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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555046

RESUMO

The purposes are to analyze the mechanism of digitized landscape architecture design and stablize the garden landscape image display in constructing garden landscape digitization platform. According to previous research and mobile edge computing, a scheme of digitized landscape architecture design is proposed based on edge computing. This scheme uses discrete elevation calculation to preserve the landscape design image's frame. It adopts the Roberts edge detection and Laplacian operator for high-level stable preservation of landscape images. Simultaneously, the displayed image is stablized using edge computing algorithms. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme of digitized landscape architecture design based on mobile edge computing. Results demonstrate that the discrete elevation calculation algorithm can avoid low visual rendering in the 3D image generation process, optimize the seed point matching of edge correlation, and ensure image clarity and stability. The edge computing algorithm can fundamentally avoid the problem of image shaking. The impact of different algorithm models on the classification and accuracy of landscape images is analyzed through parameter optimization. Compared with some latest models, the proposed landscape design scheme based on edge computing has better accuracy. The average accuracy can reach more than 90%, and the Kappa coefficient remains at 86.93%. The designed garden landscape digitization platform can stably display 3D garden landscape images while avoiding the shaking of 3D images, which can provide a theoretical basis and practical value for designing and planning landscape architecture.


Assuntos
Jardins , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Arquitetura , Computação em Nuvem , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191454, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378757

RESUMO

The beginning of the concept of architectural monument in Colombia is in the laws from the late XIX century and early XX century. We recompose the international context through the technic of aero photography, used by the Military Geographical Institute during the Second World War and the consequent tensions between U.S. and the powerful nations of the axis in relation to Colombia and Brazil in Latin America. The Liberal Party emerges like an ideology that tried to reorganise the country through the establishment of education and control the soil. This party negotiated a pact to stop the Colombian-Peruvian war 1932-1933, and signed the Roerich Pact in 1935 to protect the monuments. Therefore, the 1942 plan is the end of a process of mapping the national territory and the generation of criteria about cultural heritage in the first half of XX century, and the base to study how it affected the protection of architectural monuments up to date.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Brasil , Colômbia , Humanos , América Latina
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250463, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891619

RESUMO

Cold bending is a characteristic of significance for the beautiful curved glass curtain walls, because it affects them in terms of energy-efficiency and cost-efficiency. The increasing engineering projects call for more special studies on the mechanical properties of cold-bent glass panels, especially when the walls are built by insulating glass that is currently widely used while its relevant research is very scarce. This paper is devoted to studying the mechanical properties of anticlastic cold-bent insulating glass while taking different factors into consideration, including glass thickness, cold-bent torsion rate and cavity thickness. 9 pieces of insulating glass were manufactured for anticlastic cold-bending test and their coupled effect with identical load is also studied, and numerical finite element analysis sessions were carried out to simulate the experimental results for each one of them. Further, we analyzed the stress distribution performance of the sample pieces under cold bending and a uniform load, followed by discussions about stress transfer controls in glass plates. The results showed that the cold-bent control stress is on the surface with direct loads from cold bending and close to the cold-bent corner on the short edge, and it is transferred from the parts around the corner to the center when the uniform load plays a leading role in generating stress. This transfer could occur under a relatively small load with a small cold-bent torsion rate. A higher cold-bent torsion rate in cold bending contributed mostly to greater center stress in the glass, and as the glass thickness grows, stress and deflection at the plate center would significantly drop. However, the effect of cavity thickness on the anticlastic mechanical response of insulating glass was found to be trivial.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Vidro/química , Borracha/química , Estresse Mecânico , Arquitetura/tendências , Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013398, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being preventable, malaria remains an important public health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that overall progress in malaria control has plateaued for the first time since the turn of the century. Researchers and policymakers are therefore exploring alternative and supplementary malaria vector control tools. Research in 1900 indicated that modification of houses may be effective in reducing malaria: this is now being revisited, with new research now examining blocking house mosquito entry points or modifying house construction materials to reduce exposure of inhabitants to infectious bites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of house modifications on malaria disease and transmission. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (OVID); Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CAB) Abstracts (Web of Science); and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database (LILACS), up to 1 November 2019. We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en/), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/) to identify ongoing trials up to the same date. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, including cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), cross-over studies, and stepped-wedge designs were eligible, as were quasi-experimental trials, including controlled before-and-after studies, controlled interrupted time series, and non-randomized cross-over studies. We only considered studies reporting epidemiological outcomes (malaria case incidence, malaria infection incidence or parasite prevalence). We also summarised qualitative studies conducted alongside included studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors selected eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We used risk ratios (RR) to compare the effect of the intervention with the control for dichotomous data. For continuous data, we presented the mean difference; and for count and rate data, we used rate ratios. We presented all results with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Six cRCTs met our inclusion criteria, all conducted in sub-Saharan Africa; three randomized by household, two by village, and one at the community level. All trials assessed screening of windows, doors, eaves, ceilings or any combination of these; this was either alone, or in combination with eave closure, roof modification or eave tube installation (a "lure and kill" device that reduces mosquito entry whilst maintaining some airflow). In two trials, the interventions were insecticide-based. In five trials, the researchers implemented the interventions. The community implemented the interventions in the sixth trial. At the time of writing the review, two of the six trials had published results, both of which compared screened houses (without insecticide) to unscreened houses. One trial in Ethiopia assessed screening of windows and doors. Another trial in the Gambia assessed full screening (screening of eaves, doors and windows), as well as screening of ceilings only. Screening may reduce clinical malaria incidence caused by Plasmodium falciparum (rate ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.82; 1 trial, 184 participants, 219.3 person-years; low-certainty evidence; Ethiopian study). For malaria parasite prevalence, the point estimate, derived from The Gambia study, was smaller (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.17; 713 participants, 1 trial; low-certainty evidence), and showed an effect on anaemia (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42, 0.89; 705 participants; 1 trial, moderate-certainty evidence). Screening may reduce the entomological inoculation rate (EIR): both trials showed lower estimates in the intervention arm. In the Gambian trial, there was a mean difference in EIR between the control houses and treatment houses ranging from 0.45 to 1.50 (CIs ranged from -0.46 to 2.41; low-certainty evidence), depending on the study year and treatment arm. The Ethiopian trial reported a mean difference in EIR of 4.57, favouring screening (95% CI 3.81 to 5.33; low-certainty evidence). Pooled analysis of the trials showed that individuals living in fully screened houses were slightly less likely to sleep under a bed net (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.09; 2 trials, 203 participants). In one trial, bed net usage was also lower in individuals living in houses with screened ceilings (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.95; 1 trial, 135 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the two trials published to date, there is some evidence that screening may reduce malaria transmission and malaria infection in people living in the house. The four trials awaiting publication are likely to enrich the current evidence base, and we will add these to this review when they become available.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção , Habitação , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Arquitetura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Inseticidas , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Mosquiteiros , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium falciparum , Gravidez , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 28(3): 870-878, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515205

