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1.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 537-551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824747

RESUMO

This study purposed to discover the connection between the central glutamatergic and histaminergic systems on feeding behavior in layer chickens. In the first experiment, chicks obtained intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (control solution), α-FMH (250 nmol), glutamate (300 nmol), and α-FMH + glutamate. Experiments 2-6 were comparable to the first experiment, apart from the birds being injected with chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist, 300 nmol), famotidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist, 82 nmol), and thioperamide (histamine H3 receptor antagonist, 300 nmol) instead of α-FMH. In Experiment five, experimental groups were divided into (A) control solution, (B) MK-801 (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, 15 nmol), (C) histamine (300 nmol) and (D) MK-801 + histamine. Experiments 6-10 and Experiment five were similar apart from the ICV injections of CNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 360 nm), UBP-302 (Kainate receptor antagonist, 390 nm), AIDA (mGluR1 antagonist, 2 nmol), LY341495 (mGluR2 antagonist, 150 nmol), and UBP1112 (mGluR3 antagonist, 2 nmol) given instead of MK-801. Afterward, cumulative food intake was recorded at30, 60, and 120 minutes after the injection process. According to the results, ICV injection of glutamate considerably reduced food intake (p<0.05). Co-injection of α-FMH + glutamate and/or chlorpheniramine + glutamate reduced the hypophagic influence of glutamate (p<0.05), whereas thioperamide + glutamate augmented glutamate-induced hypophagia in neonatal chicks (p<0.05). Co-injection of MK-801 + histamine or UBP-302 + histamine reduced the hypophagic influence of the histamine (p<0.05), whereas LY341495 + histamine augmented the hypophagic influence of the histamine (p<0.05). Given the results, it is suggested that the effect of the connection between these systems on the process of food intake regulation is mediated by H1 and H3 histamines as well as NMDA, Kainate, and mGluR2 glutamate receptors in neonatal layer chickens.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Galinhas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 465-478, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749888

RESUMO

As obesity continues a relentless march across the globe, researchers are beginning to unlock the complicated interplay among obesity, its ensuing inflammation, and downstream complications. It is becoming clear that obesity is a chronic, multifactorial, inflammatory disease of maladaptive adipose tissue mass involving complex links among genetics, hormonal-signaling, and the environment. Understanding the intricate pathogenesis of obesity and its sequela will go a long way to discovering better treatment options and lessen anti-obesity bias.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite , Epigenômica , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684635

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity, and its comorbidities, particularly type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and hepatic disease and certain cancers, continues to rise at an alarming rate worldwide [...].


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684387

RESUMO

Eating disorders and obesity are important health problems with a widespread global epidemic. Adiponectin (AdipoQ), the most abundant adipokine in the plasma, plays important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism. Plasma adiponectin concentration is negatively associated with obesity and binge eating disorder. There is a growing interest in the appetite regulation function of adiponectin. However, the effect of AdipoQ on feeding behavior is controversial and closely related to nutritional status and food composition. In this review, we summarize the literatures about the discovery, structure, tissue distribution, receptors and regulation of nutritional status, and focus on the biological function of adiponectin in the regulation of food intake in the central and peripheral system.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite , Animais , Jejum/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 657807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568080

RESUMO

It is known that the microbiome affects human physiology, emotion, disease, growth, and development. Most humans exhibit reduced appetites under high temperature and high humidity (HTHH) conditions, and HTHH environments favor fungal growth. Therefore, we hypothesized that the colonic mycobiota may affect the host's appetite under HTHH conditions. Changes in humidity are also associated with autoimmune diseases. In the current study mice were fed in an HTHH environment (32°C ± 2°C, relative humidity 95%) maintained via an artificial climate box for 8 hours per day for 21 days. Food intake, the colonic fungal microbiome, the feces metabolome, and appetite regulators were monitored. Components of the interleukin 17 pathway were also examined. In the experimental groups food intake and body weight were reduced, and the colonic mycobiota and fecal metabolome were substantially altered compared to control groups maintained at 25°C ± 2°C and relative humidity 65%. The appetite-related proteins LEPT and POMC were upregulated in the hypothalamus (p < 0.05), and NYP gene expression was downregulated (p < 0.05). The expression levels of PYY and O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine were altered in colonic tissues (p < 0.05), and interleukin 17 expression was upregulated in the colon. There was a strong correlation between colonic fungus and sugar metabolism. In fimo some metabolites of cholesterol, tromethamine, and cadaverine were significantly increased. There was significant elevation of the characteristic fungi Solicoccozyma aeria, and associated appetite suppression and interleukin 17 receptor signaling activation in some susceptible hosts, and disturbance of gut bacteria and fungi. The results indicate that the gut mycobiota plays an important role in the hypothalamus endocrine system with respect to appetite regulation via the gut-brain axis, and also plays an indispensable role in the stability of the gut microbiome and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these associations require extensive further studies.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Receptores de Interleucina-17 , Animais , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Basidiomycota , Colo , Umidade , Camundongos , Temperatura
6.
Appetite ; 167: 105628, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389376

