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1.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 565-572, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749895

RESUMO

Sleep is often misunderstood in its impact on many chronic diseases including obesity. Obesity and restorative sleep are intertwined processes. Poor sleep negatively affects the key hormones of weight and appetite regulation, thereby potentially increasing weight via mechanisms that increase hunger and lower metabolism, thereby making the successful treatment of obesity more difficult. Clinicians should consider a comprehensive sleep history and proper treatment or referral to a sleep specialist in conjunction with obesity treatment. Adequate restorative sleep is integral to a comprehensive obesity treatment program.


Assuntos
Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Grelina , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(5): 323-329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719618

RESUMO

Energy intake (EI) has been identified as a key factor of health controlled by exercise. Aerobic dance exercise (ADEX) is a popular exercise for fitness that one can enjoy. This present study aims to examine the influence of ADEX on moods, appetite, and EI. Thirty-one young female college students completed two 1-h experimental conditions: sedentary (SED) and ADEX followed by an ad libitum lunch. Visual analog scales and measurement of salivary α-amylase activity were used to assess appetite, fatigue, and stress at pre act, post act, and pre lunch, respectively. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of the SED or ADEX activities was measured using the Borg scale (range, 6-20). The participants completed the Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition-Adult Short at pre and post act only on the ADEX experimental day to assess the degree to which total mood disturbance (TMD), negative mood disturbance (NMD), and positive mood disturbance (PMD) have correlations with EI. In results, ADEX increased in RPE but did not affect TMD, NMD, PMD, hunger, fullness, appetite, and EI. Additionally, the ADEX-induced relative changes in EI were not determined to be significantly correlated with RPE in ADEX or the change in TMD, NMD, or PMD by ADEX. Our study suggests that ADEX does not affect mood, appetite, and EI. In addition, individual mood changes caused by ADEX do not correlate with EI in young adult women.


Assuntos
Apetite , Dança , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684509

RESUMO

Coupling energy intake (EI) to increases in energy expenditure (EE) may be adaptively, compensatorily, or maladaptively leading to weight gain. This narrative review examines if functioning of the homeostatic responses depends on the type of physiological perturbations in EE (e.g., due to exercise, sleep, temperature, or growth), or if it is influenced by protein intake, or the extent, duration, timing, and frequency of EE. As different measures to increase EE could convey discrepant neuronal or humoral signals that help to control food intake, the coupling of EI to EE could be tight or loose, which implies that some ways to increase EE may have advantages for body weight regulation. Exercise, physical activity, heat exposure, and a high protein intake favor weight loss, whereas an increase in EE due to cold exposure or sleep loss likely contributes to an overcompensation of EI, especially in vulnerable thrifty phenotypes, as well as under obesogenic environmental conditions, such as energy dense high fat-high carbohydrate diets. Irrespective of the type of EE, transient elevations in the metabolic rate seem to be general risk factors for weight gain, because a subsequent decrease in energy requirement is not compensated by an adequate adaptation of appetite and EI.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684760

RESUMO

The cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor regulates appetite and body weight; however, unwanted central side effects of both agonists (in wasting disorders) or antagonists (in obesity and diabetes) have limited their therapeutic utility. At the peripheral level, CB1 receptor activation impacts the energy balance of mammals in a number of different ways: inhibiting satiety and emesis, increasing food intake, altering adipokine and satiety hormone levels, altering taste sensation, decreasing lipolysis (fat break down), and increasing lipogenesis (fat generation). The CB1 receptor also plays an important role in the gut-brain axis control of appetite and satiety. The combined effect of peripheral CB1 activation is to promote appetite, energy storage, and energy preservation (and the opposite is true for CB1 antagonists). Therefore, the next generation of CB1 receptor medicines (agonists and antagonists, and indirect modulators of the endocannabinoid system) have been peripherally restricted to mitigate these issues, and some of these are already in clinical stage development. These compounds also have demonstrated potential in other conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic nephropathy (peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists) and pain conditions (peripherally restricted CB1 agonists and FAAH inhibitors). This review will discuss the mechanisms by which peripheral CB1 receptors regulate body weight, and the therapeutic utility of peripherally restricted drugs in the management of body weight and beyond.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Apetite/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Endocanabinoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/fisiologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/fisiologia , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/fisiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682735

