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1.
Andrologia ; 53(7): e14072, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891329

RESUMO

Caesalpinia bonduc is among the traditionally used plant in Benin, for its enhancement of male sexual activity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential effect of C. bonduc root extracts on sexual behaviour of male Wistar rats. For that, thirty-six rats were allocated into six groups and orally treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control), Sildenafil citrate (standard) and C. bonduc root extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) orally for twenty-eight days. Sexual behaviour parameters such as intromission frequency, intromission latency, mount latency and mount frequency were evaluated on day 0, 14 and 28. After the study completion, the body and reproductive organ weights as well as testicular histology and testosterone level were recorded. C. bonduc root extracts treatments had no significant effect on the body weight of rats. Enhancement in sexual behaviour was observed in ethanolic extract treated rats. An significant increase in mount frequency and intromission frequency as well as significant reduction in mount latency and intromission latency were noticed for ethanolic extract. The same extract caused an improvement in testosterone levels, relative testes weight and histological architecture. The findings demonstrate the aphrodisiac potential of C. bonduc root and lend support to the folkloric use as aphrodisiac.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos , Caesalpinia , Animais , Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Sexual Animal
2.
PLoS Biol ; 19(1): e3001022, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465061

RESUMO

Plants and insects often use the same compounds for chemical communication, but not much is known about the genetics of convergent evolution of chemical signals. The terpene (E)-ß-ocimene is a common component of floral scent and is also used by the butterfly Heliconius melpomene as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone. While the biosynthesis of terpenes has been described in plants and microorganisms, few terpene synthases (TPSs) have been identified in insects. Here, we study the recent divergence of 2 species, H. melpomene and Heliconius cydno, which differ in the presence of (E)-ß-ocimene; combining linkage mapping, gene expression, and functional analyses, we identify 2 novel TPSs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one, HmelOS, is able to synthesise (E)-ß-ocimene in vitro. We find no evidence for TPS activity in HcydOS (HmelOS ortholog of H. cydno), suggesting that the loss of (E)-ß-ocimene in this species is the result of coding, not regulatory, differences. The TPS enzymes we discovered are unrelated to previously described plant and insect TPSs, demonstrating that chemical convergence has independent evolutionary origins.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Afrodisíacos/antagonistas & inibidores , Borboletas , Feromônios/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genes de Insetos , Masculino , Feromônios/farmacologia , Filogenia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113664, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278545

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aglaonema hookerianum Schott is an ethnomedicinally important plant used to treat a variety of diseases, including sexual and depression-like disorders. However, the scientific basis underlying the aforesaid properties have not been well justified. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present investigation aimed to investigate the anxiolytic, antidepressant and aphrodisiac potentials of methanol leaves extract of A. hookerianum (MEAH) in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS & METHODS: Swiss albino mice (20-30 g) were orally administrated with MEAH at the doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg, b.w. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole board test (HBT) were performed to determine the anxiolytic activity and the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were performed to determine the antidepressant activity of MEAH. Besides, the aphrodisiac activity of MEAH was conducted through the mounting behaviour and orientation behaviour analysis. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.) for EPM and HBT; fluoxetine HCl (20 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) for FST and TST, and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) for the mounting behaviour analysis and orientation behaviour analysis were used as reference drugs. RESULTS: The administration of the MEAH produced a strong (p < 0.001) dose-dependent anxiolytic effects in both HBT and EPM tests. Likewise, the extract revealed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in the immobility time in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Besides, the MEAH also found to possess marked aphrodisiac activity complying several facets such as an increase in the sexual performance at the highest dose (400 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as the orientation toward female mice (p < 0.001) at all tested doses. CONCLUSION: Taken together, MEAH can be recommended as a potent source of neuroprotective and a libido-boosting drug candidate for the management of neurological and sexual disorders.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Afrodisíacos/uso terapêutico , Araceae , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/isolamento & purificação , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Afrodisíacos/isolamento & purificação , Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/efeitos adversos , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/fisiologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/psicologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Natação/fisiologia , Natação/psicologia
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 194: 113774, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272790