RESUMO

In persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), reduced fat-free mass and movement-related energy expenditure increase obesity risk. Although plausible mechanisms exist, it remains unknown whether impaired appetite regulation potentiates obesity risk in SCI. This study compared postprandial responses of appetite-related hormones, appetite perceptions and the sensitivity of appetite to covert preload energy manipulation in persons with SCI and able-bodied (AB) controls. In a counterbalanced order, 12 men with high-level SCI (≥T6 vertebrae) and 12 AB controls completed two trials, consuming covert high-energy (HE; 2513 kJ) and low-energy (LE; 1008 kJ) preloads on separate occasions. Subjective appetite perceptions were assessed at 30 min intervals following preload consumption (up to 150 min) and energy intake was determined from ad libitum test meals. Appetite-related hormone (total PYY, GLP-1 and acylated ghrelin) responses were measured in the HE trial only. Within the early postprandial phase (0-60 min), subjective ratings of fullness (d = 0.83) and satisfaction (d = 0.87) were higher (P ≤ 0.028) in the group with SCI. No group differences in PYY, GLP-1 or acylated ghrelin were detected in a fasted state or postprandially (d ≤ 0.64; p ≥ 0.053). Ad libitum energy intake was lower in the SCI group (1086 vs. 1713 kJ, respectively, d = 1.00; P = 0.020) but no effect of trial (preload) was found. These findings suggest that, following isocaloric preloads, postprandial satiety may be augmented, rather than attenuated, in people with SCI.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Prandial , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Energia , Grelina , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444668

RESUMO

There are few data on the longitudinal association of cytokine and appetite among older hospitalized patients. We aimed to investigate the impact of the changes of inflammatory cytokines on appetite in older hospitalized patients. A total of 191 patients (mean age 81.3 ± 6.6 years, 64% women) participated in this prospective longitudinal observational study. Appetite was evaluated using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System on admission and after seven days. Serum cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23 and IL-33, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MCP-1 were measured both times. No significant differences in the mean serum levels of all the cytokines could be detected overtime in relation to appetite changes, except for IL-18. Appetite significantly deteriorated overtime in patients with increasing IL-18 levels and improved in those without significant changes in IL-18 levels. In a stepwise regression analysis, changes of IL-18 levels were the major independent predictor for the changes of patients' appetite and explained 4% of the variance, whereas other cytokines and variables, such as age, sex, infection and disease, did not show any impact on appetite changes. We conclude that IL-18 seems to exert a significant impact on appetite in acutely ill older hospitalized patients and should, therefore, be considered as a potential target in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Citocinas/sangue , Hospitalização , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pacientes Internados , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Interleucina-18/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): R93-R101, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370694

RESUMO

In 2008, the first evidence of a new hormone called neuronostatin was published. The hormone was discovered using a bioinformatic method and found to originate from the same preprohormone as somatostatin. This small peptide hormone of 13 amino acids and a C-terminal amidation was soon found to exert pleiotropic physiological effects. In animal studies, neuronostatin has been shown to reduce food intake and delay gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit. Furthermore, neuronostatin has been shown to affect glucose metabolism by increasing glucagon secretion during situations when glucose concentrations are low. Additionally, neuronostatin has been shown to affect neural tissue and cardiomyocytes by suppressing cardiac contractility. The effects of neuronostatin have not yet been delineated in humans, but if the effects found in animal studies translate to humans it could position neuronostatin as a promising target in the treatment of obesity, hypertension and diabetes. In this review, we describe the discovery of neuronostatin and the current understanding of its physiological role and potential therapeutic applicability.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Esvaziamento Gástrico/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/terapia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/terapia , Hormônios Peptídicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Somatostatina/química , Somatostatina/farmacologia , Somatostatina/fisiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients in the postoperative period following bariatric surgery are at risk of developing eating disorders. This study aims to analyze the relation between bariatric surgery and the development and recurrence of eating disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature review was carried out on 15 November 2020. Fourteen studies that met the eligibility criteria were included for qualitative synthesis, and 7 studies for meta-analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of eating disorders in the postoperative period was 7.83%, based on the 7 studies in the meta-analysis. Binge eating disorder alone was 3.81%, which was the most significant factor, and addressed in 6 of these studies. CONCLUSION: The investigated studies have significant methodological limitations in assessing the relation between bariatric surgery and eating disorders, since they mostly present data on prevalence. PROSPERO CRD42019135614.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371983