RESUMO

Consuming nuts may have advantages over other snack foods for health and body-weight regulation. Suggested mechanisms include increased satiety and lower glycaemia. We used an acute randomised crossover trial to assess glycaemic and appetite responses to consuming two isocaloric snacks (providing 10% of participants' total energy requirements or 1030 kJ (equivalent to 42.5 g almonds), whichever provided greater energy): raw almonds and sweet biscuits among 100 participants with available data (25 males and 75 females) following 106 being randomised. Two hours after consuming a standardised breakfast, participants consumed the snack food. Finger-prick blood samples measuring blood glucose and subjective appetite ratings using visual analogue scales were taken at baseline and at 15 or 30 min intervals after consumption. Two hours after snack consumption, an ad libitum lunch was offered to participants and consumption was recorded. Participants also recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. The mean area under the blood glucose response curve was statistically and practically significantly lower for almonds than biscuits (mean (95% CI) difference: 53 mmol/L.min (45, 61), p < 0.001). Only the composite appetite score at 90 min was higher in the almond treatment compared to the biscuit treatment (45.7 mm vs. 42.4 mm, p = 0.035 without adjustment for multiple comparisons). There was no evidence of differences between the snacks for all other appetite ratings or for energy intake at the ad libitum lunch. However, mean energy intakes following snack consumption were significantly lower, both statistically and in practical terms, for the almond treatment compared to the biscuit (mean (95% CI) diff: 638 kJ (44, 1233), p = 0.035). Replacing popular snacks with almonds may have advantages in terms of glycaemia and energy balance.


Assuntos
Prunus dulcis , Lanches , Apetite , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051400, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. A proportion of this burden has been attributed to factors that occur during the first 1000 days of life such as genetic predisposition, breast feeding and complementary feeding. Although the mechanisms by which these factors affect weight and adiposity are less well understood, appetite and satiety regulation may be a key to understanding them. This cohort study aims to investigate the role of appetite and satiety regulation as a mediator in the association between infant feeding practices and genetic polymorphisms with children's growth, adiposity and metabolic risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'MAS-Lactancia' (the first word means 'more' and is also an acronym in Spanish for 'Appetite and Satiety Mechanisms', the second word is 'breastfeeding') is an open, ongoing, prospective birth cohort that began the enrolment in 2016 of mother-child pairs affiliated to the Mexican Social Security Institute and that live in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women between 16-week and 22-week gestation are followed during the second half of their pregnancies, at birth and throughout their infant's first 48 months of life (at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months, 36 months and 48 months) at the clinic and at-home visits that include questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and biospecimen collection. The main exposure variables are infant feeding (breast feeding and complementary feeding) and genetic polymorphisms (fat mass and obesity-associated, leptin and adiponectin genes). Outcome variables include infant's growth, adiposity and metabolic risk factors. We will conduct longitudinal models and path analyses to identify the potential mediating role of satiety and appetite indicators (leptin, adiponectin, insulin concentrations, appetite and satiety perception). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol, data collection instruments, consent forms and procedures were approved by the institutional review boards of the National Institute of Public Health and the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through conferences, peer-reviewed publications and meetings with stakeholders.


