingestão de Energia , Sensação , Ingestão de Alimentos , Apetite
11.
Appetite ; 181: 106412, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493914

RESUMO

There is good evidence to indicate severe sleep restriction increases subjective feelings of hunger, but the impact of mild to moderate sleep restriction (i.e., 5-7 h) on hunger has not been systematically evaluated. Healthy male participants (n = 116; 22.8 ± 2.1 years; 22.9 ± 3.7 kg⋅m-2) were recruited to a ten-day laboratory study. In a between groups design, participants were allocated to one of five time in bed conditions (5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h or 9 h) for seven consecutive nights. Participants were provided a eucaloric diet and ratings of hunger, nausea and desire to eat certain foods were collected using visual analogue scales prior to meals (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack) on four days during the study. Data were analysed using linear mixed models with time in bed, time of day and study day as fixed effects and participant as a random effect. There was no main effect of time in bed, and no interaction between time in bed and study day, on hunger, nausea, prospective hunger or desire to eat certain foods. However, post-hoc analyses indicated that participants in the 5-h condition had an elevated desire to consume sweet foods and fruit on the final morning of the protocol. There was a main effect of time of day and study day on hunger; participants were hungriest prior to lunch time and hunger decreased over consecutive days of the protocol. When provided with a eucaloric diet, only 5-h time in bed increased desire to consume sweet foods and fruit in healthy young men.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fome , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Dieta , Apetite
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 31(2): 399-411, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare changes in gastrointestinal hormones and appetite ratings after a similar weight loss induced by a very low-energy diet alone or in combination with sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Patients with severe obesity scheduled for SG (n = 15) and RYGB (n = 14) and 15 controls (very low-energy diet alone) were recruited. Body weight/composition, plasma concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyric acid, acylated ghrelin, total glucagon-like peptide-1, total peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and ratings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured pre- and postprandially, before and after 10 weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Changes in body weight/composition and level of ketosis were similar across groups. In SG and RYGB, basal and postprandial acylated ghrelin declined, and postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 increased, both significantly more compared with controls. Postprandial peptide YY increased in all groups. Overall, postprandial hunger decreased, and postprandial fullness increased. But ratings of desire to eat and prospective food consumption were more favorable after both surgeries compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss with SG and RYGB leads to more favorable changes in gastrointestinal hormones compared with diet alone, although ratings of appetite were reduced across all groups.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Apetite , Grelina , Peptídeo YY , Redução de Peso , Dieta , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Gastrectomia
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 31 Suppl 1: 127-138, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Time-restricted eating (TRE) can reduce body weight, but it is unclear how it influences dietary patterns and behavior. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of TRE on diet quality, appetite, and several eating behaviors. METHODS: Adults with obesity were randomized to early TRE plus energy restriction (eTRE + ER; 8-hour eating window from 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.) or a control eating schedule plus energy restriction (CON + ER; ≥12-hour window) for 14 weeks. Food intake was assessed via the Remote Food Photography Method, while eating patterns, appetite, and eating behaviors were assessed via questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 59 participants completed the trial, of whom 45 had valid food records. eTRE + ER did not affect eating frequency, eating restraint, emotional eating, or the consistency of mealtimes relative to CON + ER. eTRE + ER also did not affect overall diet quality. The intensity and frequency of hunger and fullness were similar between groups, although the eTRE + ER group was hungrier while fasting. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with a weight-loss program, eTRE does not affect diet quality, meal frequency, eating restraint, emotional eating, or other eating behaviors relative to eating over more than a 12-hour window. Rather, participants implement eTRE as a simple timing rule by condensing their normal eating patterns into a smaller eating window.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dieta , Refeições , Ingestão de Alimentos
14.
Appetite ; 182: 106422, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539157

RESUMO

Exercise is an important component of a weight management strategy. However, little is known about whether circadian variations in physiological and behavioural processes can influence the appetite and energy balance responses to exercise performed at different times of the day. This study compared the effects of morning and evening exercise on appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and voluntary performance. In randomised, counterbalanced order, 16 healthy males and females (n = 8 each) completed two trials, performing morning exercise at 10:30 (AMEx) or evening exercise at 18:30 (PMEx). Exercise consisted of 30 min steady-state cycling (60% V˙ O2peak), and a 15-min performance test. A standardised meal (543 ± 86 kcal) was consumed 2-h before exercise and ad-libitum energy intake was assessed 15 min after exercise, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Absolute ad-libitum energy intake was 152 ± 126 kcal greater during PMEx (P < 0.001), but there was no differences in subjective appetite between trials immediately pre-exercise, or immediately before the post-exercise meal (P ≥ 0.060). Resting energy expenditure (P < 0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.05) were greater during AMEx, but there were no differences in substrate oxidation or energy expenditure during exercise (P ≥ 0.155). Exercise performance was not different between trials (P = 0.628). In conclusion, acute morning and evening exercise prompt similar appetite responses, but post-exercise ad-libitum energy intake is greater following evening exercise. These findings demonstrate discordant responses between subjective appetite and ad-libitum energy intake but suggest that exercise might offset circadian variations in appetite. Longer-term studies are required to determine how exercise timing affects adherence and weight management outcomes to exercise interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04742530, February 8, 2021.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apetite/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Refeições
15.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 134(1): 133-141, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476162