RESUMO

A novel method for hierarchical screening of illegal adulterants in Fur seal ginseng pills (FSGP) products was developed by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) coupled to salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with multi-dimensional fingerprint profiling analysis. Using a homogeneous system formed by dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and water as the extractant, the MAE conditions were investigated to maximize extraction recoveries, followed by addition of ammonium sulfate to induce DMC phase separation for SALLE enrichment of 16 potentially illegal adulterants such as phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, androgens, α receptor antagonists and yohimbine etc. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) and fluorescence detection (FLD), multi-dimensional fingerprints were acquired by multi-wavelength detection to highlight the signals of the potentially illegal adulterants and reduce or remove interferences from the sample matrix. For high accuracy and reliability, a hierarchical screening strategy was designed by multi-dimensional fingerprinting profiling analysis (MDFPA). The method exhibited proper identification and quantification performance, and it was successfully applied to screening of illegal adulterants in 18 batches of the samples through the step-by-step MDFPA. Also, the results were further confirmed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap/MS). The proposed method was proved to be a green, efficient and reliable alternative to monitoring aphrodisiac health products.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Micro-Ondas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Nat Prod ; 83(12): 3736-3743, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296204

RESUMO

Hybanthus enneaspermus is an Indian folk medicinal herb that has been widely used as a libido enhancer. This plant belongs to the Violaceae plant family, which ubiquitously contains disulfide-rich cyclic peptides named cyclotides. Cyclotides are an expanding plant-derived peptide family with numerous interesting bioactivities, and their unusual stability against proteolysis has attracted much attention in drug design applications. Recently, H. enneaspermus has been reported to be a rich source of cyclotides, and hence, it was of interest to investigate whether cyclotides contribute to its aphrodisiac activity. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo aphrodisiac activity of the herbal powder, extract, and the most abundant cyclotide, hyen D, extracted from H. enneaspermus on rats in a single dose regimen. After dosing, the sexual behaviors of male rats were observed, recorded, analyzed, and compared with those of the vehicle group. The results show that the extract and hyen D significantly decreased the intromission latency of sexually naïve male rats and the extract improved a range of other measured sexual parameters. The results suggest that the extract could enhance libido as well as facilitate erectile function in male rats and that the cyclotide hyen D could contribute to the libido-enhancing activity of this ethnomedicinal herb.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Violaceae/química , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Comportamento Sexual Animal
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 261: 113182, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730872

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Roots of Pfaffia glomerata are used in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs and sexual stimulants. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the hydroalcoholic extract from the roots of Pfaffia glomerata on the Leydig cells, cavernous bodies and other penile constituents, as well as on serum testosterone and 17ß-estradiol levels of adult mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mature male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups: control (water), sildenafil citrate, 3 groups receiving daily doses of P. glomerata extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and one group receiving intermittent doses of P. glomerata (200 mg/kg/3-3d). RESULTS: The proportions of blood vessels, lymphatic space and estradiol levels were increased. On the other hand, reduction of testosterone levels due to Leydig cells death was observed. As for penile parameters, volumetric proportions of cavernous bodies, collagen and nitric oxide were increased, while smooth muscle content was decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Despite that the long term intake of P. glomerata extract was related to a stimulant action, reduction on Leydig cell viability induced decreased testosterone production.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/irrigação sanguínea , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Amaranthaceae/toxicidade , Animais , Afrodisíacos/isolamento & purificação , Afrodisíacos/toxicidade , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/sangue , Colágenos Fibrilares/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pênis/metabolismo , Pênis/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Solventes/química , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 284-287, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238244

RESUMO

Cantharidin is a toxin extracted from coleoptera beetles, commonly known as 'Spanish fly'. Traditionally it was used as an aphrodisiac, a vesicant or as an abortifacient. Intoxication by this substance has been widely reported, generally associated with gastrointestinal complications, such as digestive hemorrhage, and genitourinary disorders, such as hematuria and acute kidney injury. The authors describe the case of a 51-year old male patient who developed severe cantharidin poisoning after ingesting a preparation ('tea formulation') containing the substance. The patient reported a burning sensation in his oral cavity, diarrhea and hematuria, having sustained acute kidney injury and atypical neurological symptoms. Due to the lack of an antidote, the available treatment options are reduced to supportive measures. This case strengthens the need for a thorough medical history to ascertain the use of 'natural' products and medicinal herbs (i.e. of unregulated origin), and the importance of educating the community to their potential toxicity.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/envenenamento , Cantaridina/envenenamento , Gasometria , Humanos , Irritantes/envenenamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 257: 112868, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298751