RESUMO

The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes shows an upward trend in recent decades. A characteristic feature of these diseases is hyperglycemia which can be associated with hyperphagia. Absorption of glucose in the small intestine physiologically contributes to the regulation of blood glucose levels, and hence, appears as a putative target for treatment of hyperglycemia. In fact, recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of glucose absorption in the gut and its reabsorption in the kidney helped to develop a new strategy of diabetes treatment. Changes in blood glucose levels are also involved in regulation of appetite, suggesting that glucose absorption may be relevant to hyperphagia in metabolic diseases. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of glucose absorption in the small intestine in physiological conditions and their alterations in metabolic diseases as well as their relevance to the regulation of appetite. The key role of SGLT1 transporter in intestinal glucose absorption in both physiological conditions and in diabetes was clearly established. We conclude that although inhibition of small intestinal glucose absorption represents a valuable target for the treatment of hyperglycemia, it is not always suitable for the treatment of hyperphagia. In fact, independent regulation of glucose absorption and appetite requires a more complex approach for the treatment of metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445030

RESUMO

Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is an important complication resulting from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Appetite impairment contributes significantly to PEW in these patients, but risk factors associated with having appetite impairment in patients with CKD remain elusive. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥2 times at least three months apart were prospectively enrolled during 2017, with their demographic features, comorbidities, anthropometric parameters, physical and performance indices, functional status, frailty, sensory organ integrity, and laboratory data collected. Their appetite status was measured using the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ). We examined independent determinants of appetite impairment in these CKD patients using multiple regression analyses. Among 78 patients with CKD, 42.3% had CNAQ-identified impaired appetite. Those with an impaired appetite also had poorer physical performance, a higher degree of functional impairment, higher frail severities, lower serum sodium levels, less intact oral cavity, and a trend toward having less intact nasal structures than those without. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a higher frail severity, in the forms of increasing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) scores (odds ratio (OR), 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-6.57) and a less intact nasal structure (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.995) were associated with a higher probability of having an impaired appetite, while higher serum sodium (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.6-0.97) correlated with a lower probability. Based on our findings, in patients with CKD, the severity of frailty, serum sodium, and nasal structural integrity might modify appetite status. Therapies targeting these factors might be beneficial for appetite restoration in patients with CKD.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Funcional , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/diagnóstico , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299356

RESUMO

The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin and its receptor are involved in a range of physiological processes, including parturition, lactation, cell growth, wound healing, and social behavior. More recently, increasing evidence has established the effects of oxytocin on food intake, energy expenditure, and peripheral metabolism. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the central oxytocinergic system in which oxytocin acts to shape eating behavior and metabolism. Next, we discuss the peripheral beneficial effects oxytocin exerts on key metabolic organs, including suppression of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, skeletal muscle regeneration, and bone tissue mineralization. A brief summary of oxytocin actions learned from animal models is presented, showing that weight loss induced by chronic oxytocin treatment is related not only to its anorexigenic effects, but also to the resulting increase in energy expenditure and lipolysis. Following an in-depth discussion on the technical challenges related to endogenous oxytocin measurements in humans, we synthesize data related to the association between endogenous oxytocin levels, weight status, metabolic syndrome, and bone health. We then review clinical trials showing that in humans, acute oxytocin administration reduces food intake, attenuates fMRI activation of food motivation brain areas, and increases activation of self-control brain regions. Further strengthening the role of oxytocin in appetite regulation, we review conditions of hypothalamic insult and certain genetic pathologies associated with oxytocin depletion that present with hyperphagia, extreme weight gain, and poor metabolic profile. Intranasal oxytocin is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials to learn whether oxytocin-based therapeutics can be used to treat obesity and its associated sequela. At the end of this review, we address the fundamental challenges that remain in translating this line of research to clinical care.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo
13.
Horm Behav ; 134: 105021, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242873

