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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 294: 114709, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030395

RESUMO

For sociological and anthropological scholars alike, the body is both a physical and social entity as well as a project to be worked on by the self and by others (Tamari, 2020). However, scholars' conceptual work in organ transplantation and the body has tended to overlook the resultant surgical scars, yet these are borne by all transplantation recipients. For example, in understanding biomedicine's intervention in the body through the skin Shildrick (2008) uses the term 'corporeal cut' conceptually rather than focus on the flesh that is cut and the scar that subsequently forms. In this way body flesh has become abstract; cut but unmarked, with transplantation scars being an 'absent presence' in these disciplines' thinking. In this paper we attempt to develop a more nuanced understanding of how organ transplantation shapes both the corporeality of the body and the embodiment of the self through considering the concept of a transplant scar in three ways. First, through transplantation scars' dynamic physical appearance across their lifecourse and their symbolic meaning for their bearer. Second, how scars' coded messages are framed for 'stranger' audiences in the context of their little experience of organ transplantation; and third, through the scars' display and storytelling in the context of more intimate relationships. Interview data from 27 adult survivors of childhood liver transplantation, who bear either 'Lexus' or 'Mercedes' transplantation scars, are drawn upon to illustrate these concepts. Awareness of the meanings associated with the scar as well as others' reactions, imputed or not, to the physicality of the scar point to the significance of the body as a corporeal marker of personal narratives and negotiations. It also indicates the polysemic nature of the scarring and the way in which inventive narratives can play a positive as well as negative role in the lives of organ transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Aparência Física , Adulto , Cicatriz/patologia , Humanos , Narração , Sobreviventes
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052461

RESUMO

The idea of forensic DNA intelligence is to extract from genomic data any information that can help guide the investigation. The clues to the externally visible phenotype are of particular practical importance. The high heritability of the physical phenotype suggests that genetic data can be easily predicted, but this has only become possible with less polygenic traits. The forensic community has developed DNA-based predictive tools by employing a limited number of the most important markers analysed with targeted massive parallel sequencing. The complexity of the genetics of many other appearance phenotypes requires big data coupled with sophisticated machine learning methods to develop accurate genomic predictors. A significant challenge in developing universal genomic predictive methods will be the collection of sufficiently large data sets. These should be created using whole-genome sequencing technology to enable the identification of rare DNA variants implicated in phenotype determination. It is worth noting that the correctness of the forensic sketch generated from the DNA data depends on the inclusion of an age factor. This, however, can be predicted by analysing epigenetic data. An important limitation preventing whole-genome approaches from being commonly used in forensics is the slow progress in the development and implementation of high-throughput, low DNA input sequencing technologies. The example of palaeoanthropology suggests that such methods may possibly be developed in forensics.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , DNA/genética , Genética Forense/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Aparência Física , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Humanos
3.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 72(2): 92-97, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781377

RESUMO

Negative body-related feedback is associated with increased body dissatisfaction. The English-language version of the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale (FOPAS) is an instrument to assess verbal and non-verbal body-related feedback, but a German-language version has not been validated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of its German-language version in a sample of adolescents with eating disorders (n=88) and in a sample of adolescents (n=123) and women (n=228) without eating disorders. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a moderate model fit from the English-language original study. All samples showed acceptable internal consistencies. The retest reliability was also mostly acceptable. Significant positive correlations with questionnaires on eating disorder symptoms (criterion validity), teasing (convergent validity) as well as the expected negative correlation with self-esteem indicated good validity. In addition, the FOPAS was able to differentiate between adolescents with and without eating disorders. To sum up, the German-language FOPAS appears to be suitable to assess verbal and non-verbal body-related feedback in research and practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Aparência Física , Adolescente , Retroalimentação , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 3-37, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025291