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several species of Ferula L. genus have been used in traditional Turkish medicine as aphrodisiac to treat male sexual dysfunction. Especially, roots and oleo gum resin of F. elaeochytris Korovin, F. communis L., F. assa-foetida L. and F. gummosa Boiss. were claimed to be used for aphrodisiac activity, menstrual regulation and treatment of gastric pain in Anatolia. Ferula L. is represented by 23 taxa in Turkey, 13 of which are endemic species. F. huber-morathii Pesmen (FHM), an endemic plant, is popularly known as ''helizan, çagsir''. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to isolate sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Ferula huber-morathii (FHM) and to confirm their aphrodisiac potential in male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a preliminary experiment, the effects of aqueous (H2O) and chloroform (CHCl3) extracts of FHM were tested for their potential aphrodisiac activities in male rats. Then, sesquiterpene derivatives were isolated from the active chloroform extract of FHM roots (FHM-R) and characterized (TLC, 1D, 2D NMR, HR-MS and CD). Moreover, some of the isolates with adequate quantities were evaluated for their possible aphrodisiac effects on male rats. Single doses (10 mg/kg BW) of sildenafil citrate (SC, positive control), gummosin, mogoltavidin, deacetylkellerin, ferukrin acetate with kellerin, elaeochytrin-A and ferutinin were administered orally by gavages to male Wistar albino rats. Mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), intromission latency (IL), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation latency (EL) and postejaculatory interval (PEI) were studied. In addition, copulatory efficiency (CE) and intercopulatory efficiency (ICE) were calculated. RESULTS: The preliminary experiment revealed that the chloroform extract was the main source of the active compounds as it showed the higher aphrodisiac activity while the aqueous extract was found to be inactive. Eleven sesquiterpene derivatives, viz. gummosin, mogoltavidin, farnesiferol A, deacetylkellerin, ferukrin acetate, kellerin, teuclatriol, feruhermonin C, ferutinin, elaeochytrin A and teferidin, were isolated from the FHM-CHCl3 extract. Oral administration of deacetylkellerin, elaeochytrin-A and ferutinin significantly increased MF and IF. The ML and IL were significantly reduced, and ejaculation latencies were prolonged. Administration of these sesquiterpenoids also reduced the PEI. The present results revealed that ferutinin was the most effective aphrodisiac compound compared to other sesquiterpenoids. The results of 10 mg/kg of ferutinin are comparable to SC, the positive control. The results revealed that gummosin, mogoltavidin and ferukrin acetate with kellerin did not significantly alter the aphrodisiac parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This study has established that the CHCl3 extract of FHM root contains sesquiterpene derivatives, especially coumarin ethers and benzoic esters. Findings of the present study demonstrate that the chloroform extract and some of the sesquiterpene derivatives significantly stimulates sexual behavior in male rats, thus suggesting that F. huber-morathii possesses an aphrodisiac activity.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Ferula , Raízes de Plantas , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Afrodisíacos/isolamento & purificação , Clorofórmio/química , Copulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferula/química , Masculino , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos Wistar , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Água/química
9.
Sex Med Rev ; 8(3): 431-442, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139335

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to attain or sustain an erection for sexual intercourse. Affected men endorse difficulties with intimacy and feelings of guilt and shame. Although medical treatments are available, patients are reluctant to discuss ED with physicians and often use dietary supplements to attempt to treat their ED. As such, there is a need to better understand the effects of ingredients used in nutraceuticals for ED treatment. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the literature on the efficacy and safety of the most common ingredients used in ED supplements. METHODS: 10 of the most common ingredients in ED supplements were reviewed using PubMed-indexed literature to assess their efficacy and safety in treating ED. Key findings were summarized to include historical use, active ingredients, prior animal studies, human studies, and toxicity. RESULTS: Nutraceuticals used in ED treatment include a variety of ingredients. Although L-arginine is a safe supplement with clinical data supporting improved erectile function, limited data exist on the efficacy of other ingredients in the treatment of ED. CONCLUSION: Despite the growing use of supplements for treatment of sexual dysfunction, ED supplements remain poorly studied, with limited data demonstrating efficacy of individual ingredients. Further study is required to definitively determine the efficacy of nutraceuticals in ED treatment. Srivatsav A, Balasubramanian A, Pathak UI, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Common Ingredients in Aphrodisiacs Used for Erectile Dysfunction: A Review. J Sex Med 2020;8:431-442.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Afrodisíacos/efeitos adversos , Afrodisíacos/química , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disfunção Erétil/dietoterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Fitoterapia
10.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 39(2): 127-146, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597489

