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1.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680275

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are vectors of various pathogens that cause diseases in humans and animals. To prevent the outbreak of mosquito-borne diseases, it is essential to control vector populations, as treatment or vaccination for mosquito-borne diseases are often unavailable. Insect-specific viruses (ISVs) have previously been described as being potentially helpful against arboviral disease outbreaks. In this study, we present the first in vivo characterization of the ISV Culex Y virus (CYV). CYV was first isolated from free-living Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 2010; then, it was found in several mosquito cell lines in a further study in 2018. For mammalian cells, we were able to confirm that CYV does not replicate as it was previously described. Additionally, we found that CYV does not replicate in honey bees or locusts. However, we detected replication in the Culex pipiens biotype molestus, Aedes albopictus, and Drosophila melanogaster, thus indicating dipteran specificity. We detected significantly higher mortality in Culex pipiens biotype molestus males and Drosophila melanogaster, but not in Aedes albopictus and female Culex pipiens biotype molestus. CYV could not be transmitted transovarially to offspring, but we detected venereal transmission as well as CYV in mosquitos' saliva, indicating that an oral route of infection would also be possible. CYV's dipteran specificity, transmission routes, and killing effect with respect to Culex males may be used as powerful tools with which to destabilize arbovirus vector populations in the future.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Birnaviridae , Culex , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Drosophila melanogaster , Mamíferos
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 39, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640201

RESUMO

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) act as mechanical and biological vectors of arboviruses and are crucial in the global spread of these viruses. This study investigated the diversity of distribution of Culicoides species and the presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Tekirdag province in Northwest Türkiye. The fourteen Culicoides species, such as Culicoides newsteadi, Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides nubeculosus comp., Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides circumscriptus, Culicoides obsoletus comp., Culicoides gejgelensis, Culicoides festivipennis, Culicoides longipennis, Culicoides spp., Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides picturatus, Culicoides odiatus, Culicoides kurensis, and Culicoides flavipulicaris, were detected. Culicoides newsteadi, C. odiatus, and C. pulicaris were the most abundant species. Phylogenetic analyses of Culicoides species' ITS-1 gene region were performed. A pool of C. festivipennis was positive for SBV RNA, while the BTV genomic materials was not found in the qPCR analysis. This is the first report of the presence/detection of SBV in Culicoides species in Türkiye. The survey of bioecological and epizootiological aspects of vector species is essential in implementing effective control measures for arboviral infections.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Vírus Bluetongue , Bluetongue , Ceratopogonidae , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Filogenia , Insetos Vetores , Bluetongue/epidemiologia
3.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0177822, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598200

RESUMO

Globalization and climate change have contributed to the simultaneous increase and spread of arboviral diseases. Cocirculation of several arboviruses in the same geographic region provides an impetus to study the impacts of multiple concurrent infections within an individual vector mosquito. Here, we describe coinfection and superinfection with the Mayaro virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) and Zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) in vertebrate and mosquito cells, as well as Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes, to understand the interaction dynamics of these pathogens and effects on viral infection, dissemination, and transmission. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were able to be infected with and transmit both pathogens simultaneously. However, whereas Mayaro virus was largely unaffected by coinfection, it had a negative impact on infection and dissemination rates for Zika virus compared to single infection scenarios. Superinfection of Mayaro virus atop a previous Zika virus infection resulted in increased Mayaro virus infection rates. At the cellular level, we found that mosquito and vertebrate cells were also capable of being simultaneously infected with both pathogens. Similar to our findings in vivo, Mayaro virus negatively affected Zika virus replication in vertebrate cells, displaying complete blocking under certain conditions. Viral interference did not occur in mosquito cells. IMPORTANCE Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that multiple arboviruses are cocirculating in human populations, leading to some individuals carrying more than one arbovirus at the same time. In turn, mosquitoes can become infected with multiple pathogens simultaneously (coinfection) or sequentially (superinfection). Coinfection and superinfection can have synergistic, neutral, or antagonistic effects on viral infection dynamics and ultimately have impacts on human health. Here we investigate the interaction between Zika virus and Mayaro virus, two emerging mosquito-borne pathogens currently circulating together in Latin America and the Caribbean. We find a major mosquito vector of these viruses-Aedes aegypti-can carry and transmit both arboviruses at the same time. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering co- and superinfection dynamics during vector-pathogen interaction studies, surveillance programs, and risk assessment efforts in epidemic areas.