RESUMO

Studies in the psychology of visual expertise have tended to focus on a limited set of expert domains, such as radiology and athletics. Conclusions drawn from these data indicate that experts use parafoveal vision to process images holistically. In this study, we examined a novel, as-of-yet-unstudied class of visual experts-architects-expecting similar results. However, the results indicate that architects, though visual experts, may not employ the holistic processing strategy observed in their previously studied counterparts. Participants (n = 48, 24 architects, 24 naïve) were asked to find targets in chest radiographs and perspective images. All images were presented in both gaze-contingent and normal viewing conditions. Consistent with a holistic processing model, we expected two results: (1) architects would display a greater difference in saccadic amplitude between the gaze-contingent and normal conditions, and (2) architects would spend less time per search than an undergraduate control group. We found that the architects were more accurate in the perspectival task, but they took more time and displayed a lower difference in saccadic amplitude than the controls. Our research indicates a disjunctive conclusion. Either architects are simply different kinds of visual experts than those previously studied, or we have generated a task that employs visual expertise without holistic processing. Our data suggest a healthy skepticism for across-the-board inferences collected from a single domain of expertise to the nature of visual expertise generally. More work is needed to determine whether holism is a feature of all visual expertise.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA) is the fourth risk factor for all-cause mortality. Regular PA reduces noncommunicable disease (NCD) and mortality risk. The built environment (BE) is a determinant of spontaneous daily PA. Professionals who plan and build the BE therefore affect public health. We tested the hypothesis of a lack of formal pregraduate training about associations between the BE, PA and health in architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design academic degree programs (DPs) in Switzerland. METHODS: We reached out to all DPs in Switzerland to ask if and how these associations are taught. For those declaring to teach the topic, the program syllabus and course material were inspected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: For 30 out of 33 identified programs, information for the analysis was obtained. A total of 18 declared teaching the BE, PA and health associations, but this could be confirmed for only 5 after verifying the course content. Teaching principles of building PA-promoting BE represents an underutilized potential for public health promotion. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to introduce formal learning objectives in architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design DPs in Switzerland on the associations between BE, PA and health. It is likely that similar needs exist in other countries.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/educação , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento de Cidades/educação , Currículo , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Suíça
9.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(10): 770-777, dic. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199598