Assuntos
Apetite , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adiposidade , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684324

RESUMO

Granular study of metabolic responses to alterations in the ratio of dietary macro-nutrients can enhance our understanding of how dietary modifications influence patients with impaired glycemic control. In order to study the effect of diets enriched in fat or carbohydrates, fifteen healthy, normal-weight volunteers received, in a cross-over design, and in a randomized unblinded order, two weeks of an iso-caloric high-fat diet (HFD: 60E% from fat) and a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD: 60E% from carbohydrates). A mixed meal test (MMT) was performed at the end of each dietary period to examine glucose clearance kinetics and insulin and incretin hormone levels, as well as plasma metabolomic profiles. The MMT induced almost identical glycemia and insulinemia following the HFD or HCD. GLP-1 levels were higher after the HFD vs. HCD, whereas GIP did not differ. The HFD, compared to the HCD, increased the levels of several metabolomic markers of risk for the development of insulin resistance, e.g., branched-chain amino acid (valine and leucine), creatine and α-hydroxybutyric acid levels. In normal-weight, healthy volunteers, two weeks of the HFD vs. HCD showed similar profiles of meal-induced glycemia and insulinemia. Despite this, the HFD showed a metabolomic pattern implying a risk for a metabolic shift towards impaired insulin sensitivity in the long run.


Assuntos
Voluntários Saudáveis , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Apetite , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Carboidratos da Dieta , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Incretinas/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Metaboloma , Fatores de Risco
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 55-65, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sleep, as well as diet and physical activity, plays a significant role in growth, maturation, health, and regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, there is increasing evidence indicating a possible causal association between sleep duration and energy balance. We aimed to examine the relationship between sleep duration and food consumption, energy intake, anthropometric characteristics, and appetite-regulating hormones by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Electronic literature searches were conducted on Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar until July 2020. The search was conducted with the following words: "Sleep Duration", "Circadian Rhythm", "Sleep Disorders" in combination with "Obesity", "Overweight", "Abdominal Obesity", "Physical Activity", "Energy Intake", "Body Mass Index", "Lipid Metabolism", "Caloric Restriction", Leptin, "Weight Gain", and "Appetite Regulation" using human studies.methods RESULTS: After screening 708 abstracts, 50 RCTs (7 on children or adolescents and 43 on adults) were identified and met the inclusion criteria. In general, the findings suggested that sleep restriction may leads to a significant increment in energy intake, fat intake, body weight, appetite, hunger, eating occasions, and portion size, while protein and carbohydrate consumption, total energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient remained unaffected as a result of sleep restriction. Serum leptin, ghrelin, and cortisol concentrations were not influenced by sleep duration as well. CONCLUSION: Insufficient sleep can be considered as a contributing factor for energy imbalance, weight gain, and metabolic disorders and it is suggested that to tackle disordered eating it may be necessary to pay more attention to sleep duration.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Grelina , Humanos , Sono
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential synergistic effects of olive oil releasing 2-oleoylglycerol and hydrolyzed pine nut oil containing 20% pinolenic acid on GLP-1 secretion, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and appetite in healthy individuals, when delivered to the small intestine as potential agonists of GPR119, FFA1 and FFA4. METHODS: Nine overweight/obese individuals completed three 6-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in a crossover design. At -30 min, participants consumed either: no oil, 6 g of hydrolyzed pine nut oil (PNO-FFA), or a combination of 3 g hydrolyzed pine nut oil and 3 g olive oil (PNO-OO) in delayed-release capsules. Repeated measures of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin, subjective appetite and gastrointestinal tolerability were done. RESULTS: PNO-FFA augmented GLP-1 secretion from 0-360 min compared to no oil and PNO-OO (p < 0.01). GIP secretion was increased from 240-360 min after both PNO-FFA and PNO-OO versus no oil (p < 0.01). Both oil treatments suppressed subjective appetite by reducing hunger and prospective food consumption and increasing satiety (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In support of previous findings, 6 g of delayed-release hydrolyzed pine nut oil enhanced postprandial GLP-1 secretion and reduced appetite. However, no synergistic effect of combining hydrolyzed pine nut oil and olive oil on GLP-1 secretion was observed. These results need further evaluation in long-term studies including effects on bodyweight and insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Apetite , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Incretinas/sangue , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Pinus , Período Pós-Prandial
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 657807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568080

