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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669807

RESUMO

Plant-derived products can assist in the healing process of dermal wounds. It has been demonstrated that Hancornia speciosa latex present angiogenic, osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Then, it could contribute to the wound healing process. However, natural products in contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allergic and irritant potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex using in vitro assays. The obtained results showed that the H. speciosa serum fraction latex has a slightly irritant potential and is not cytotoxic neither allergenic for human cells. Moreover, we identified a remarkable low amount of proteins in this material in comparison to Hevea brasiliensis latex. This result could explain the non-allergenic potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex because proteins present in latex are the main responsible for allergy. This biomaterial could be used as a non-allergenic source for development of new medicines.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Hevea , Alérgenos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Humanos , Látex , Cicatrização
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473763

RESUMO

Rising incidents of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among catheterized patients is a noteworthy problem in clinic due to their colonization of uropathogens on abiotic surfaces. Herein, we have examined the surface modification of urinary catheter by embedding with eco-friendly synthesized phytomolecules-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to prevent the invasion and colonization of uropathogens. The preliminary confirmation of AgNPs production in the reaction mixture was witnessed by the colour change and surface resonance plasmon (SRP) band at 410nm by UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphology, size, crystalline nature, and elemental composition of attained AgNPs were further confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The functional groups of AgNPs with stabilization/capped phytochemicals were detected by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Further, antibiofilm activity of synthesized AgNPs against biofilm producers such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined by viability assays and micrographically. AgNPs coated and coating-free catheters performed to treat with bacterial pathogen to analyze the mat formation and disruption of biofilm formation. Synergistic effect of AgNPs with antibiotic reveals that it can enhance the activity of antibiotics, AgNPs coated catheter revealed that, it has potential antimicrobial activity and antibiofilm activity. In summary, C. carandas leaf extract mediated synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue and a promising template to embed on urinary catheter to control clinical pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Cateteres Urinários/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2905-2909, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383166

RESUMO

Golden trumpet (Allamanda cathartica) plants were observed to exhibit mottling and distortion symptoms on leaves. The genome of an associated begomovirus (Al-K1) was amplified by rolling-circle amplification, cloned, and sequenced. The viral genome consisted of two circular ssDNA molecules, and the organization of the ORFs was similar to those of DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses. The size of DNA-A (KC202818) and DNA-B (MG969497) of the begomovirus was 2772 and 2690 nucleotides, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the DNA-A and DNA-B components shared the highest sequence identity with duranta leaf curl virus (MN537564, 87.8%) and cotton leaf curl Alabad virus (MH760452, 81.0%), respectively. Interestingly, the Al-K1 isolate shared significantly less nucleotide sequence identity with allamanda leaf curl virus (EF602306, 71.6%), the only monopartite begomovirus reported previously in golden trumpet from China. Al-K1 shared less than 91% sequence identity with other begomoviruses, and hence, according to the latest ICTV guidelines for species demarcation of begomoviruses, Al-K1 is proposed to be a member of a new species, and we propose the name "allamanda leaf mottle distortion virus" (AllLMoDV-[IN-Al_K1-12]) for this virus. AllLMoDV was detected in various golden trumpet samples from different locations by PCR with specific primers based on the genome sequence determined in this study. Our study provides evidence of the occurrence of a new bipartite begomovirus in a perennial ornamental plant in India.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/virologia , Begomovirus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sequência de Bases , Begomovirus/classificação , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Índia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153684, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melodinus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. is a medicinal plant, which is used as a folk medicine for treating meningitis and fractures. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of total alkaloid extract from M. cochinchinensis (MCTA) and its molecular mechanism are still not studied. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the main chemical constituents of MCTA and explore its anti-inflammatory potential in both in vitro and in vivo assessments. METHODS: UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS was applied to analyze the chemical profiling. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of MCTA was evaluated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells and two common inflammation models in mice. The production of pro-inflammatory mediator and cytokine was tested using the ELISA method. The pathological change was analyzed by histological assessment. The expression of NF-κB, MAPKs and PPAR-γ proteins was evaluated using western blot analysis. RESULTS: A total of 21 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) were characterized by UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS. Aspidospermine- and quinolone-type alkaloids were found to be the major compounds. MCTA significantly decreased the production of NO, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. MCTA significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, suppressed the NF-κB transcriptional activation and improved the PPAR-γ expression. Moreover, the in vivo experiment exhibited that MCTA pretreatment markedly alleviated the xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and decreased the IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α expressions. CONCLUSION: MCTA is rich in MIAs and exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the production proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanism might be related to the inhibition of activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Anti-Inflamatórios , Apocynaceae/química , Edema , Extratos Vegetais , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for botanicals to be used as an alternative and complementary medicine in the management of male infertility. Male infertility has been a major health/social challenge to people all over the world. This study, therefore, investigated the ameliorative potential of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (HELEPN) against d-galactose-induced testicular injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups (n = 5). Group I (Normal control), Group II (300 mg/kg b.w. d-galactose), Group III and IV (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. HELEPN, respectively), Group V and VI (both received 300 mg/kg b.w. of d-galactose with 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of HELEPN, respectively). d-galactose administration started two weeks prior to HELEPN treatment which lasted for six weeks. All assays were carried out using established protocols. RESULTS: Administration of HELEPN at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg concomitantly with d-galactose improved paired and relative testicular weights, levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and testosterone, and poor sperm quality. HELEPN treatment reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, 8-OHDG, and AGEs) and inflammatory response (TNF-alpha and NO) to normal, as well as restoring the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). In addition, HELEPN treatment mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation and down-regulated caspase 3-activities. HELEPN at 500 mg/kg was observed to have the greatest ameliorative effect. CONCLUSION: HELEPN protects against d-galactose-induced testicular injury through antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Testículo/lesões , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Análise do Sêmen , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
6.
Org Lett ; 23(15): 5964-5968, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270272