Assuntos
Aedes , Alphavirus , Arbovírus , Coinfecção , Superinfecção , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Vertebrados
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0011074, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701264

RESUMO

Mathematical models have been widely used to study the population dynamics of mosquitoes as well as to test and validate the effectiveness of arbovirus outbreak responses and mosquito control strategies. The objective of this study is to assess the diel activity of mosquitoes in Miami-Dade, Florida, and Brownsville, Texas, the most affected areas during the Zika outbreak in 2016-2017, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated adulticide treatments on local mosquito populations. To assess variations in the diel activity patterns, mosquitoes were collected hourly for 96 hours once a month from May through November 2019 in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and Brownsville, Texas. We then performed a PERMANOVA followed by a SIMPER analysis to assess whether the abundance and species richness significantly varies at different hours of the day. Finally, we used a mathematical model to simulate the population dynamics of 5 mosquito vector species and evaluate the effectiveness of the simulated adulticide applications. A total of 14,502 mosquitoes comprising 17 species were collected in Brownsville and 10,948 mosquitoes comprising 19 species were collected in Miami-Dade County. Aedes aegypti was the most common mosquito species collected every hour in both cities and peaking in abundance in the morning and the evening. Our modeling results indicate that the effectiveness of adulticide applications varied greatly depending on the hour of the treatment. In both study locations, 9 PM was the best time for adulticide applications targeting all mosquito vector species; mornings/afternoons (9 AM- 5 PM) yielded low effectiveness, especially for Culex species, while at night (12 AM- 6 AM) the effectiveness was particularly low for Aedes species. Our results indicate that the timing of adulticide spraying interventions should be carefully considered by local authorities based on the ecology of the target mosquito species in the focus area.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Culex , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Cidades , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 34, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are vectors of various arboviruses belonging to the genera Alphavirus and Flavivirus, and Costa Rica is endemic to several of them. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the community structure of such vectors in Costa Rica. METHODS: Sampling was performed in two different coastal locations of Costa Rica with evidence of arboviral activity during rainy and dry seasons. Encephalitis vector surveillance traps, CDC female gravid traps and ovitraps were used. Detection of several arboviruses by Pan-Alpha and Pan-Flavi PCR was attempted. Blood meals were also identified. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was estimated for each area during the rainy and dry seasons. The Chao2 values for abundance and Shannon index for species diversity were also estimated. RESULTS: A total of 1802 adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were captured, among which Culex quinquefasciatus was the most caught species. The differences in NDVI were higher between seasons and between regions, yielding lower Chao-Sørensen similarity index values. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Madariaga virus were not detected at all, and dengue virus and Zika virus were detected in two separate Cx. quinquefasciatus specimens. The primary blood-meal sources were chickens (60%) and humans (27.5%). Both sampled areas were found to have different seasonal dynamics and population turnover, as reflected in the Chao2 species richness estimation values and Shannon diversity index. CONCLUSION: Seasonal patterns in mosquito community dynamics in coastal areas of Costa Rica have strong differences despite a geographical proximity. The NDVI influences mosquito diversity at the regional scale more than at the local scale. However, year-long continuous sampling is required to better understand local dynamics.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Arbovírus , Culex , Culicidae , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Galinhas
6.
Nat Microbiol ; 8(1): 135-149, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604511