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system (ECs) is known to participate in several processes in mammals related to synaptic signaling including regulation of food intake, appetite and energy balance. In fish, the relationship of ECs with food intake regulation is poorly understood. In the present study, we assessed in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss the effect of intracerebroventricular administration (ICV) of low and high doses of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on food intake. We assessed endocannabinoid levels in hypothalamus, telencephalon and plasma as well as the effect of AEA and 2-AG administration at central level on gene expression of receptors involved in ECs (cnr1, gpr55 and trpv1) and markers of neural activity (fos, ntrk2 and GABA-related genes). The results obtained indicate that whereas high doses of endocannabinoids did not elicit changes in food intake levels, low doses of the endocannabinoids produce an orexigenic effect that could be due to a possible inhibition of gabaergic neurotransmission and the modulation of neural plasticity in brain areas related to appetite control, such as hypothalamus and telencephalon.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Regulação do Apetite , Ingestão de Alimentos , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Hipotálamo
14.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 162, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284827

RESUMO

Feelings of hunger and satiety are the key determinants for maintaining the life of humans and animals. Disturbed appetite control may disrupt the metabolic health of the host and cause various metabolic disorders. A variety of factors have been implicated in appetite control, including gut microbiota, which develop the intricate interactions to manipulate the metabolic requirements and hedonic feelings. Gut microbial metabolites and components act as appetite-related signaling molecules to regulate appetite-related hormone secretion and the immune system, or act directly on hypothalamic neurons. Herein, we summarize the effects of gut microbiota on host appetite and consider the potential molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose that the manipulation of gut microbiota represents a clinical therapeutic potential for lessening the development and consequence of appetite-related disorders. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119636

RESUMO

Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic acid found within the plant cell wall that has physiological benefits as an antioxidant. Although metabolic benefits of FA supplementation are described, lacking are reports of effects on appetite regulation. Thus, our objective was to determine if FA affects food or water intake, using chicks as a model. At 4 days post-hatch, broiler chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg of FA. Chicks treated with 50 mg/kg of FA consumed 70% less food than controls at 30 min post-injection, and the effect dissipated thereafter. Water intake was not affected at any time. In a behavior analysis, FA-treated chicks defecated fewer times than vehicle-injected chicks, while other behaviors were not affected. There was an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) of FA-treated chicks, and no differences were detected in other nuclei. mRNA abundance was measured in the whole hypothalamus and the ARC. There was decreased hypothalamic galanin, ghrelin, melanocortin receptor 3, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in FA-treated chicks. Within the ARC, there was an increase in c-Fos mRNA and a decrease in POMC mRNA in response to FA. It is likely that the mechanism responsible for mediating FA's transient effects on food intake originates within the ARC, possibly involving POMC. A greater understanding of the short-term, mild appetite-suppressive effects of FA may have applications to treating eating disorders and modulating food intake in animal models of obesity.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anorexia/induzido quimicamente , Apoptose , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Galanina/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 3 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Endocrinology ; 162(9)2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089599

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic requires effective preventative and therapeutic intervention strategies. Successful and sustained obesity treatment is currently limited to bariatric surgery. Modulating the release of gut hormones is considered promising to mimic bariatric surgery with its beneficial effects on food intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels. The gut peptide secretin was the first molecule to be termed a hormone; nevertheless, only recently has it been established as a legitimate anorexigenic peptide. In contrast to gut hormones that crosstalk with the brain either directly or by afferent neuronal projections, secretin mediates meal-associated brown fat thermogenesis to induce meal termination, thereby qualifying this physiological mechanism as an attractive, peripheral target for the treatment of obesity. In this perspective, it is of pivotal interest to deepen our as yet superficial knowledge on the physiological roles of secretin as well as meal-associated thermogenesis in energy balance and body weight regulation. Of note, the emerging differences between meal-associated thermogenesis and cold-induced thermogenesis must be taken into account. In fact, there is no correlation between these 2 entities. In addition, the investigation of potential effects of secretin in hedonic-driven food intake, bariatric surgery and chronic treatment using suitable application strategies to overcome pharmacokinetic limitations will provide further insight into its potential to influence energy balance. The aim of this article is to review the facts on secretin's metabolic effects, address prevailing gaps in our knowledge, and provide an overview on the opportunities and challenges of the therapeutic potential of secretin in body weight control.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Secretina/farmacologia , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Secretina/fisiologia , Secretina/uso terapêutico , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Exp Biol ; 224(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114000