RESUMO

Hydroethanolic preparations of Acmella oleracea is used in the north of Brazil as a female aphrodisiac. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of the hydroethanolic extract of Acmella oleracea (EHFAo) flowers (21.873 and 44.457 mg/kg) and spilanthol (3 mg/kg) administered orally on reproductive performance and effects on the embryonic development of zebrafish F1 generation. It was observed that in the groups in which males and females received EHFAo and spilanthol, the spawning was interrupted, whereas in the groups in which only the females were treated, spawning occurred during the 21 days. Thus, in the histopathological evaluation of the gonads, it was possible to observe that the percentage of mature cells in the spermatozoa and females was significantly reduced. Only the embryo groups in which parental generation was treated with EHFAo showed lethal and teratogenic effects. On the other hand, the parental groups treated with the spilanthol presented only the lethality. Spilanthol and some metabolites showed good oral availability and important toxicological properties. Thus, it is suggested that the treatment of parental generation of zebrafish with EHFAo and spilanthol caused severe changes in the gonads and on fertility. However, on the embryo, the most striking effects in the development were recorded in the groups in which the parental generation was treated with the EHFAo, while the spilanthol influenced the lethality of the embryos.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/toxicidade , Asteraceae/toxicidade , Flores/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Asteraceae/química , Brasil , Flores/química
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 251: 112464, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881322

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Female Sexual Dysfunction is a complex condition with biopsychosocial origins. Plants traditionally used as aphrodisiacs may be promising as routes to develop therapeutic options which are lacking. AIM: To distinguish the plants commonly used in (AP) on the market in the United States, and to evaluate their ethnobotanical and clinical evidence as a basis for their inclusion. METHODS: This study is a narrative review of 53 species commonly found in AP on the market in the United States. Most species listed have anecdotal use as aphrodisiacs throughout history; therefore, a systematic search was done for clinical evidence. The primary outcome assessed is the clinical efficacy of plants in the treatment of libido desire disorders. RESULTS: There is little to no evidence from the literature to substantiate claims of plants currently on the market as AP for female libido desire disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The biggest problem in the literature is the lack of botanical verification and consistency in material across studies. Any botanical, commercial or otherwise must be tested for chemical markers exhibited by individual species; however, if no markers exist, work must first be done to determine these. Appropriate analytical techniques for this would include high pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectroscopy. It would also be sufficient to taxonomically authenticate species provided the plant material. Further research should aim to standardize plant material and extraction methods utilized in order to compare studies effectively and allow for reproducibility to draw conclusions. While clear interest into investigation the aphrodisiac potential of plants exists, a translatable in vivo animal model does not. Clinical trials rely on patient reported outcomes to determine efficacy but cost and length of such trials deem a necessity for development of an animal model to first screen botanicals. We suggest development of screening tools utilizing the evident neurobiological underpinnings of FSD as the first step. In general, studies of plants currently used as ingredients for AP are severely lacking, and even so the evidence that exists is weak.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Estados Unidos
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14262, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582781