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are the main vectors for dengue virus (DENV) and other arboviruses, including Zika virus (ZIKV). Understanding the factors that affect transmission of arboviruses from mosquitoes to humans is a priority because it could inform public health and targeted interventions. Reasoning that interactions among viruses in the vector insect might affect transmission, we analysed the viromes of 815 urban Aedes mosquitoes collected from 12 countries worldwide. Two mosquito-specific viruses, Phasi Charoen-like virus (PCLV) and Humaita Tubiacanga virus (HTV), were the most abundant in A. aegypti worldwide. Spatiotemporal analyses of virus circulation in an endemic urban area revealed a 200% increase in chances of having DENV in wild A. aegypti mosquitoes when both HTV and PCLV were present. Using a mouse model in the laboratory, we showed that the presence of HTV and PCLV increased the ability of mosquitoes to transmit DENV and ZIKV to a vertebrate host. By transcriptomic analysis, we found that in DENV-infected mosquitoes, HTV and PCLV block the downregulation of histone H4, which we identify as an important proviral host factor in vivo.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Vírus de Insetos , Vírus de RNA , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Zika virus/genética , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Arbovírus/genética
7.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 1-5, 2023. figures, tables
Artigo em Francês | AIM | ID: biblio-1411406

RESUMO

Introduction. Au Mali, le dépistage de certains virus tels que la dengue, Zika et la fièvre de la vallée du Rift n'est pas systématique au centre national de transfusion sanguine (CNTS). Le risque peut être considérable en raison de leurs courtes périodes de virémie asymptomatique dans la population dont l'incidence est variable et parfois extrêmement élevée. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'explorer la possibilité de transmission de certains arbovirus à travers le don de sang au CNTS de Bamako. Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, de juillet 2019 à juin 2020 à Bamako. Au total deux cents (200) donneurs de sang du CNTS ont été inclus. Les examens ont été réalisés au Centre d'Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM) de Bamako avec le dépistage du génome des virus responsables de la Dengue, de la fièvre de la Vallée du Rift, et du Zika à l'aide de la technique de la RT-PCR en temps réel. Le Test de Dépistage Rapide (TDR) a été utilisé pour la détection des anticorps IgG et IgM spécifiques de la Dengue. Résultats. Le sexe masculin représente 84% (168/200). Le TDR a détecté 4,5% (9/200) de Dengue IgG positifs et aucun cas de Dengue IgM positif. La technique de RT-PCR n'a détecté aucun des trois virus. Conclusion. Cette étude prouve que le risque de transmission de certains arbovirus à travers le don de sang existe, mais il semble être minime au CNTS de Bamako


Background. In Mali, screening for certain viruses such as dengue, Zika, and Rift Valley fever is not systematic at the national blood transfusion center (CNTS). The risk can be considerable due to their short periods of asymptomatic viremia in the population with variable and sometimes extremely high incidence. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of transmission of certain arboviruses through blood donation at the CNTS of Bamako. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study, from July 2019 to June 2020 in Bamako. A total of two hundred (200) blood donors from the CNTS were included. The examinations were performed at the Centre d'Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM) in Bamako with the screening of the genome of viruses responsible for Dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Zika using the real-time RT-PCR technique. The Rapid Screening Test (RST) was used for the detection of Dengue-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. Results. Male sex represented 84% (168/200). The RDT detected 4.5% (9/200) of IgG positive Dengue and no IgM positive Dengue cases. The RT-PCR technique did not detect any of the three viruses. Conclusion. This study proves that the risk of transmission of certain arboviruses through blood donation exists, but it seems to be minimal at the CNTS of Bamako.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Arbovírus , Febre do Vale de Rift , Doadores de Sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Dengue , Zika virus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(2): 412-423, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535260