RESUMO

We evaluated the role of the G protein-coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR119 in food intake regulation in fish using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a model. In the first experiment, we assessed the effects on food intake of intracerebroventricular treatment with agonists of these receptors. In the second experiment, we assessed the impact of the same treatments on mRNA abundance in the hypothalamus and hindbrain of neuropeptides involved in the metabolic control of food intake (npy, agrp1, pomca1 and cartpt) as well as in changes in parameters related to signalling pathways and transcription factors involved in the integrative response leading to neuropeptide production. Treatment with both agonists elicited an anorectic response in rainbow trout attributable to changes observed in the mRNA abundance of the four neuropeptides. Changes in neuropeptides relate to changes observed in mRNA abundance and phosphorylation status of the transcription factor FOXO1. These changes occurred in parallel with changes in the phosphorylation status of AMPKα and Akt, the mRNA abundance of mTOR as well as signalling pathways related to PLCß and IP3. These results allow us to suggest that (1) at least part of the capacity of fish brain to sense medium-chain fatty acids such as octanoate depends on the function of GPR84, and (2) the capacity of fish brain to sense N-acylethanolamides or triglyceride-derived molecules occurs through the binding of these ligands to GPR119.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Regulação do Apetite , Ingestão de Alimentos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(8): 2507-2511, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glycosuria induced by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors leads to weight loss and improved diabetes control, but a significant disparity exists between observed and expected weight loss with these medications, hindering clinical effects. This study investigated whether this discrepancy could be explained by compensatory increases in appetite and associated alterations in appetite-regulating hormones. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective single-center observational pilot study. Adults 18-70 years old newly prescribed an SGLT2 inhibitor through usual care were invited to participate. Fasting and postprandial appetite was assessed immediately before, 1 week after, and 12 weeks after SGLT2 inhibitor initiation. Serum samples were collected at corresponding time points to measure ghrelin, leptin, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY). Seven patients were included. At 1 and 12 weeks after SGLT2 inhibitor initiation, self-reported appetite did not change significantly and trended toward a decrease in appetite. There were no significant differences in fasting or postprandial ghrelin, leptin, or PYY. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the discrepancy between expected and observed weight loss with SGLT2 inhibitors cannot be explained by increases in appetite or changes in appetite-regulating hormones. Further studies are needed to investigate alternative metabolic compensatory mechanisms to optimize weight loss with SGLT2 inhibitor use.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068091

RESUMO

The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes5) processes oral sensory-motor information, but its role in the control of energy balance remains unexplored. Here, using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that the Mes5 expresses the melanocortin-4 receptor. Consistent with MC4R activation in other areas of the brain, we found that Mes5 microinjection of the MC4R agonist melanotan-II (MTII) suppresses food intake and body weight in the mouse. Furthermore, NTS POMC-projecting neurons to the Mes5 can be chemogenetically activated to drive a suppression in food intake. Taken together, these findings highlight the Mes5 as a novel target of melanocortinergic control of food intake and body weight regulation, although elucidating the endogenous role of this circuit requires future study. While we observed the sufficiency of Mes5 MC4Rs for food intake and body weight suppression, these receptors do not appear to be necessary for food intake or body weight control. Collectively, the data presented here support the functional relevance of the NTS POMC to Mes5 projection pathway as a novel circuit that can be targeted to modulate food intake and body weight.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Tegmento Mesencefálico/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070968

RESUMO

Future deep space astronauts must maintain adequate nutrition despite highly stressful, isolated, confined and dangerous environments. The present case-study investigated appetite regulating hormones, nutrition status, and physical and emotional stress in a space analog condition: an explorer conducting a 93-day unsupported solo crossing of Antarctica. Using the dried blood spot (DBS) method, the subject drew samples of his blood on a regular basis during the expedition. The DBSs were later analyzed for the appetite regulating hormones leptin and adiponectin. Energy intake and nutritional status were monitored by analysis of albumin and globulin (including their ratio). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also analyzed and used as an energy sensor. The results showed a marked reduction in levels of the appetite-reducing hormone, leptin, and the appetite stimulating hormone, adiponectin, during both extreme physical and psychological strain. Nutrition status showed a variation over the expedition, with below-normal levels during extreme psychological strain and levels abutting the lower bounds of the normal range during a phase dominated by extreme physical hardship. The IL-6 levels varied substantially, with levels above the normal range except during the recovery phase. It was concluded that a daily intake of 5058 to 5931 calories seemed to allow recovery of both appetite and nutritional status between extreme physical and psychological hardship during a long Arctic expedition. Furthermore, IL-6 may be a sensor in the muscle-liver, muscle-fat and muscle-brain crosstalk. These results may help guide nutrition planning for future astronaut crews, mountaineers and others involved in highly demanding missions.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Regulação do Apetite , Expedições , Leptina/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Regiões Antárticas , Apetite , Temperatura Baixa , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Albumina Sérica/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise
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