RESUMO

It is known that the microbiome affects human physiology, emotion, disease, growth, and development. Most humans exhibit reduced appetites under high temperature and high humidity (HTHH) conditions, and HTHH environments favor fungal growth. Therefore, we hypothesized that the colonic mycobiota may affect the host's appetite under HTHH conditions. Changes in humidity are also associated with autoimmune diseases. In the current study mice were fed in an HTHH environment (32°C ± 2°C, relative humidity 95%) maintained via an artificial climate box for 8 hours per day for 21 days. Food intake, the colonic fungal microbiome, the feces metabolome, and appetite regulators were monitored. Components of the interleukin 17 pathway were also examined. In the experimental groups food intake and body weight were reduced, and the colonic mycobiota and fecal metabolome were substantially altered compared to control groups maintained at 25°C ± 2°C and relative humidity 65%. The appetite-related proteins LEPT and POMC were upregulated in the hypothalamus (p < 0.05), and NYP gene expression was downregulated (p < 0.05). The expression levels of PYY and O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine were altered in colonic tissues (p < 0.05), and interleukin 17 expression was upregulated in the colon. There was a strong correlation between colonic fungus and sugar metabolism. In fimo some metabolites of cholesterol, tromethamine, and cadaverine were significantly increased. There was significant elevation of the characteristic fungi Solicoccozyma aeria, and associated appetite suppression and interleukin 17 receptor signaling activation in some susceptible hosts, and disturbance of gut bacteria and fungi. The results indicate that the gut mycobiota plays an important role in the hypothalamus endocrine system with respect to appetite regulation via the gut-brain axis, and also plays an indispensable role in the stability of the gut microbiome and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these associations require extensive further studies.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Receptores de Interleucina-17 , Animais , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Basidiomycota , Colo , Umidade , Camundongos , Temperatura
11.
Can Vet J ; 62(9): 969-974, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475582

RESUMO

The primary goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of postoperative appetite return in cats premedicated with maropitant citrate. Medical records of 75 cats admitted for gastrointestinal (GI) and urogenital (UG) surgeries were reviewed and analyzed. Buprenorphine analgesia was used with 36 cats (48%) premedicated with maropitant and 39 cats (52%) that were used as a control group. No significant differences in postoperative appetite return were reported with maropitant premedication compared to controls. Age, breed, preoperative weight, surgery type, surgery and anesthesia times, and total hospitalization time were also evaluated and were not reported to be significantly associated with postoperative appetite return. Presenting complaints of hyporexia or anorexia were significantly associated with earlier postoperative appetite return. Results of this study suggest that cats treated with buprenorphine for GI or UG surgeries do not have postoperative appetites return sooner when premedicated with maropitant.


Assuntos
Apetite , Buprenorfina , Animais , Gatos , Quinuclidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578805

RESUMO

Alcohol is energy-dense, elicits weak satiety responses relative to solid food, inhibits dietary fat oxidation, and may stimulate food intake. It has, therefore, been proposed as a contributor to weight gain and obesity. The aim of this narrative review was to consolidate and critically appraise the evidence on the relationship of alcohol consumption with dietary intake and body weight, within mainstream (non-treatment) populations. Publications were identified from a PubMed keyword search using the terms 'alcohol', 'food', 'eating', 'weight', 'body mass index', 'obesity', 'food reward', 'inhibition', 'attentional bias', 'appetite', 'culture', 'social'. A snowball method and citation searches were used to identify additional relevant publications. Reference lists of relevant publications were also consulted. While limited by statistical heterogeneity, pooled results of experimental studies showed a relatively robust association between acute alcohol intake and greater food and total energy intake. This appears to occur via metabolic and psychological mechanisms that have not yet been fully elucidated. Evidence on the relationship between alcohol intake and weight is equivocal. Most evidence was derived from cross-sectional survey data which does not allow for a cause-effect relationship to be established. Observational research evidence was limited by heterogeneity and methodological issues, reducing the certainty of the evidence. We found very little qualitative work regarding the social, cultural, and environmental links between concurrent alcohol intake and eating behaviours. That the evidence of alcohol intake and body weight remains uncertain despite no shortage of research over the years, indicates that more innovative research methodologies and nuanced analyses are needed to capture what is clearly a complex and dynamic relationship. Also, given synergies between 'Big Food' and 'Big Alcohol' industries, effective policy solutions are likely to overlap and a unified approach to policy change may be more effective than isolated efforts. However, joint action may not occur until stronger evidence on the relationship between alcohol intake, food intake and weight is established.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Dieta/métodos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Meio Ambiente , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Fatores Sociais
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17954, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518616