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir la utilización y percepción de la necesidad de productos de apoyo e identificar su asociación con instrumentos para medir la dependencia y la sobrecarga de cuidados. DISEÑO: Estudio transversal. Emplazamiento: Atención Primaria del área sur de Pontevedra. PARTICIPANTES: Un total de 112 personas cuidadoras informales que atienden a 125 personas dependientes. Mediciones principales: Mediante entrevista personal se recogen datos sobre la utilización y percepción de necesidad de estos productos. Además, se obtienen datos sociodemográficos e información referida al tiempo dedicado al cuidado diario, la sobrecarga del cuidador, el Baremo de Valoración de Dependencia y el indicador de dependencia DEP-6D. Se ha utilizado un contraste de medias para identificar si existen diferencias significativas en dichos indicadores en función de si utilizan o no los productos facilitadores. Se ha calculado una regresión logística para identificar aquellas variables asociadas con tener una necesidad no cubierta. RESULTADOS: Un 60% (IC 95%: 50,9-68,7) de las personas dependientes tienen necesidades no cubiertas de estos dispositivos. Estas necesidades se asocian, principalmente, con una renta familiar baja, un mayor grado de dependencia y una mejor salud del cuidador, aunque en situaciones de gran dependencia y muy mala salud del cuidador estas carencias se suavizan. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una fuerte asociación entre grado de dependencia y utilización de estos productos. Sin embargo, también hay un elevado porcentaje de la muestra con necesidades no cubiertas de estos productos que están asociadas tanto con la situación socioeconómica del hogar como con las características del dependiente y de la persona cuidadora


OBJECTIVE: To describe the use and perception of the need for assistive devices and identify their relationship with instruments to measure dependence and caregiver burden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LOCATION: Primary Health Care in the southern area of Pontevedra. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 112 informal caregivers providing care to 125 dependent persons. Key measurements: Through a personal interview, data was collected on the use and perception of the need for these devices. In addition, sociodemographic data and information on the time dedicated to daily care, caregiver burden, the Dependency Rating Scale, and the DEP-6D dependency indicator were obtained. A contrast mean was used to identify whether there are significant differences in these indicators, depending on whether or not they use the facilitator devices. A logistic regression was performed to identify those variables most associated with not having a need covered. RESULTS: More than half (60%: 95% CI; 50.9-68.7) of dependent persons have unmet needs for these devices. These needs are mainly associated with a low family income, a high degree of dependence, and better health of the caregiver; although in extreme situations of greater dependence and worse health of the caregiver these deficiencies are smoothed out. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between the level of dependence and the use of these devices. However, there is a high percentage of the sample that do not have the products that they need, which are associated with the socioeconomic situation of the household as well as with the characteristics of the dependent person and the caregiver


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Saúde da Pessoa com Deficiência , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Arquitetura , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Etários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Atividades Cotidianas
10.
Am J Psychoanal ; 80(4): 383-394, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219323