RESUMO

Melonine is a basic monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) skeleton from Melodinus philliraeoides that was reported in 1983. The scarcity of its spectroscopic data questioned the validity of its structure. This prompted us to reisolate this molecule and to revise its structure into an unprecedented MIA scaffold. DFT-validated biosynthetic paths to both this new core and the originally reported form are proposed. The pathway to the original structure of melonine seems to be thermodynamically feasible, and that compound may exist as a natural product.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Produtos Biológicos , Alcaloides Indólicos/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/síntese química
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14520, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267257

RESUMO

The genus Hoya is highly diverse and many of its species are popular ornamental plants. However, the relationships between Hoya and related genera (the Hoya group) are not fully resolved. In this study, we report 20 newly sequenced plastomes of species in the Hoya group. The complete plastomes vary in length from 175,405 to 178,525 bp while the LSCs vary from 90,248 to 92,364 bp and the complete SSCs vary from 2,285 to 2,304 bp, making the SSC in the Hoya group one of the shortest known in the angiosperms. The plastome structure in the Hoya group is characterised by a massive increase in the size of the inverted repeats as compared to the outgroups. In all ingroup species, the IR/SSC boundary moved from ycf1 to ndhF while this was not observed in outgroup taxa, making it a synapomorphy for the Hoya group. We have also assembled the mitogenome of Hoya lithophytica, which, at 718,734 bp, is the longest reported in the family. The phylogenetic analysis using exons from 42 taxa in the Hoya group and three outgoups confirms that the earliest divergent genus in the Hoya group is Papuahoya, followed by Dischidia. The relationship between Dischidia and the clade which includes all Hoya and Oreosparte taxa, is not fully supported. Oreosparte is nested in Hoya making it paraphyletic unless Clemensiella is recognised as a separate genus.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genomas de Plastídeos , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial
8.
Food Chem ; 363: 130259, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116492

RESUMO

The phytochemical profile of Carissa opaca fruit extract and fractions was established through dereplication strategies employing LC-MS/MS and global natural product social molecular networking (GNPS). Crude extract and fractions were evaluated for their potential to inhibit α-glucosidase and urease in vitro. Flavonoid-O-glycosides, flavonoid-C-glycosides, flavonoids, proanthocyanidin B2, phenolics, and triterpenoids were annotated as the major classes of secondary metabolites present in the extract and fractions. α-Glucosidase inhibition was associated with n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions comparable to acarbose (IC50 = 120.43 µg/mL) with IC50 values of 123.67 and 131.72 µg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction showed good urease inhibition comparable with thiourea (IC50 = 103.71 µg/mL) with an IC50 value of 109.14 µg/mL. Molecular docking studies of compounds observed in the crude extract and bioactive fractions had significant binding scores, which supported results for enzyme inhibition in vitro. This study provided a detailed phytochemical profile of C. opaca fruit and its enzyme inhibition potential.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Cromatografia Líquida , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Frutas , Metabolômica , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104964, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146637