RESUMO

Altitude exposure may suppress appetite and hence provide a viable weight-loss strategy. While changes in food intake and availability as well as physical activity may contribute to altered appetite at altitude, herein we aimed to investigate the isolated effects of hypobaric hypoxia on appetite regulation and sensation. Twelve healthy women (age: 24.0 ± 4.2 years, body mass: 60.6 ± 7.0 kg) completed two 4-day sojourns in a hypobaric chamber, one in normoxia [PB = 761 mmHg, 262 m (NX)] and one in hypobaric hypoxia [PB = 493 mmHg (HH)] equivalent to 3,500-m altitude. Energy intake was standardized 4 days prior and throughout both sojourns. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and cytokine growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) were determined every morning. Before and after breakfast, lunch, and dinner, appetite was assessed using visual analog scales. Body mass was significantly decreased following HH but not NX (-0.71 ± 0.32 kg vs. -0.05 ± 0.54 kg, condition: P < 0.001). Compared to NX, acylated ghrelin decreased throughout the HH sojourn (condition × time: P = 0.020), while leptin was higher throughout the entire HH sojourn (condition: P < 0.001). No differences were observed in CCK and GDF15 between the sojourns. Feelings of satiety and fullness were higher (condition: P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively), whereas prospective food consumption was lower in HH than in NX (condition: P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that hypoxia exerts an anorexigenic effect on appetite-regulating hormones, suppresses subjective appetite sensation, and can induce weight loss in young healthy women. Among the investigated hormones, acylated ghrelin and leptin most likely explain the observed HH-induced appetite suppression.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study investigated the effects of hypoxia on appetite regulation in women while strictly controlling for diet, physical activity, menstrual cycle, and environmental conditions. In young women, 4 days of altitude exposure (3,500 m) decreases body weight and circulating acylated ghrelin levels while preserving leptin concentrations. In line with the hormonal changes, altitude exposure induces alterations in appetite sensation, consisting of a decreased feeling of hunger and prospective food intake and an increased feeling of fullness and satiety.


Assuntos
Altitude , Apetite , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Grelina , Leptina , Hipóxia , Ingestão de Energia , Redução de Peso , Sensação
16.
Peptides ; 160: 170919, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503895

RESUMO

The protein NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by the NAPMT gene) is present in two forms. The intracellular form of NAMPT (iNAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in a major nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathway and regulates cellular metabolism. NAMPT is also secreted by cells in the extracellular milieu, and referred to as extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT or visfatin). In mammals, visfatin has been linked to various metabolic disorders. However, the role of visfatin in regulating energy homeostasis in fish is not known. In this study, we assessed the effects of nutritional status on NAMPT mRNA expression and the effects of visfatin peripheral injections on food intake and the expression of appetite regulators in goldfish. Our results show that NAMPT is widely expressed in peripheral tissues and brain. Fasting induced increases in NAMPT expression in liver but had no effect on either brain or intestine NAMPT expression levels. Intraperitoneal injections of visfatin (400 ng/g) induced an increase in food intake and in expression levels of hepatic leptin and sirtuin1. Visfatin injections decreased intestine CCK and PYY, and telencephalon (but not hypothalamic) orexin and NPY expression levels. Visfatin did not affect plasma glucose levels, intestine ghrelin or brain CART, POMC and AgRP expressions. These data suggest that visfatin/NAMPT might be involved in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis in goldfish.


Assuntos
Carpa Dourada , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Animais , Carpa Dourada/genética , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Apetite , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Mamíferos
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 187: 106614, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538981

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on adiponectin and leptin levels; however, those findings remain contested. The present study aimed to explore the impact of probiotics/synbiotics on appetite-regulating hormones and the desire to eat. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching the Medline (PubMed) and Scopus databases from inception to December 2021, using relevant keywords and MeSH terms, and appropriate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were extracted. The standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated as part of the meta-analysis using a random-effect model to determine the mean effect sizes. Analysis of Galbraith plots and the Cochrane Chi-squared test were conducted to examine heterogeneity. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of data from a total of 26 RCTs (n = 1536) showed a significant decrease in serum/plasma leptin concentration following probiotic/synbiotic supplementation (SMD: -0.38, 95%CI= -0.638, -0.124); P-value= 0.004; I2= 69.4%; P heterogeneity < 0.001). The leptin level decrease from probiotic/synbiotic supplementation was higher in patients with NAFLD than those with overweight/obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus/ metabolic syndrome/ prediabetes. Probiotic/synbiotic supplementation was associated with a trending increase in adiponectin levels, stronger in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and prediabetes (SMD: 0.25, 95%CI= 0.04, 0.46) µg/mL; P-value= 0.021; I2 = 16.8%; P heterogeneity= 0.30). Additionally, supplementation with probiotic/synbiotic was linked to a slight increase in desire to eat (SMD: 0.34, 95%CI= 0.03, 0.66) P-value = 0.030; I2 = 39.4%; P heterogeneity= 0.16). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis indicates a favorable impact of probiotic/synbiotic supplementation on regulating leptin and adiponectin secretion.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Estado Pré-Diabético , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Humanos , Leptina , Adiponectina , Apetite , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
18.
Nutr Res ; 109: 35-46, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577255