RESUMO

Despite its ecological flexibility and geographical co-occurrence with human pathogens, little is known about the ability of Anopheles albimanus to transmit arboviruses. To address this gap, we challenged An. albimanus females with four alphaviruses and one flavivirus and monitored the progression of infections. We found this species is an efficient vector of the alphaviruses Mayaro virus, O'nyong-nyong virus, and Sindbis virus, although the latter two do not currently exist in its habitat range. An. albimanus was able to become infected with Chikungunya virus, but virus dissemination was rare (indicating the presence of a midgut escape barrier), and no mosquito transmitted. Mayaro virus rapidly established disseminated infections in An. albimanus females and was detected in the saliva of a substantial proportion of infected mosquitoes. Consistent with previous work in other anophelines, we find that An. albimanus is refractory to infection with flaviviruses, a phenotype that did not depend on midgut-specific barriers. Our work demonstrates that An. albimanus may be a vector of neglected emerging human pathogens and adds to recent evidence that anophelines are competent vectors for diverse arboviruses.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Anopheles , Arbovírus , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Alphavirus/genética , Anopheles/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus O'nyong-nyong
9.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0109122, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475767

RESUMO

Getah virus (GETV) mainly causes disease in livestock and may pose an epidemic risk due to its expanding host range and the potential of long-distance dispersal through animal trade. Here, we used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to identify GETV as the pathogen responsible for reemerging swine disease in China and subsequently estimated key epidemiological parameters using phylodynamic and spatially-explicit phylogeographic approaches. The GETV isolates were able to replicate in a variety of cell lines, including human cells, and showed high pathogenicity in a mouse model, suggesting the potential for more mammal hosts. We obtained 16 complete genomes and 79 E2 gene sequences from viral strains collected in China from 2016 to 2021 through large-scale surveillance among livestock, pets, and mosquitoes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that three major GETV lineages are responsible for the current epidemic in livestock in China. We identified three potential positively selected sites and mutations of interest in E2, which may impact the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the virus. Phylodynamic inference of the GETV demographic dynamics identified an association between livestock meat consumption and the evolution of viral genetic diversity. Finally, phylogeographic reconstruction of GETV dispersal indicated that the sampled lineages have preferentially circulated within areas associated with relatively higher mean annual temperature and pig population density. Our results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GETV among livestock in southern Chinese regions associated with relatively high temperatures. IMPORTANCE Although livestock is known to be the primary reservoir of Getah virus (GETV) in Asian countries, where identification is largely based on serology, the evolutionary history and spatial epidemiology of GETV in these regions remain largely unknown. Through our sequencing efforts, we provided robust support for lineage delineation of GETV and identified three major lineages that are responsible for the current epidemic in livestock in China. We further analyzed genomic and epidemiological data to reconstruct the recent demographic and dispersal history of GETV in domestic animals in China and to explore the impact of environmental factors on its genetic diversity and its diffusion. Notably, except for livestock meat consumption, other pig-related factors such as the evolution of live pig transport and pork production do not show a significant association with the evolution of viral genetic diversity, pointing out that further studies should investigate the potential contribution of other host species to the GETV outbreak. Our analysis of GETV demonstrates the need for wider animal species surveillance and provides a baseline for future studies of the molecular epidemiology and early warning of emerging arboviruses in China.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Arbovírus , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Alphavirus/genética , Gado , Filogenia , Genômica , China/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
10.
Trends Parasitol ; 39(2): 86-90, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522231

RESUMO

Anopheles stephensi is an urban malaria vector native in some Asian countries and recently emerged in Africa as an invasive vector competent in transmitting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The coexistence of An. stephensi and Aedes arboviral vectors offers an optimal opportunity for successful integrated vector management with limited resources.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Arbovírus , Malária Vivax , Malária , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , África
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035515, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466864