RESUMO

The male butterfly Pieris napi produces the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone methyl salicylate (MeS) and transfers it to the female during mating. After mating she releases MeS, when courted by conspecific males, which decreases her attractiveness and the duration of male harassment, thus increasing her time available for egg-laying. In previous studies we have shown that males produced MeS from the amino acid L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) acquired during larval stage. In this study we show that adult males of P. napi can utilize L-Phe and aromatic flower volatiles as building blocks for production of anti-aphrodisiac pheromone and transfer it to females during mating. We demonstrate this by feeding butterflies with stable isotope labelled molecules mixed in sugar solutions, and, to mimic the natural conditions, we fed male butterflies with floral nectar of Bunias orientalis plants treated with labelled L-Phe. The volatiles from butterflies and plants were collected and identified by solid phase micro extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. Since P. napi is polygamous, males would gain from restoring the titre of MeS after mating and the use of aromatic precursors for production of MeS could be considered as an advantageous trait which could enable butterflies to relocate L-Phe for other needs.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/antagonistas & inibidores , Borboletas/fisiologia , Feromônios/metabolismo , Salicilatos/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenilalanina/metabolismo
13.
Andrologia ; 51(10): e13404, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489680

RESUMO

Abutilon pannosum (Forst.f.) Schlecht. is used for male sexual performance. In this study, we have investigated aphrodisiac potential of A. pannosum stem bark methanol extract (APM) in rat. Male rats were administered with APM (400 mg/kg) on daily basis for 5, 10 and 15 days. Time interval for mount latency, intromission latency and post-ejaculatory interval was decreased (p < .05) while time of ejaculatory latency, mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory frequency after 15 days were (p < .05) enhanced as compared to control rats. APM also increased (p < .05) penile erection index, copulatory rate and mount bout against control rats. Total count of spermatozoa was nonsignificantly increased whereas per cent of live spermatozoa and motile spermatozoa were increased (p < .05) in APM treated group after 10 and 15 days. Weight of testes, seminal vesicle, prostate and epididymis, and level of testosterone in serum increased (p < .05) after 10 and 15 days of APM administration to rat. Qualitative characterisation of APM indicated existence of alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterols. Results of this study indicated aphrodisiac potential of A. pannosum in rat and may be used to enhance sexual performance in human.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/administração & dosagem , Malvaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Afrodisíacos/química , Afrodisíacos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanol/química , Modelos Animais , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(31): 15671-15676, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308220

RESUMO

Sexual arousal is a dynamical, highly coordinated neurophysiological process that is often induced by visual stimuli. Numerous studies have proposed that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage, in which sex differences occur, and the divergence between men and women has been attributed to differences in the concerted activity of neural networks. The present comprehensive metaanalysis challenges this hypothesis and provides robust quantitative evidence that the neuronal circuitries activated by visual sexual stimuli are independent of biological sex. Sixty-one functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (1,850 individuals) that presented erotic visual stimuli to men and women of different sexual orientation were identified. Coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation was used to conduct metaanalyses. Sensitivity and clustering analyses of averaged neuronal response patterns were performed to investigate robustness of the findings. In contrast to neutral stimuli, sexual pictures and videos induce significant activations in brain regions, including insula, middle occipital, anterior cingulate and fusiform gyrus, amygdala, striatum, pulvinar, and substantia nigra. Cluster analysis suggests stimulus type as the most, and biological sex as the least, predictor for classification. Contrast analysis further shows no significant sex-specific differences within groups. Systematic review of sex differences in gray matter volume of brain regions associated with sexual arousal (3,723 adults) did not show any causal relationship between structural features and functional response to visual sexual stimuli. The neural basis of sexual arousal in humans is associated with sexual orientation yet, contrary to the widely accepted view, is not different between women and men.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Emoções/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Afrodisíacos/uso terapêutico , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8939854, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111071