RESUMO

Ghrelin, a circulating orexigenic hormone secreted from the stomach, stimulates appetite and food intake by activating the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Administration of exogenous ghrelin exerts anabolic effects, causing weight gain, increased adiposity, and decreased metabolism. Body temperature (BT), which is determined by the balance of heat production and heat loss, must be strictly regulated to maintain proper cellular function and metabolism. However, the role of ghrelin in thermoregulation remains unclear. In this study, we found that ghrelin was essential for decreasing BT when mice are placed under calorie restriction. Elevated ghrelin concentrations induced by fasting correlated with significant decreases in BT, a hibernation-like state called torpor. Ghrelin-deficient (Ghrl-/-) animals could not enter torpor. The BT of Ghrl-/- mice also remained high under restricted feeding, but the animals gradually entered precipitous hypothermia, indicating thermoregulatory impairment. These effects of ghrelin on thermoregulation were the result of suppression of sympathetic nervous system activity input to brown adipose tissue; in the absence of ghrelin, it was not possible to suppress uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) expression and decrease BT in low-energy states. Together, these findings demonstrate that ghrelin is an essential circulating hormone involved in lowering BT.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Torpor/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Torpor/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
14.
Physiol Behav ; 241: 113562, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516956

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare energy intake (EI) and appetite regulation responses between men and women following acute bouts of aerobic (AEx), resistance exercise (REx), and a sedentary control (CON). METHODS: Men and women (n = 24; 50% male) with overweight/obesity, matched on age (32.3 ±â€¯2 vs. 36.8 ±â€¯2 yrs, p = 0.14) and BMI (28.1 ±â€¯1.2 vs 29.0 ±â€¯1.5 kg/m2, p = 0.64) completed 3 conditions: 1) AEx (65-70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 45 min); 2) REx (1-set to failure on 12 exercises); and 3) CON. Each condition was initiated in the post-prandial state (35 min following consumption of a standardized breakfast). Appetite (visual analog scale for hunger, satiety, and prospective food consumption [PFC]) and hormones (ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1) were measured in the fasted state and every 30 min post-prandially for 3 h. Post-exercise ad libitum EI at the lunch meal was also measured. RESULTS: Men reported higher levels of hunger compared to women across all study conditions (AEx: Men: 7815.00 ±â€¯368.3; Women: 5428.50 ±â€¯440.0 mm x 180 min; p = 0.025; REx: Men: 7110.00 ±â€¯548.4; Women: 6086.25 ±â€¯482.9 mm x 180 min; p = 0.427; CON: Men: 8315.00 ±â€¯429.8; Women: 5311.25 ±â€¯543.1 mm x 180 min; p = 0.021) and consumed a greater absolute caloric load than women at the ad libitum lunch meal (AEx: Men: 1021.6 ±â€¯105.4; Women: 851.7 ±â€¯70.5 kcals; p = 0.20; REx: Men: 1114.7 ±â€¯104.0; Women: 867.7 ±â€¯76.4 kcals; p = 0.07; CON: Men: 1087.0 ±â€¯98.8; Women: 800.5 ±â€¯102.3 kcals; p = 0.06). However, when adjusted for relative energy needs, there was no difference in relative ad libitum EI observed between men and women. No differences in Area Under the Curve for Satiety, PFC, ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 were noted between men and women following acute exercise (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that women report lower ratings of appetite following an acute bout of exercise or sedentary time when compared to men, yet have similar relative EI. Future work is needed to examine whether sex-based differences in appetite regulation and EI are present with chronic exercise of differing modalities.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Grelina , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Saciação
15.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/virologia , Anosmia/diagnóstico , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/virologia , Apetite , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/virologia , Calafrios/diagnóstico , Calafrios/etiologia , Calafrios/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/virologia , Inglaterra , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/virologia , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/etiologia , Faringite/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Medicina Estatal
16.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 19(11): 2049-2056, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521327