RESUMO

Four new monoterpene indole alkaloids (1-4) together with six known alkaloids (5-10) were isolated from the roots of Bousigonia mekongensis. Compounds 3 and 4 were the first examples of condylocarpan-adenine type alkaloids obtained from natural plant resource. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibiting glucose-induced mesanginal cell proliferation and protecting high glucose-evoked podocyte injury activities. (-)-demethoxycarbonyldihydrogambirtannine (5) can significantly antagonize glucose-induced podocyte injury with EC50 value of 6.5 ± 1.2 µM.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5574041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036100

RESUMO

Background: The growth or multiplication of harmful microorganisms in addition to harmful human activities has led to many disorders in humans. Consequently, there is a search for medications to treat these disorders. Interestingly, medicines of plant origin are known to be among the most attractive sources of new drugs and have shown promising results in the treatment of various diseases including peptic ulcers. This review, therefore, is aimed at obtaining knowledge on some Ghanaian ethnomedicinal plants used to treat peptic ulcers, their folkloric uses, their phytochemicals, and their antiulcer and related pharmacological activities as well as finding areas for prospective studies. Methods: Published peer-reviewed articles on ethnomedicinal plants used for the management of peptic ulcers in Ghana from 1967 to 2020 were sourced and used for the study. Results: In this review, 13 plants were identified which belong to 10 different families including Sapindaceae, Apocynaceae, and Bignoniaceae. The parts most often used for most preparations were the leaves (53%), followed by stem bark and roots (both having the same percentage of use of 17.6%), the whole plant (5.9%), and the rhizomes (5.9%). Azadirachta indica was the only plant that had undergone some patient studies in addition to animal studies. Conclusion. A discussion of various antiulcer activity studies using ulcer models carried out on selected medicinal plants used for the management of peptic ulcer disease in addition to brief information on their folkloric uses and their phytochemical and other pharmacological properties is presented. These medicinal plants may be used in developing herbal products for the management of peptic ulcer disease.


Assuntos
Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Apocynaceae/química , Azadirachta , Bignoniaceae/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Gana , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Sapindaceae/química
11.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110340, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053536

RESUMO

Dregea sinensis (D. sinensis) stems have traditionally been used as milk coagulant in Dali of Yunnan Province, China. In this study, proteomics was used to investigate the bio-functions of D. sinensis stem proteins, leading to the purification and identification of the milk-clotting enzyme. A total of 205 proteins mainly involved in the catalytic and metabolic processes were identified, of which 28 proteins exhibited hydrolase activity. Among the 28 proteins, we focused on two enzymes (M9QMC9 and B7VF65). Based on proteomics, a cysteine protease (M9QMC9) with a molecular weight of 25.8 kDa and milk-clotting activity was purified from D. sinensis stems using double ammonium sulfate precipitation and was confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The milk-clotting temperature using the purified enzyme was around 80 °C (specific activity at 314.38 U/mg), and it was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-9 in NaCl concentration of <0.8 mol/L. These findings indicated that the enzyme isolated from D. sinensis stems has potential in the dairy and food sectors, especially in the cheese-making industry.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leite , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Am J Bot ; 108(5): 883-892, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018178

RESUMO

PREMISE: Early Eocene ambers of the Cambay lignite in Gujarat, India, are well known for their diverse insect fauna and dispersed pollen, but the included flowers have received limited attention. The fossil record of Apocynaceae is relatively poor, and the distinctive floral characters of this family have not been recognized in the fossil record before. METHODS: Remains of tiny flowers in amber were studied by micro-CT scanning, reflected light, and epifluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Flowers of Maryendressantha succinifera gen. et. sp. n. have actinomorphic, pentamerous, tubular corollas 2.2-2.3 mm wide, and 1.7-2.1 mm deep with sinistrorse aestivation and androecia consisting of a whorl of five stamens attached by short filaments to the lower half of the corolla tube. Anthers are ovate, rounded basally and apically tapered with their connectives convergent with one another in a conical configuration. The pollen is globose, psilate, tricolporate, and very small (10-11 µm). The combined characters indicate a position within the grade known as subfamily Rauvolfioideae. CONCLUSIONS: These fossils, as the oldest remains of Rauvolfioids, complement the fossil records of Apocynoid and Asclepioid fossil seeds from other regions, demonstrating that the Apocynaceae were well established by the early Eocene, mostly consistent with prior divergence estimates for the phylogeny of this family. Potential pollinators, also preserved in the Cambay amber, include mosquitos, gnats, small moths, and stingless bees.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Apocynaceae , Animais , Flores , Fósseis , Índia
13.
Food Chem ; 359: 129876, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940472