RESUMO

Introduction: The present work sought to identify MHC-I-restricted peptide signatures for arbovirus using in silico and in vitro peptide microarray tools. Methods: First, an in-silico analysis of immunogenic epitopes restricted to four of the most prevalent human MHC class-I was performed by identification of MHC affinity score. For that, more than 10,000 peptide sequences from 5 Arbovirus and 8 different viral serotypes, namely Zika (ZIKV), Dengue (DENV serotypes 1-4), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV) and Oropouche (OROV) viruses, in addition to YFV were analyzed. Haplotype HLA-A*02.01 was the dominant human MHC for all arboviruses. Over one thousand HLA-A2 immunogenic peptides were employed to build a comprehensive identity matrix. Intending to assess HLAA*02:01 reactivity of peptides in vitro, a peptide microarray was designed and generated using a dimeric protein containing HLA-A*02:01. Results: The comprehensive identity matrix allowed the identification of only three overlapping peptides between two or more flavivirus sequences, suggesting poor overlapping of virus-specific immunogenic peptides amongst arborviruses. Global analysis of the fluorescence intensity for peptide-HLA-A*02:01 binding indicated a dose-dependent effect in the array. Considering all assessed arboviruses, the number of DENV-derived peptides with HLA-A*02:01 reactivity was the highest. Furthermore, a lower number of YFV-17DD overlapping peptides presented reactivity when compared to non-overlapping peptides. In addition, the assessment of HLA-A*02:01-reactive peptides across virus polyproteins highlighted non-structural proteins as "hot-spots". Data analysis supported these findings showing the presence of major hydrophobic sites in the final segment of non-structural protein 1 throughout 2a (Ns2a) and in nonstructural proteins 2b (Ns2b), 4a (Ns4a) and 4b (Ns4b). Discussion: To our knowledge, these results provide the most comprehensive and detailed snapshot of the immunodominant peptide signature for arbovirus with MHC-class I restriction, which may bring insight into the design of future virus-specific vaccines to arboviruses and for vaccination protocols in highly endemic areas.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Epitopos , Antígeno HLA-A2 , Antígenos Virais
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22323, 2022 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566236

RESUMO

A large national outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently reported in Thailand. While dengue virus (DENV) infection tends to occur year-round with an upsurge in the rainy season, Zika virus (ZIKV) also circulates in the country. The overlap in the distribution of these viruses increased the probability of co-infections during the heightened CHIKV activity. By examining 1806 patient serum samples submitted for CHIKV diagnostics from October 2018-February 2020 (511 CHIKV-negatives and 1295 CHIKV-positives), we used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to identify DENV and ZIKV individually. A total of 29 ZIKV and 36 DENV single-infections were identified. Interestingly, 13 co-infection cases were observed, of which 8 were CHIKV/DENV, 3 were CHIKV/ZIKV, and 2 were DENV/ZIKV. There were six DENV genotypes (13 DENV-1 genotype I, 10 DENV-2 Asian I, 10 DENV-2 Cosmopolitan, 6 DENV-3 genotype I, 2 DENV-3 genotype III, and 5 DENV-4 genotype I). Additionally, ZIKV strains identified in this study either clustered with strains previously circulating in Thailand and Singapore, or with strains previously reported in China, French Polynesia, and the Americas. Our findings reveal the co-infection and genetic diversity patterns of mosquito-borne viruses circulating in Thailand.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Coinfecção , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
13.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560724

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex and belongs to the family Flaviviridae of the genus flavivirus. The virus can cause infection in humans which in most cases is asymptomatic, however symptomatic cases exist and the disease can be severe causing encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. The virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds, humans and other mammals such as horses can be accidental hosts. A mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system and the sentinel syndromic surveillance network (4S) have been in place since 1988 and 2015 respectively, to better understand the transmission dynamics of arboviruses including WNV in Senegal. Arthropod and human samples have been collected from the field and analysed at Institut Pasteur de Dakar using different methods including RT-PCR, ELISA, plaque reduction neutralization test and viral isolation. RT-PCR positive samples have been analysed by Next Generation Sequencing. From 2012 to 2021, 7912 samples have been analysed and WNV positive cases have been detected, 20 human cases (19 IgM and 1 RT-PCR positive cases) and 41 mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analyzes of the sequences of complete genomes obtained showed the circulation of lineage 1a, with all these recent strains from Senegal identical to each other and very close to strains isolated from horse in France in 2015, Italy and Spain. Our data showed lineage 1a endemicity in Senegal as previously described, with circulation of WNV in humans and mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analyzes carried out with the genome sequences obtained also revealed exchanges of WNV strains between Europe and Senegal which could be possible via migratory birds. The surveillance systems that have enabled the detection of WNV in humans and arthropods should be extended to animals in a one-health approach to better prepare for global health threats.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Humanos , Animais , Cavalos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Filogenia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Aves , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
14.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560765