RESUMO

Researchers have highlighted numerous sociocultural factors that have been shown to underpin human appearance enhancement practices, including the influence of peers, family, the media, and sexual objectification. Fewer scholars have approached appearance enhancement from an evolutionary perspective or considered how sociocultural factors interact with evolved psychology to produce appearance enhancement behavior. Following others, we argue that evidence from the field of evolutionary psychology can complement existing sociocultural models by yielding unique insight into the historical and cross-cultural ubiquity of competition over aspects of physical appearance to embody what is desired by potential mates. An evolutionary lens can help to make sense of reliable sex and individual differences that impact appearance enhancement, as well as the context-dependent nature of putative adaptations that function to increase physical attractiveness. In the current review, appearance enhancement is described as a self-promotion strategy used to enhance reproductive success by rendering oneself more attractive than rivals to mates, thereby increasing one's mate value. The varied ways in which humans enhance their appearance are described, as well as the divergent tactics used by women and men to augment their appearance, which correspond to the preferences of opposite-sex mates in a heterosexual context. Evolutionarily relevant individual differences and contextual factors that vary predictably with appearance enhancement behavior are also discussed. The complementarity of sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives is emphasized and recommended avenues for future interdisciplinary research are provided for scholars interested in studying appearance enhancement behavior.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aparência Física , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
5.
Body Image ; 40: 165-175, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968854

RESUMO

Body image research to date has examined the impact of thin- and fit-ideal media on women's body image, however cultural trends in Western media have recently shifted towards a curvier body type called slim-thick, which is characterized by a large butt and thighs and small waist and flat stomach. We experimentally examined the impact of forced social comparison to slim-thick-, thin-, and fit-ideal imagery on women's body image relative to a control condition, and whether physical appearance perfectionism moderated these findings. Participants were 402 female undergraduate students. Results revealed that comparison to body-ideal imagery resulted in greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction and less overall body satisfaction, relative to the control condition. Those exposed to slim-thick imagery experienced more weight and appearance dissatisfaction and less body satisfaction than those in the thin-ideal condition. Physical appearance perfectionism moderated these results, such that women who reported moderate or high levels of physical appearance perfectionism experienced greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction and lower body satisfaction in the slim-thick condition, than in the thin-ideal, fit-ideal, or control conditions. It was concluded that drive to achieve body ideals is shifting to a slim-thick body, which maybe more detrimental to women's body image than thin-ideal imagery.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Aparência Física , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comparação Social , Magreza
6.
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 24dez. 2021. Tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363912

RESUMO

O envolvimento com informações disponibilizadas no ambiente das redes sociais virtuais, a falta de cuidado na escolha das fontes e a fugacidade na divulgação de informações duvidosas podem trazer riscos, principalmente quando envolvem a saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, portanto, analisar a percepção dos usuários acerca do impacto das redes sociais virtuais tanto na busca sobre informações quanto na prática de atividades físicas. Por meio de entrevista com 15 praticantes de atividades físicas, informações importantes, como a aparência física dos influenciadores ser critério ao invés da formação na escolha das informações e a percepção de vulnerabilidade, foram encontradas. Assim, destaca-se a importância de maiores reflexões sobre o tema, promovendo maior conscientização e minimizando riscos (AU).


Involvement with information in the environment of virtual social networks, lack of care about sources and speed in the dissemina-tion of dubious information can pose risks, especially when they involve health. Thus, the aim was to analyze users' perceptions about the impact of virtual social networks both in the search for information and in the practice of physical activities. Through interviews with 15 physical activity practitioners, important information such as the physical appearance of influencers being a criterion rather than professional information in the choice of information and the perception of vulnerability were found. Thus, the importance of greater reflections on the subject is highlighted, promoting greater awareness and minimizing risks (AU).


El contacto con la información en las redes sociales virtuales, la falta de atención sobre las fuentes y la velocidad de divulgación de información dudosa pueden traer riesgos, especialmente cuando se trata de salud. Por lo tanto, el objetivo era analizar las percepciones de los usuarios sobre el impacto de las redes sociales virtuales tanto en la búsqueda de información como en la práctica de actividades físicas. A través de entrevistas con 15 practicantes, se encontró información importante, como la apariencia física de las personas influyentes como criterio en lugar de capacitación en la elección de información y la percepción de vulnerabilidad. Así, se destaca la importancia de reflexiones sobre el tema, promoviendo una mayor conciencia y minimizando los riesgos (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Conscientização , Exercício Físico , Informação , Rede Social , Percepção , Desenvolvimento Tecnológico , Empatia , Aparência Física , Desenvolvimento Humano
7.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(Suppl 3): S322-S334, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to describe the interviewer-assessed measures present in the 2015/2016 Round of National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), outline strengths of interviewer-assessed measures, and explore how interviewer assessments in the domains of home environment and personal characteristics are associated with older adult health. METHOD: Data come from the 2015/2016 Round of the NSHAP. RESULTS: We provide descriptive results from the interviewer assessments of personal attributes, indoor home environment, and outdoor residential context. We present an illustrative analysis of reports of falls, a health outcome that might be predicted by characteristics assessed by the interviewer, and we suggest directions for further research. DISCUSSION: Interviewer assessments collected in NSHAP are useful as proxy measures and can be used in combination with respondent's reports and ecological measures to generate insights into healthy aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Aparência Física , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932567