RESUMO

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.), known as "Shakarqandi" in Pakistan, is an imperative root vegetable with large size, traditionally used as aphrodisiac, antiprostatic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cardiotonic, and anticancer agent. Present study was conducted to gauge aphrodisiac potential of Ipomoea batatas ethyl acetate (IPT-EA, IPA-EA) and methanol (IPT-M, IPA-M) extracts from tuber and aerial part, respectively, via behavioral and biochemical tests and their possible protective role in BPA-induced gonadotoxicity at the dose 300 mg/kg in male Sprague Dawley rats. Phytochemical analysis was done qualitatively and quantitatively through total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC and TFC) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) fingerprinting while antioxidant profiling used multimode in vitro assays. To calculate sexual excitement mount latency, intromission latency, mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculatory latency, and postejaculatory interval were examined while for biochemical ratification semen characteristics, levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol were measured. Gonadoprotective ability was assessed through comet assay and histomorphological examination of testes. Qualitative analysis ensured the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanin, saponins, coumarins, terpenoids, and betacyanin. Quantitatively maximal TPC (304.32±7.20 µg GAE/mg dry extract) and TFC (214.77±4.09 µg QE/mg DE) were estimated in IPA-EA extract. IPT-EA yielded maximum rutin (7.3±0.12) and myricetin (2.7±0.14 µg/mg DE) while IPA-EA and IPA-M yielded maximum caffeic acid (4.05±0.22 and 1.92±0.17 µg/mg DE, respectively) in HPLC-DAD analysis. Extracts enhanced sexual excitement, improved semen quality, levels of testosterone, FSH, LH, and estradiol, and successfully attenuated toxic effects of BPA. Levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, and GSH) were restored and NO abundance was minimized. Significant stimulation in sexual behavior, amelioration of toxicity symptoms, elevated spermatic production, raised viability, vitalized levels of gonadal hormones, maintained endogenous enzymes, genoprotection, and reformed testicular histology endorsed I. batatas as a better aphrodisiac alternative and gonadoprotective agent.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Comportamento Animal , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Hormônios Gonadais , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Paquistão , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Tubérculos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise do Sêmen , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Testículo/patologia
16.
Food Res Int ; 120: 178-187, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000228

RESUMO

The antioxidant and aphrodisiac properties of oyster meat (OM) and its hydrolysates by alcalase (OMA) were compared. The results showed that OMA displayed a higher antioxidant activity than OM with or without gastrointestinal digestion. Furthermore, the study reported that oral administration of OM or OMA could induce aphrodisiac activities and consequently enhance the sexual behavior in normal male mice, at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Additionally, OMA also exhibited better antioxidant activity in vivo than OM by improving the activities of the endogenous cellular antioxidant enzymes and decreasing the MDA levels, which may be helpful in improving the sexual function. These results indicated that oysters' could be a potential functional ingredient with antioxidant and aphrodisiac activities, and the activities could be improved by alcalase hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Crassostrea , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Subtilisinas/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrólise , Masculino , Camundongos
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1459141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915346

RESUMO

Anacardium occidentale L. leaf demonstrates sexual enhancement effect. Therefore, it can be used as the potential supplement and functional ingredient. However, the ethanolic leaf extract of this plant is a modified form of traditional application and the toxicity evaluation is required. To assess cytotoxicity of the extract, RAW 264.7 cells were treated with A. occidentale leaf extract in the concentration range between 0.625 and 10 mg/mL. Our results showed that the extract showed more than 90% cell viability at the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL after 24-hour exposure. To assure the consumption safety, the acute and subchronic toxicity must be studied. Acute toxicity showed that the extract is safe even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg in both sexes of Wistar rats. No changes in behavior, physiology, gross pathology, and histology were observed. To determine the subchronic toxicity of extract, both sexes of Wistar rats were orally given the extract at doses of 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg once daily for 90 days. No changes in body weight, food, and water intake, motor coordination, behavior, and mental alertness were observed. The significant reduction of white blood cell, platelet, and cholesterol together with increase in MCHC was observed in male rats. The reductions of white blood cell and platelet together with the elevations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were also observed in female rats. However, all changes were in normal range. The current results revealed that an ethanolic extract of A. occidentale leaf was well tolerated via oral consumption up to dose of 500 mg/kg BW for 90 days and did not produce any toxicity. Our in vitro cytotoxicity test also confirmed this safety.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Afrodisíacos/administração & dosagem , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Anacardium/toxicidade , Animais , Afrodisíacos/química , Afrodisíacos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 231: 453-463, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545804