RESUMO

Surveillance programs are essential for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne arboviruses that cause serious human and animal diseases. Viral metatranscriptomic sequencing can enhance surveillance by enabling untargeted, high-throughput arbovirus detection. We used metatranscriptomic sequencing to screen field-collected mosquitoes for arboviruses to better understand how metatranscriptomics can be utilised in routine surveillance. Following a significant flood event in 2016, more than 56,000 mosquitoes were collected over seven weeks from field traps set up in Victoria, Australia. The traps were split into samples of 1000 mosquitoes or less and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq. Five arboviruses relevant to public health (Ross River virus, Sindbis virus, Trubanaman virus, Umatilla virus, and Wongorr virus) were detected a total of 33 times in the metatranscriptomic data, with 94% confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Analysis of metatranscriptomic cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences enabled the detection of 12 mosquito and two biting midge species. Screening of the same traps by an established public health arbovirus surveillance program corroborated the metatranscriptomic arbovirus and mosquito species detections. Assembly of genome sequences from the metatranscriptomic data also led to the detection of 51 insect-specific viruses, both known and previously undescribed, and allowed phylogenetic comparison to past strains. We have demonstrated how metatranscriptomics can enhance surveillance by enabling untargeted arbovirus detection, providing genomic epidemiological data, and simultaneously identifying vector species from large, unsorted mosquito traps.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Culicidae , Animais , Humanos , Arbovírus/genética , Filogenia , Mosquitos Vetores , Vitória
15.
PLoS Biol ; 20(11): e3001870, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378688

RESUMO

Bunyaviruses lack a specific mechanism to ensure the incorporation of a complete set of genome segments into each virion, explaining the generation of incomplete virus particles lacking one or more genome segments. Such incomplete virus particles, which may represent the majority of particles produced, are generally considered to interfere with virus infection and spread. Using the three-segmented arthropod-borne Rift Valley fever virus as a model bunyavirus, we here show that two distinct incomplete virus particle populations unable to spread autonomously are able to efficiently complement each other in both mammalian and insect cells following co-infection. We further show that complementing incomplete virus particles can co-infect mosquitoes, resulting in the reconstitution of infectious virus that is able to disseminate to the mosquito salivary glands. Computational models of infection dynamics predict that incomplete virus particles can positively impact virus spread over a wide range of conditions, with the strongest effect at intermediate multiplicities of infection. Our findings suggest that incomplete particles may play a significant role in within-host spread and between-host transmission, reminiscent of the infection cycle of multipartite viruses.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Orthobunyavirus , Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Mamíferos
16.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364188

RESUMO

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging arbovirus with an increasing circulation across the Americas. In the present study, we evaluated the potential antiviral activity of the following natural compounds against MAYV and other arboviruses: Sanguinarine, (R)-Shikonin, Fisetin, Honokiol, Tanshinone IIA, and α-Mangostin. Sanguinarine and Shikonin showed significant cytotoxicity, whereas Fisetin, Honokiol, Tanshinone IIA, and α-Mangostin were well tolerated in all the cell lines tested. Honokiol and α-Mangostin treatment protected Vero-E6 cells against MAYV-induced damage and resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in viral progeny yields for each of the MAYV strains and human cell lines assessed. These compounds also reduced MAYV viral RNA replication in HeLa cells. In addition, Honokiol and α-Mangostin disrupted MAYV infection at different stages of the virus life cycle. Moreover, Honokiol and α-Mangostin decreased Una, Chikungunya, and Zika viral titers and downmodulated the expression of E1 and nsP1 viral proteins from MAYV, Una, and Chikungunya. Finally, in Honokiol- and α-Mangostin-treated HeLa cells, we observed an upregulation in the expression of type I interferon and specific interferon-stimulated genes, including IFNα, IFNß, MxA, ISG15, OAS2, MDA-5, TNFα, and IL-1ß, which may promote an antiviral cellular state. Our results indicate that Honokiol and α-Mangostin present potential broad-spectrum activity against different arboviruses through different mechanisms.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Arbovírus , Febre de Chikungunya , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Células HeLa , Alphavirus/genética , Replicação Viral , Antivirais/farmacologia
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1024187, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388305