RESUMO

Over the centuries, iconographic representations of St Anthony of Padua, one of the most revered saints in the Catholic world, have been inspired by literary sources, which described the Saint as either naturally corpulent or with a swollen abdomen due to dropsy (i.e. fluid accumulation in the body cavities). Even recent attempts to reconstruct the face of the Saint have yielded discordant results regarding his outward appearance. To address questions about the real appearance of St Anthony, we applied body mass estimation equations to the osteometric measurements taken in 1981, during the public recognition of the Saint's skeletal remains. Both the biomechanical and the morphometric approach were employed to solve some intrinsic limitations in the equations for body mass estimation from skeletal remains. The estimated body mass was used to assess the physique of the Saint with the body mass index. The outcomes of this investigation reveal interesting information about the body type of the Saint throughout his lifetime.


Assuntos
Edema/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Aparência Física , Santos/história , Gordura Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Edema/história , Edema/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/história , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Obesidade/história , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Religião e Medicina
9.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(6S): 14S-20S, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human population is aging globally, and there is significant, growing interest in modeling and simulating facial appearance. METHODS: The authors describe a new means to model and simulate aging in facial images, using an approach based entirely on 3D whole-face data collected from 1250 female subjects, across 5 ethnicities, ages 10-80. RESULTS: Three models were built, each describing changes with age within each ethnic group, namely shape, color, and topography. These three models were used to build a simulation able to age or de-age a 2D image of a female subject's face, with a degree of accuracy and realism not achievable with previous approaches. Simulated images were validated by a cloud-based age estimator. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have developed a new facial age simulation model, where the use of three submodels (shape, color and topography), built from acquired 3D data, provides both scientifically robust and realistic output. As the data were acquired across five of the world's major ethnicities, this new model allows valuable insight into changes in the facial appearance of our aging global population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Simulação por Computador , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Aparência Física , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21287, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711890

RESUMO

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an iconic mammal, but the function of its black-and-white coloration is mysterious. Using photographs of giant pandas taken in the wild and state-of-the-art image analysis, we confirm the counterintuitive hypothesis that their coloration provides camouflage in their natural environment. The black fur blends into dark shades and tree trunks, whereas white fur matches foliage and snow when present, and intermediate pelage tones match rocks and ground. At longer viewing distances giant pandas show high edge disruption that breaks up their outline, and up close they rely more on background matching. The results are consistent across acuity-corrected canine, feline, and human vision models. We also show quantitatively that the species animal-to-background colour matching falls within the range of other species that are widely recognised as cryptic. Thus, their coloration is an adaptation to provide background matching in the visual environment in which they live and simultaneously to afford distance-dependent disruptive coloration, the latter of which constitutes the first computational evidence of this form of protective coloration in mammals.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Fenótipo , Ursidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Mamíferos , Aparência Física
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639260