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper auritum Kunth is employed as an aphrodisiac in the traditional medicine, but corroborative evidence for such effect is scarce. AIM OF THE STUDY: The pro-sexual effect of an aqueous extract of P. auritum and its possible mechanisms were analyzed in two paradigms of male sexual function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Effects of an aqueous extract of P. auritum (PA, single administration) were investigated in the fictive ejaculation, and copulatory behavior paradigms in sexually sluggish male rats. WAY 100635 (antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors), atosiban (antagonist of oxytocinergic receptors), L-NAME (inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase) and baclofen (antagonist of GABAB receptors) were used as pre-treatments in order to investigate the role of different neurotransmitter systems in PA actions. Chemical profile of PA was determined by Gases Chromatography and Ultra Performance Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Masses Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS). RESULTS: In males with retarded ejaculation, PA stimulated ejaculatory behavior and recovered electromyographic activity of pelvic musculature participating in seminal emission and ejaculation. All pre-treatments blocked stimulating effects of PA on the fictive ejaculation; additionally WAY 100635 interfered with PA actions on ejaculatory behavior. Safrol, apigenin dimethylether, myristicin, vaccihein A, sakuranin and sakuranetin flavonoids, were main constituents of PA, with possible participation in its pro-sexual effects. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-sexual effects of P. auritum elicited at level of ejaculation were mediated by several neurotransmitter systems, among which serotonin and its 5-HT1A receptors play an important role. Present findings support P. auritum reputation as an aphrodisiac, with potential use in delayed ejaculation disorder.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Piper , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Afrodisíacos/química , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Piper/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/fisiologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia
19.
Andrologia ; 51(2): e13180, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350415

RESUMO

Cassia auriculata is a commonly found plant in Asia, widely used in Ayurveda and Siddha medicines as a tonic, astringent and in general for diabetes. Herbal tea made from this plant has been marketed as a product for restoring sexual vitality, to increase sperm count and counteract ejaculatory disorders. However, the scientific evidences are scarce to prove this concept. Here, we examined the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract obtained from C. auriculata flower upon the expression of male Wistar albino rat's sexual behaviour. Sildenafil was used as a positive control. Penile erection index (PEI), mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEjI) were recorded for days 0, 7, 14 and 28 and also after the withdrawal of the treatment on days 7 and 15. Significant reduction in ML, IL and PEjI, and increment in EL, PEI, MF, IF and EF were observed (p < 0.05, <0.01). However, neither extract nor sildenafil sustains the effect after withdrawal of the treatment. The present finding demonstrates the aphrodisiac potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. auriculata flower in vivo and lends support to the traditional utilisation as a sexual stimulating agent.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Cassia , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 229: 167-179, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339977

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selected Peruvian Amazon plants are macerated into sugar cane distillates to prepare alcoholic beverages used to improve male sexual performance. The tree bark from Campsiandra angustifolia Spruce ex Benth (Fabaceae), Swartzia polyphylla DC (Fabaceae), Minquartia guianensis Aubl. (Olacaceae) and Thynantus panurensis (Bureau) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) usually are used as crude drugs in mixtures of several ingredients. AIM OF STUDY: Describe the chemical composition of the most traded traditional male enhancer beverages, namely "Levántate Lazaro" and "Siete veces sin sacarla", and their single crude drug constituents, as well as their inhibitory activity towards the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5. The presence of pro-sexual drugs such as Sildenafil® and derivatives was assessed in the samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single plant constituents and the preparation mixtures were purchased in the Mercado Belen (Iquitos, Peru). Chemical profiling was carried out by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The extracts were assessed for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition. The occurrence of pro-sexual drugs was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. RESULTS: Chemical profiling allowed the identification of condensed tannins as the main constituents of C. angustifolia and S. polyphylla, hydrolysable tannins for M. guianensis, and C-glycosides for T. panurensis. The traditional preparations showed similar composition compared to the crude drugs. At 200 µg/mL, the traditional preparation "Levántate Lázaro" and "Siete veces sin sacarla" inhibited the phosphodiesterase-5 by 49.88% and 27.90%, respectively. No adulterations with pro-sexual drugs were found in the samples. From the crude drugs, low effect was found for the extracts of S. polyphylla and T. panurensis and high activity for C. angustifolia which inhibited the enzyme by 89.37% and 81.32% at 200 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: The traditional preparations used to improve sexual performance in the Peruvian Amazon showed activity as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. The most active ingredient of the traditional preparations was C. angustifolia, with some contribution from T. panurensis. These results encourage additional studies, including animal models to confirm the male enhancer effect of the preparations.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Magnoliopsida , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Afrodisíacos/química , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta , Preparações de Plantas/química
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