RESUMO

The low stability of anthocyanins is a constraint in the food industry. The present work has been carried out to overcome this low stability by encapsulating fruit concentrate of underutilized plant Carissa spinarum (CS) with polyphenols in microemulsions (CSME) and nanoemulsions (CSNE). Increasing the amount of CS reduced the particle size from 1154 to 70-300 nm whereas addition of Tween 80 reduced it optimally to 5-25 nm. Degradation of anthocyanins in control and ME/NE proceeded with zero- and first-order reaction rates, respectively, at 28 °C (half-life 6, 25 and 40 days, respectively). The degradation kinetics of phenolics-flavonoids were also studied. CSNE exhibited higher anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity than CSME against Chromobacterium violaceum (73.7%); it inhibited biofilm formation by 70.1 and 64.4% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia enterocolitica, respectively. This is the first report of using the more stable ME/NE to study anti-QS activity, an alternative to conventional antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Chromobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Chromobacterium/fisiologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Cinética , Polifenóis/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/efeitos dos fármacos , Yersinia enterocolitica/fisiologia
14.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104938, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022295

RESUMO

Two new steroidal glycosides oxystauntoside A (1) and oxystauntoside B (2), together with sixteen known compounds (3-18) were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of Merrillanthus hainanensis. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis including NMR and mass spectra and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of 1 and 2 were further determined by ECD calculations. All of these compounds were isolated from M. hainanensis for the first time. All the fractions and compounds were tested for the anti-inflammatory activity against the TNF-α factor. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the most potent inhibition (71.3%) at 10 µg/mL and compounds 5 (78.9%) and 9 (73.4%) in this fraction with both carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups showed significant inhibition at 10 µM. Our study provided the first scientific report for the medicinal value of M. hainanensis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Esteroides/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , China , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(17): 5049-5058, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891815

RESUMO

Vigna unguiculata is an important source of proteins and energy for humans and animals. However, postharvest losses caused by Callosobruchus maculatus can reach from 20 to 100% of stored seeds. In this study, the insecticide potential of compounds extracted from Himatanthus drasticus latex was assessed. The latex was extracted with ethanol (70%) and then partitioned through sequential use of hexane and chloroform. These fractions were investigated by chromatography to determine their chemical composition. Plumieride, identified in a hydroalcoholic subfraction, was tested for insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The ethanolic fraction (LC50 = 0.109; LC90 = 0.106%) and the plumieride (LC50 = 0.166; LC90 = 0.167%) were lethal to larvae. Plumieride (0.25%) delayed larval development, and mortality reached 100%. Its inhibitory action on intestinal α-amylase from larvae was higher (89.12%) than that of acarbose (63.82%). Plumieride (0.1%) inhibited the enzyme α-amylase in vivo in the larval intestine. This result was confirmed by a zymogram test performed by SDS-PAGE when the enzyme electrophoresed on gel copolymerized with starch. When spread on seeds, the hydroalcoholic fraction (1.0%) reduced infestation. The loss of seed mass was 5.26% compared to the control (44.97%). The results confirm the effect of latex compounds in protecting stored seeds against weevil infestation.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Besouros , Inseticidas , Vigna , Animais , Humanos , Látex , Sementes
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1015-1025, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839180

RESUMO

Biodegradable chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) films containing natural anthocyanin-rich extracts were prepared using solvent casting method and employed as intelligent indicators for monitoring beverages freshness. The surface and cross-sectional scanning electron micrograph indicated a compact structure for the intelligent films, whereas the atomic force micrograph indicated a 16.22 and 20.31 nm increase in surface roughness for Clitoria ternatea and Carissa carandas extract incorporated films, respectively. Moreover, the test films demonstrated enhanced radical scavenging efficacy. The extracts and anthocyanin incorporated films presented excellent colorimetric changes at pH 2 to 8. In addition, the C. ternatea test films showed changes in color for juice stored at 25 °C after 72 h. Photo-degradability results indicated stability of test films stored in dark at 4 °C and 25 °C, whereas leaching study indicated the release of ≤2.0% anthocyanin after 24 h. The cytocompatibilty assay showed that the test and control films were biocompatible with a viability of >80% on HaCat cells. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of anthocyanins-rich extracts into chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) did not significantly interfere with the films properties (p > 0.05). The natural anthocyanin incorporated films demonstrated good pH sensing property that could be further explored for monitoring of beverages freshness.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/síntese química , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/normas , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Materiais Inteligentes/síntese química , Apocynaceae/química , Clitoria/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671333