RESUMO

Participation in physical activity and sport is on the decline and there is a poor understanding of the psychosocial factors that contribute to people's reluctance to participate. We examined whether there were relationships between factors such as weight stigma, weight bias internalization, appearance evaluation, and fears of negative appearance evaluations, and enjoyment and avoidance of physical activity and sport. Undergraduate students (N = 579) completed a survey assessing demographics, and the variables described above. In hierarchal multivariate regression models, weight stigma (ß = -0.16, p < 0.001), appearance evaluation (ß = 0.19, p = 0.001), and weight bias internalization (ß = -0.19, p = 0.003) were associated with lower enjoyment of physical activity and sport. Weight stigma (ß = 0.46, p = 0.001), weight bias internalization (ß = 0.42, p = 0.001), and fear of negative appearance evaluations (ß = 0.16, p = 0.000) were also significantly associated with the tendency to avoid physical activity and sport. Serial mediation analysis showed the relationship between weight stigma and enjoyment of physical activity and sport was through appearance evaluation and weight bias internalization (indirect effect = -0.007, SE = 0.002, 95% CI = -0.01, -0.02). Similarly, the relationship between weight stigma and avoidance of physical activity and sport was through weight bias internalization and fear of negative appearance evaluations (indirect effect = 0.11, SE = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.16). These results suggest that weight stigma and concerns about one's physical appearance influence people's enjoyment and reasoning for avoiding physical activity and sport. Research is needed to identify ways to reduce body-related stigma and increase enjoyment and participation in physical activity and sport.


Assuntos
Aparência Física , Esportes , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Prazer , Estigma Social
12.
Biol Open ; 10(8)2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414408

RESUMO

Animal colour patterns remain a lively focus of evolutionary and behavioural ecology, despite the considerable conceptual and technical developments over the last four decades. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the function and efficacy of animal colour patterns remains largely shaped by a focus on stationary animals, typically in a static background. Yet, this rarely reflects the natural world: most animals are mobile in their search for food and mates, and their surrounding environment is usually dynamic. Thus, visual signalling involves not only animal colour patterns, but also the patterns of animal motion and behaviour, often in the context of a potentially dynamic background. While motion can reveal information about the signaller by attracting attention or revealing signaller attributes, motion can also be a means of concealing cues, by reducing the likelihood of detection (motion camouflage, motion masquerade and flicker-fusion effect) or the likelihood of capture following detection (motion dazzle and confusion effect). The interaction between the colour patterns of the animal and its local environment is further affected by the behaviour of the individual. Our review details how motion is intricately linked to signalling and suggests some avenues for future research. This Review has an associated Future Leader to Watch interview with the first author.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimento (Física) , Aparência Física , Percepção Visual , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Cor , Meio Ambiente
13.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 43(5): 547-560, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accuracy in assessing age from facial cues is important in social perception given reports of strong negative correlations between perceived age and assessments of health and attractiveness. In a multi-ethnic and multi-centre study, we previously documented similar patterns of female facial age assessments across ethnicities, influenced by gender and ethnicity of assessors. METHODS: Here we extend these findings by examining differences between estimated age from digital portraits and chronological age (Δ age) for 180 women from three age groups (20-34, 35-49, 50-66 years) and five ethnicities (36 images of each ethnicity, assessed for age on a continuous scale by 120 female and male raters of each ethnicity). RESULTS: Across ethnicities, Δ age was smallest in French assessors and largest in South African assessors. Numerically, French women were judged oldest and Chinese women youngest relative to chronological age. In younger women, Δ age was larger than in middle-aged and older women. This effect was particularly evident when considering the interaction of women's age with assessor gender and ethnicity, independently and together, on Δ age. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings suggest that accuracy in assessments of female age from digital portraits depends on the chronological age and ethnicity of the photographed women and the ethnicity and gender of the assessor. We discuss the findings concerning ethnic variation in skin pigmentation and visible signs of ageing and comment on implications for cosmetic science.