RESUMO

Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti in urban environments have spread rapidly worldwide, causing great impacts on public health. The development of reliable and timely alert signals is among the most important steps in designing accurate surveillance systems for vector-borne diseases. In July and September 2017, we conducted a pilot study to improve an existing integrated surveillance system by using entomo-virological surveillance to prioritize areas to conduct active searches for individuals with arbovirus infection symptoms. Foz do Iguaçu City has a permanent entomo-virological surveillance system with approximately 3,500 traps to capture Aedes sp. in the adult stage. The Aedes aegypti females are captured alive and human samples are submitted to RT-qPCR (real-time qPCR) screening for DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV diagnosis. Of the 55 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes tested in July 2017, seven (12.7%) were considered positive for DENV-2 and three (5.4%) for CHIKV. In September, we tested a sample of 54 mosquitoes, and 15 (27.7%) were considered infected by DENV-2. We created 25 circumferences with 150-m radius each to perform an active survey to identify symptomatic householders. In July, we selected one circumference, and five (35.7%) patients were positive for DENV, whereas two (14.3%) for CHIKV. In September, we selected four circumferences, and, from the 21 individuals sampled, nine (42.8%) were positive for DENV-2. A statistical model with a binomial response was used to estimate the number of cases in areas without active surveys, i.e., 20 circumferences. We estimated an additional 83 symptomatic patients (95% CI: 45-145) to be found in active searches, with 38 (95% CI: 18-72) of them confirming arbovirus infection. Arbovirus detection and serotyping in mosquitoes, but also in symptomatic individuals during active surveys, can provide an alert signal of early arbovirus transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus da Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Projetos Piloto , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19544, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380224

RESUMO

Competent arbovirus vectors are found in the culicid mosquito fauna of south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. In La Reunion, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are known vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Culex quinquefasciatus is a potential vector of Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. To prepare a vector-control field trial against Ae. aegypti, this study aimed at identifying the best trapping strategy to catch adult Ae. aegypti, using BG-Sentinel traps (Biogents, Germany). It was implemented in two sites in southern La Reunion. Catches of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were also recorded. A Latin square design was used to estimate the detection probability and the apparent daily density-according to the BG-Sentinel trapping strategy: none, carbon dioxide (CO2), a commercial attractant-BG-Lure (Biogents, Germany), or both. The use of CO2 alone was associated with a higher detection probability for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, as well as a large increase in their apparent density. Traps with BG-Lure-alone or in combination with CO2, did not improve the detection probability of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The same result was found for male Ae. albopictus. For females, baiting BG-Sentinel traps with CO2 or BG-Lure had no significant effect. The same apparent densities were found for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in both study sites-where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found at very low densities during previous surveys.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Culex , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Dióxido de Carbono , Reunião , Controle de Mosquitos
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2548-2551, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417997

RESUMO

Nonhuman primates living in proximity to humans increase risks for sylvatic arbovirus transmission. We collected serum samples from nonhuman primates in Hlawga National Park near Yangon, Myanmar, and detected antibodies against chikungunya (33%) and Japanese encephalitis (4%) viruses. Buffer zones between primate and human communities might reduce cross-species arbovirus transmission.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Primatas
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