RESUMO

Food craving is a health issue for a considerable proportion of the general population. Medications have been introduced to alleviate the craving or reduce the appetite via a neuropharmacological approach. However, the underlying cerebral processing of the medications was largely unknown. This study aimed to meta-analyze existing neuroimaging findings. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched to identify relevant publications. Original studies that reported brain imaging findings using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were initially included. The reported coordinates of brain activation available from the studies were extracted and metaanalyzed with the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach via the software GingerALE. The overall analysis pooling data from 24 studies showed that the right claustrum and insula were the targeted sites of altered cerebral processing of food cues by the medications. Subgroup analysis pooling data from 11 studies showed that these sites had reduced activity levels under medications compared to placebo. The location of this significant cluster partially overlapped with that attributable to affective value processing of food cues in a prior meta-analysis. No brain regions were found to have increased activity levels by medications. These neural correlates may help explain the physiological effect of food consumption by anti-appetite and anti-obesity medications.


Assuntos
Apetite , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Neuroimagem
19.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(8): 987-991, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404062

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia is defined as a multifactorial syndrome that causes anorexia and an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass). When patients got cachexia, the effectiveness and tolerance for anti-cancer therapy is reduced, leading to their poor prognosis. Although known as such disease, there had been no effective cure for cancer cachexia. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that promotes appetite and improve cachexia. However, there is a limitation as a drug because its half-life is short and must be intravenous injected. Anamorelin is a first novel drug, an orally active, non- peptidic ghrelin mimetic and growth hormone secretagogue approved in Japan in January 2021. Like ghrelin, anamorelin also increases the appetite and lean body mass of patients with cancer cachexia. On the other hand, in clinical trials, there was no statistical significance for increasing the 6-minute walk test distance and recovering non-dominant hand grip strength. As for the functional recovery, a new program has been developed for non-pharmacotherapy with nutritional and exercise interventions. These 2 kinds of interventions will become effective anti-cachexia therapy. Research is also underway to produce anti-cachexia drugs other than anamorelin. Somes are already in their clinical trials. Anti-cachexia therapy will be a new option for treating advanced cancer.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Neoplasias , Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Anorexia/etiologia , Apetite , Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Caquexia/etiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444898

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the accuracy of the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and the SNAQ for Japanese Elderly (SNAQ-JE) for the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM)-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia screening in older persons. We included 380 inpatients aged ≥65 years (mean age, 79.3 ± 7.9; 60.0% women) and admitted to rehabilitation units. Undernutrition and sarcopenia were diagnosed based on GLIM criteria and the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, respectively, using bioimpedance analysis. Poor appetite was defined as an SNAQ score of <14 points and an SNAQ-JE score of ≤14 points. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of these tools for detecting poor appetite for GLIM-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia were assessed. The rates of GLIM-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia were 56.8% and 59.2%, respectively. The number of patients with poor appetite was 94 (24.7%) for the SNAQ and 234 (61.6%) for the SNAQ-JE. The sensitivity and specificity of the SNAQ measured against GLIM-defined malnutrition were 32.9% and 73.1%, respectively, and against sarcopenia were 29.8% and 70.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the SNAQ-JE measured against GLIM-defined malnutrition were 82.6% and 51.0%, respectively, and against sarcopenia were 86.0% and 53.7%, respectively. The SNAQ-JE showed fair accuracy for GLIM-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia in older patients admitted to rehabilitation units.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Avaliação Nutricional , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apetite , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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