OBJECTIF: La capacité à évaluer l'âge d'un visage avec exactitude en fonction de ses caractéristiques est important dans sa perception sociale. En effet, des corrélations négatives fortes ont été rapportées entre l'âge perçu d'un visage d'une part, et sa santé et attractivité d'autre part. Dans le cadre d'une étude multi-ethnique et multicentrique, nous avons déjà documenté, dans une démarche similaire, comment la perception de l'âge de visages féminins entre différentes populations, est influencée par le genre et l'origine des évaluateurs. METHODES: Ici nous approfondissons ces premiers résultats par l'étude des différences entre l'âge estimé sur portraits numériques de 180 femmes issues de 3 groupes d'âges (20-34, 35-49, 50-66 ans) et de 5 populations d'origine différente (36 images de chaque population) et leur âge réel (Δ âge), et ce par 120 évaluatrices et évaluateurs de chaque population évaluant l'âge des visages en utilisant une échelle continue. RESULTATS: Au sein des différentes populations d'évaluateurs, le Δ âge le plus faible a été trouvé chez les évaluateurs français et le plus élevé chez les évaluateurs sud-africains. Sur portraits numériques, les femmes françaises ont été perçues comme étant les plus âgées et les femmes chinoises les plus jeunes, par rapport à leur âge réel. Chez les femmes les plus jeunes, le Δ âge a été plus élevé que chez les femmes d'âge moyen et les plus âgées. Ceci a particulièrement été le cas lorsque l'on considère les interactions entre l'âge des femmes évaluées, et le genre et l'origine des évaluateurs, de façon indépendante ou liée, avec le Δ âge. CONCLUSION: Aux travers des différentes analyses, nos résultats suggèrent que l'exactitude avec laquelle l'âge des femmes est évalué sur images numériques de leur visage, dépend de l'âge réel et de l'origine de ces femmes photographiées, ainsi que de l'origine est du genre de l'évaluateur. Nous discutons ces résultats en regard des variations de pigmentation cutanée et de signes visibles de l'âge entre les différentes populations et commentons les implications possibles pour les sciences cosmétiques.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Face , Aparência Física/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Neurosci ; 41(33): 7103-7119, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230104

RESUMO

Some of the most impressive functional specializations in the human brain are found in the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), where several areas exhibit selectivity for a small number of visual categories, such as faces and bodies, and spatially cluster based on stimulus animacy. Previous studies suggest this animacy organization reflects the representation of an intuitive taxonomic hierarchy, distinct from the presence of face- and body-selective areas in OTC. Using human functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the independent contribution of these two factors-the face-body division and taxonomic hierarchy-in accounting for the animacy organization of OTC and whether they might also be reflected in the architecture of several deep neural networks that have not been explicitly trained to differentiate taxonomic relations. We found that graded visual selectivity, based on animal resemblance to human faces and bodies, masquerades as an apparent animacy continuum, which suggests that taxonomy is not a separate factor underlying the organization of the ventral visual pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Portions of the visual cortex are specialized to determine whether types of objects are animate in the sense of being capable of self-movement. Two factors have been proposed as accounting for this animacy organization: representations of faces and bodies and an intuitive taxonomic continuum of humans and animals. We performed an experiment to assess the independent contribution of both of these factors. We found that graded visual representations, based on animal resemblance to human faces and bodies, masquerade as an apparent animacy continuum, suggesting that taxonomy is not a separate factor underlying the organization of areas in the visual cortex.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Vida , Redes Neurais de Computação , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Face , Feminino , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Julgamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Aparência Física , Plantas , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 525-534, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267593

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS) for Mexican adolescents, verifying the factor invariance by sports and non-sports practitioners. A sample of 930 Mexican adolescents (46.0% females), aged 11-15 years old, voluntarily participated in the study. A total of 415 participants regularly played sports in a club and/or regularly participated in sports competitions and 515 were non-sports practitioners. The adolescents filled out the trait version of the PASTAS questionnaire, which was previously translated and adapted for Mexican-speaking adolescents following the International Test Commission guidelines. The results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed an adequate measurement model for the original two-factor structure (e.g., GFI = 0.913; RMSEA = 0.078; CFI = 0.943). The internal consistency of the two dimensions was excellent (α and Ω = 0.92-0.93). Additionally, the results of the factorial invariance analyses showed an appropriate fit of the two-structure model (e.g., GFI = 0.96; CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.04) among both sports and non-sports practitioners. The proposed trait version of the PASTAS questionnaire adapted to a Mexican-speaking population shows adequate psychometric properties among Mexican adolescents. The Mexican version of the PASTAS questionnaire supports the original two-factor structure (i.e., factor related to the body weight and factor not related to body weight) among adolescents. Additionally, the factorial invariance analyses support the equivalence of the two-factor structure among both sports and non-sports practitioners.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Aparência Física , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329322