RESUMO

Successful weight management represents a challenge to obesity control. Evidence suggests that nut consumption promotes a prolonged satiety response. Therefore, we hypothesize that nuts could be associated with greater weight loss in comparison to a control group, and we evaluate the acute and long-term effects of Brazilian nuts (BN: 15 g of Brazil nuts + 30 g of cashew nuts) included in an energy-restricted intervention on food intake, appetite, and peptide hormones. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, open-label, controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial with 28 women at cardiometabolic risk who received an energy-restricted diet containing BN or an energy-restricted nut-free diet (control). At baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, subjective postprandial appetite ratings were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before and after consumption (0, 10, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes) of a 437-kcal nut-enriched (BN group) or nut-free (control) breakfast meal. Subsequently, an ad libitum lunch was served, and the participants completed another VAS at 280 minutes. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin were measured at fasting and postprandially at 60, 120, and 240 minutes. Last, subsequent reported 24-hour energy intake was assessed in a free-living setting. BN consumption did not have acute effects on food intake, appetite, or peptide hormones. However, after an 8-week intervention, postprandial ghrelin (difference between post- and preintervention area under the curve) decreased in the BN group in comparison to the control (mean difference, 1978 pg/mL/min, 95% CI, 27-3929 pg/mL/min; P = .047) and therefore, an energy-restricted diet containing demonstrated potential to decrease hunger in cardiometabolic risk women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fome , Humanos , Feminino , Grelina , Nozes , Brasil , Dieta , Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Prandial , Estudos Cross-Over , Glicemia
19.
Appetite ; 182: 106421, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528255

RESUMO

While obesity remains a pressing issue, the wider population continues to be exposed to more digital food content than ever before. Much research has demonstrated the priming effect of visual food content, i.e., exposure to food cues increasing appetite and food intake. In contrast, some recent research points out that repeated imagined consumption can facilitate satiate and decrease food intake. Such findings have been suggested as potential remedies to excessive food cue exposure. However, the practically limitless variety of digital food content available today may undermine satiation attempts. The present work aims to replicate and extend prior findings by introducing a within-subjects baseline comparison, disentangling general and (sensory-) specific eating desires, as well as considering the moderating influence of visual and flavour stimulus variety. Three online studies (n = 1149 total) manipulated food colour and flavour variety and reproducibly revealed a non-linear dose-response pattern of imagined eating: 3 repetitions primed, while 30 repetitions satiated. Priming appeared to be specific to the taste of the exposed stimulus, and satiation, contrary to prior literature, appeared to be more general. Neither colour nor flavour variety reliably moderated any of the responses. Therefore, the results suggest that a more pronounced variety may be required to alter imagery-induced satiation.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Saciação , Humanos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Aromatizantes , Resposta de Saciedade , Ingestão de Energia
20.
Appetite ; 182: 106425, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535367

RESUMO

Limited work examining woman's appetite-regulatory response to exercise has been focused on the follicular phase (FP) of the menstrual cycle. This is an important limitation as estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) fluctuate across phases with greater concentrations in the luteal phase (LP). OBJECTIVE: To examine the appetite-regulatory response to vigorous-intensity continuous exercise (VICT) in the FP and LP. METHODS: Twelve women completed 30 min of VICT at 80% V˙O2max in the FP and LP. E2, P4, acylated ghrelin, active peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and appetite perceptions were measured pre-exercise, 0-, 30-, and 90-min post-exercise. Energy intake was recorded for a 2-day period (day before and of each session). A series of two-way repeated measure ANOVA were used to compare all dependent variables. RESULTS: Pre-exercise E2 (P = 0.005, d = 1.00) and P4 (P < 0.001, d = 1.41) concentrations were greater in the LP than the FP and exercise increased both at 0- and 30-min post-exercise (E2: P < 0.009; P4: P < 0.001, d = 0.63). Acylated ghrelin was lower in the FP versus LP at pre-exercise as well as 0-min (P = 0.006, d = 0.97) and 90-min (P = 0.029, d = 0.72) post-exercise. There were no differences of menstrual phase on PYY (P = 0.359, ηp2 = 0.092), GLP-1 (P = 0.226, ηp2 = 0.130), or overall appetite (P = 0.514, ηp2 = 0.066). Energy intake was greater on the day of in the LP versus the FP (P = 0.003, d = 1.2). CONCLUSION: Acylated ghrelin was lower in the FP compared to the LP and though there were no differences in anorexigenic hormones or subjective appetite, energy intake was greater on the day of the session in the LP suggesting important differences across the menstrual cycle where greater concentrations of ovarian hormones in the LP may blunt the exercise response.


Assuntos
Fase Folicular , Grelina , Humanos , Feminino , Fase Luteal , Apetite/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual , Peptídeo YY , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia
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