RESUMO

Carissa carandas L. is traditionally used as antibacterial medicine and accumulates many antioxidant phytochemicals. Here, we expand this traditional usage with the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) achieved using a Carissa carandas L. leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent. The green synthesis of AgNPs reaction was carried out using 1mM silver nitrate and leaf extract. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of AgNPs was examined using room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The silver nanoparticles were formed in one hour by stirring at room temperature. In this case, a yellowish brown colour was developed. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the UV-vis spectrum and XRD confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. The biosynthesised AgNPs showed potential antioxidant activity through DPPH assay. These AgNPs also exhibited potential antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The results were compared with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the plant extract, and clearly suggest that the green biosynthesized AgNPs can constitute an effective antioxidant and antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prata/química , Apocynaceae , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Radicais Livres , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/química , Picratos/química , Shigella flexneri/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta , Difração de Raios X
18.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104869, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657429

RESUMO

The phytochemical study of leaves of Funtumia elastica led to the isolation of three undescribed ursane derivatives, funtumic acids A, B and C (1-3), as well as one steroidal alkaloid, elasticine (4) and five other known compounds (5-9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, MS, IR, UV spectroscopic data as well as by comparison with the literature. The compound 5-hydroxypyridine-3-carboxamide (9) was isolated for the first time from the Apocynaceae family. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antiparasitic effects against 3D7 and Dd2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and promastigotes of Leishmania donovani (MHOM/SD/62/1S). Compounds 1-4 possessed good in vitro antimalarial activities against CQR Dd2 with IC50 values ranging from 4.68 to 5.36 µg/mL and moderate on CQS 3D7. Only compounds 1 and 2 showed leishmanicidal activities with IC50 values ranging between 10.49 and 13.21 µg/mL. In addition, crude extract exhibited potent antiplasmodial (IC50 0.91 and 3.12 µg/mL) and antileishmanial (IC50 3.32 µg/mL) activities, thus demonstrating their potential synergistic action.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Camarões , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(5): e2100084, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682992

RESUMO

4,21-Secovincanol (1), a novel C-21/N-4 cleavage monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, along with four analogs (2-5), were obtained from the aerial parts of Kopsia hainanensis. Structurally, compound 1 might be a derivative of epivincanol (2) via C-21/N-4 cleavage. Their structures were confirmed by means of comprehensive spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with the reported data. All isolates significantly inhibited Con A-stimulated mice splenocytes proliferation at 10-40 µM in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Especially, compound 3 exhibited potent activities comparable to positive control (Dexamethasone, DXM).


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A/antagonistas & inibidores , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
20.
Phytochemistry ; 185: 112662, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774572

RESUMO

Apocynaceae are well known for diverse specialized metabolites that are distributed in a phylogenetically informative manner. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been reported sporadically in one lineage in the family, the APSA clade, but few species have been studied to date. We conducted the first systematic survey of Apocynaceae for retronecine-type PAs, sampling leaves from 231 species from 13 of 16 major lineages within the APSA clade using HPLC-MS/MS. We also followed up preliminary evidence for infra-specific variation of PA detectability in Echites umbellatus Jacq. Four precursor ion scans (PREC) were developed for a high-throughput survey for chemicals containing a structural moiety common to many PAs, the retronecine core. We identified with high confidence PAs in 7 of 8 sampled genera of tribe Echiteae, but not in samples from the closely related Odontadenieae and Mesechiteae, confirming the utility of PAs as a taxonomic character in tribal delimitation. Occurrence of PAs in Malouetieae is reported with moderate confidence in Galactophora schomburgkiana Woodson and Eucorymbia alba Stapf, but currently we have low confidence of their presence in Holarrena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don (the one Malouetieae species where they were previously reported), as well as in Holarrena curtisii King & Gamble and in Kibatalia macrophylla (Pierre ex Hua) Woodson. Candidate PAs in some species of Wrightia R. Br. (Wrightieae) and Marsdenia R. Br. (Marsdenieae) are proposed with moderate confidence, but a subset of the compounds in these taxa presenting with a PA-like fragmentation pattern are more likely to be aminobenzoyl glycosides. Candidate PAs are reported in species with predicted (VXXXD) and unexpected (IXXXN) amino acid motifs in their homospermidine synthase-like genes. Detectability of PAs varies among samples of Echites umbellatus and intra-individual plasticity contributes to this variation. Of toxicological importance, novel potential sources of human exposure to pro-toxic PAs were identified in the medicinal plant, Wrightia tinctoria R.Br., and the food plants, Marsdenia glabra Cost. and Echites panduratus A. DC., warranting immediate further research to elucidate the structures of the candidate PAs identified. Method development and limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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