RESUMO

The association between physical appearance and income has been of central interest in social science. However, most previous studies often measured physical appearance using classical proxies from subjective opinions based on surveys. In this study, we use novel data, called CAESAR, which contains three-dimensional (3D) whole-body scans to mitigate possible reporting and measurement errors. We demonstrate the existence of significant nonclassical reporting errors in the reported heights and weights by comparing them with measured counterparts, and show that these discrete measurements are too sparse to provide a complete description of the body shape. Instead, we use a graphical autoencoder to obtain intrinsic features, consisting of human body shapes directly from 3D scans and estimate the relationship between body shapes and family income. We also take into account a possible issue of endogenous body shapes using proxy variables and control functions. The estimation results reveal a statistically significant relationship between physical appearance and family income and that these associations differ across genders. This supports the hypothesis on the physical attractiveness premium in labor market outcomes and its heterogeneity across genders.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Aparência Física , Somatotipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(3): 456-468, Jul 15, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290543

RESUMO

Introdução: Estrias são lesões dérmicas lineares que acometem ambos os sexos, sendo duas vezes mais comuns em mulheres. Objetivos: Investigar se a carboxiterapia é eficaz para melhorar a sensibilidade tátil, a satisfação corporal e o aspecto de estrias albas localizadas na região glútea de mulheres. Métodos: 38 mulheres hígidas com estrias albas bilateralmente na região glútea participaram do estudo. A aplicação da carboxiterapia foi realizada em um glúteo e porção superior da coxa através da introdução da agulha hipodérmica paralelamente as estrias. Foram realizadas doze sessões com duração média de 20 minutos cada, com intervalo de sete dias. A eficácia da intervenção foi avaliada através de registros fotográficos, avaliação da dor, avaliação da sensibilidade tátil, e autoavaliação de satisfação pós-tratamento. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo experimental e o grupo controle no que diz respeito à avaliação dos registros fotográficos. Houve redução significativa entre a dor e melhora da sensibilidade nas voluntárias. Também houve diferença significativa da satisfação com a aparência do próprio glúteo antes e após o tratamento. Conclusão: A carboxiterapia foi eficaz em melhorar a sensibilidade tátil e a satisfação com o corpo de mulheres hígidas com estrias albas na região glútea. (AU)


Introduction: Stretch marks are linear lesions that affect both sexes, being twice as common in women. Objectives: To investigate whether carboxytherapy is effective in improving tactile sensitivity, body satisfaction and the appearance of stretch marks located in the gluteal region of women. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy women with bilateral stretch marks in the gluteal region participated in the study. Carboxitherapy was applied to a gluteus and upper thigh by introducing the hypodermic needle in parallel as stretch marks. Twelve sessions were held with an average duration of 20 minutes each, with an interval of seven days. The assessment of the intervention was assessed through photographic records, pain assessment, assessment of tactile sensitivity and automatic assessment of satisfaction after treatment. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group regarding the evaluation of photographic records. We observed a significant reduction between pain and improved sensitivity in the volunteers, and a significant difference in satisfaction with his appearance before and after treatment. Conclusion: Carboxytherapy was effective in improving tactile sensitivity and body satisfaction in healthy women with stretch marks in the gluteal region. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Satisfação Pessoal , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estrias de Distensão , Aparência Física , Nádegas , Ensaio Clínico Controlado Aleatório
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129626

RESUMO

Body image concerns revolving around body ideals (thin ideal, muscular ideal) are widespread among women. Whereas a stronger preoccupation with ideal physical appearance is often assumed for narcissistic women, previous empirical findings have been mixed. Following a tripartite structure of agentic, antagonistic, and neurotic narcissism facets, we reexamined whether trait narcissism predicted drive for thinness and drive for muscularity. We further explored the role of importance of appearance as a mediator and moderator of the relation between narcissism and body image concerns. Latent structural equation modeling was applied to self-report data from two independent nonclinical female samples (NSample1 = 224, NSample2 = 342). Results underlined the importance of distinguishing between narcissism facets: Neurotic (but not agentic or antagonistic) narcissism uniquely predicted drive for thinness and drive for muscularity. Importance of appearance mediated but did not robustly moderate these relations. Hence, neurotic narcissistic women (characterized by hypersensitivity, shame, and a fragile self-esteem) are particularly prone to body image concerns. This vulnerability seems partly driven by how much importance they ascribe to their appearance. Future work might build on these insights to further unravel the processes linking neurotic narcissism to body image concerns and how these can be targeted in practical interventions.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Narcisismo , Neuroticismo , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Aparência Física , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psico USF ; 26(2): 279-290, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1287611

RESUMO

This study analyzed the relations between social representations of the body and the body care practices of older adults. Forty older adults, with ages varying from 60 to 84 years (M = 69; SD = 7), matched by sex, took part in the study. The data were collected by means of in-depth thematic interviews, with the corpus analyzed using the IRaMuTeQ software. Differences between men and women were verified in representational contents and body practices. The male participants' social representations of the body were associated with biological functionality and health concerns, while the women emphasized the importance of physical appearance in their social relationships. Regarding body care practices, there was a higher incidence of food concerns in the men and the performance of physical activities in the women. Therefore, the results indicated that the body care practices vary according to the socials representations of the body and the sex of the participant. (AU)


Esse estudo analisou as relações entre as representações sociais do corpo e as práticas de cuidado corporal de pessoas idosas. Participaram da pesquisa 40 idosos, com idades entre 60 e 84 anos (M=69; DP=7), pareados por sexo. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista bitemática em profundidade, cujo corpus foi analisado com auxílio do software IraMuTeQ. Verificou-se diferenças dos conteúdos representacionais e das práticas corporais entre homens e mulheres. As representações sociais do corpo do público masculino foram associadas à funcionalidade biológica e preocupação com a saúde, enquanto as mulheres ressaltaram a importância da aparência física nas relações sociais. Em relação às práticas de cuidado corporal, houve maior incidência de cuidados alimentares para o público masculino e de realização de atividades físicas para o público feminino. Assim, os resultados indicaram que as práticas de cuidado corporal variam segundo as representações sociais de corpo e conforme o sexo dos participantes. (AU)


Este estudio analizó las relaciones entre las representaciones sociales del cuerpo y las prácticas de cuidado corporal de las personas mayores. En el estudio participaron cuarenta ancianos, con edades entre 60 y 84 años (M = 69; DS = 7), emparejados por sexo. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas con doble temática realizadas en profundidad, cuyo corpus fue analizado a través del software IraMuTeQ. Se averiguaron diferencias en el contenido representativo y en las prácticas corporales entre hombres y mujeres. Las representaciones sociales del cuerpo de los participantes varones se asociaron con la funcionalidad biológica y los problemas de salud, mientras que las mujeres enfatizaron la importancia de la apariencia física en las relaciones sociales. Con respecto a las prácticas de cuidado corporal, hubo una mayor incidencia de preocupaciones alimentarias en los hombres, y la realización de actividad física en las mujeres. Por lo tanto, los resultados indicaron que las prácticas de cuidado corporal varían según las representaciones sociales del cuerpo y el sexo de los participantes. (AU)


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Aparência Física , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Entrevistas como Assunto , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951087

RESUMO

The pouched lamprey, Geotria australis Gray, 1851, has long been considered monotypic in the Geotriidae family with a wide southern temperate distribution across Australasia and South America. Recent studies have provided molecular and morphological evidence for a second Geotria species in South America; Geotria macrostoma (Burmeister, 1868). The aim of this study was to determine morphometric and physical characteristics of adult G. macrostoma that further differentiate this re-instated species of Geotriidae from G. australis. The diagnostic features discriminating immature adult G. macrostoma from G. australis when entering fresh water, are distinct differences in dentition, oral papillae and fimbriae counts and differences in coloration. In addition, G. macrostoma display greater growth of the prebranchial region and oral disc and has a deeper body depth and higher condition factor. All current ecological knowledge of the genus Geotria is based on Australasian populations, which may not be applicable to G. macrostoma. To ensure the conservation and protection of the Patagonian lamprey as a re-identified species, further investigations are needed to understand its life history, biology and ecology throughout its range.


Assuntos
Lampreias/classificação , Lampreias/fisiologia , Aparência Física , Animais , Lampreias/anatomia & histologia , Rios
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