RESUMO

The emergence of a collective identity, a complex social and psychological process, may be linked to a specific place and a particular urban layout. Architecture demarcates interior and exterior spaces that not only frame our relationships but can also generate a mirror image of the internal world. The authors examine relevant contributions from the sparse psychoanalytic literature on this subject, to support their hypothesis that changes to a city's landscape, design, or architecture, when wholeheartedly embraced by its citizens, can serve to forge a new collective identity that helps to deal with absence, pain, and loss. They present the city of Bilbao, Spain, as a case study. This once thriving industrial city had collapsed into economic ruin, rife with social conflict, but since the 1990s, in an urban renewal, has emerged as a unique tourist destination. It has become a modern art and cultural center, symbolized by its most famous piece of contemporary architecture.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento de Cidades , Identificação Social , População Urbana , Reforma Urbana , Humanos , Espanha
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013398, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being preventable, malaria remains an important public health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that overall progress in malaria control has plateaued for the first time since the turn of the century. Researchers and policymakers are therefore exploring alternative and supplementary malaria vector control tools. Research in 1900 indicated that modification of houses may be effective in reducing malaria: this is now being revisited, with new research now examining blocking house mosquito entry points or modifying house construction materials to reduce exposure of inhabitants to infectious bites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of house modifications on malaria disease and transmission. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (OVID); Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CAB) Abstracts (Web of Science); and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database (LILACS), up to 1 November 2019. We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en/), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/) to identify ongoing trials up to the same date. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, including cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), cross-over studies, and stepped-wedge designs were eligible, as were quasi-experimental trials, including controlled before-and-after studies, controlled interrupted time series, and non-randomized cross-over studies. We only considered studies reporting epidemiological outcomes (malaria case incidence, malaria infection incidence or parasite prevalence). We also summarised qualitative studies conducted alongside included studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors selected eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We used risk ratios (RR) to compare the effect of the intervention with the control for dichotomous data. For continuous data, we presented the mean difference; and for count and rate data, we used rate ratios. We presented all results with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Six cRCTs met our inclusion criteria, all conducted in sub-Saharan Africa; three randomized by household, two by village, and one at the community level. All trials assessed screening of windows, doors, eaves, ceilings or any combination of these; this was either alone, or in combination with eave closure, roof modification or eave tube installation (a "lure and kill" device that reduces mosquito entry whilst maintaining some airflow). In two trials, the interventions were insecticide-based. In five trials, the researchers implemented the interventions. The community implemented the interventions in the sixth trial. At the time of writing the review, two of the six trials had published results, both of which compared screened houses (without insecticide) to unscreened houses. One trial in Ethiopia assessed screening of windows and doors. Another trial in the Gambia assessed full screening (screening of eaves, doors and windows), as well as screening of ceilings only. Screening may reduce clinical malaria incidence caused by Plasmodium falciparum (rate ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.82; 1 trial, 184 participants, 219.3 person-years; low-certainty evidence; Ethiopian study). For malaria parasite prevalence, the point estimate, derived from The Gambia study, was smaller (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.17; 713 participants, 1 trial; moderate-certainty evidence), and showed an effect on anaemia (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42, 0.89; 705 participants; 1 trial, moderate-certainty evidence). Screening may reduce the entomological inoculation rate (EIR): both trials showed lower estimates in the intervention arm. In the Gambian trial, there was a mean difference in EIR between the control houses and treatment houses ranging from 0.45 to 1.50 (CIs ranged from -0.46 to 2.41; low-certainty evidence), depending on the study year and treatment arm. The Ethiopian trial reported a mean difference in EIR of 4.57, favouring screening (95% CI 3.81 to 5.33; low-certainty evidence). Pooled analysis of the trials showed that individuals living in fully screened houses were slightly less likely to sleep under a bed net (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.09; 2 trials, 203 participants). In one trial, bed net usage was also lower in individuals living in houses with screened ceilings (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.95; 1 trial, 135 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the two trials published to date, there is some evidence that screening may reduce malaria transmission and malaria infection in people living in the house. The four trials awaiting publication are likely to enrich the current evidence base, and we will add these to this review when they become available.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção , Habitação , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Arquitetura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Inseticidas , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium falciparum , Gravidez , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
J Urban Health ; 97(6): 899-911, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888156

RESUMO

The design of the built environment plays an important role as a determinant of health. As a society, we are spending an increasing proportion of our time indoors and now spend over 80% of our life inside, so the design of buildings can greatly impact on human health. Accordingly, architecture health indices (AHIs) are used to evidence the effects on human health associated with the design of buildings. AHIs provide quantitative and empirical data upon which architects, clients, users and other stakeholders might monitor and evaluate the healthiness (or otherwise) of architectural design. A systematic literature review was conducted to reveal the current state of knowledge, reveal gaps, explore potential usage and highlight best practice in this area. Whilst there are a number of different health indicators for the built/urban environments more generally, the scope of this review is limited to the scale of a building and specifically those aspects within the remit of a professional architect. In order to examine the range and characteristics of AHIs currently in use, this review explored three electronic bibliographic databases from January 2008 to January 2019. A two-stage selection was undertaken and screening against eligibility criteria checklist carried out. From 15 included studies, 127 documents were identified, and these included 101 AHI. A sample of the most commonly used AHIs was then analysed at an item level. The review reveals that most AHIs are limited to measuring communicable diseases that directly affect physical health through e.g. air quality or water quality. There are very few indicators focusing on factors affecting mental and social health; given the increase in mental and social health problems, greater focus on AHIs related to these health issues should be included. Furthermore, the research reveals an absence of AHIs that address non-communicable diseases (NCDs). As the majority of all poor health outcomes globally are now related to NCDs, and many are associated with the design of the built environment, there is an urgent need to address this situation.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Ambiente Construído , Saúde da População Urbana , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239732, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986774

RESUMO

A large assemblage (n = 307) of architectural glasses (tesserae and windows) from the early 8th-century Umayyad residential site at Khirbat al-Minya was analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Trace element patterns are essential to establish the provenance of the base glass, while the comparative evaluation of the colouring and opacifying additives allow us to advance a production model for the manufacture of glass mosaic tesserae during the early Islamic period. The primary glass types are Levantine I and Egypt 1a, as well as a few older, reused tesserae, and Mesopotamian plant ash glass used for amber-coloured window fragments. Chemical data revealed fundamental differences in the colouring and opacification technologies between the Egyptian and Levantine tesserae. Co-variations of lead and bismuth, and copper, tin and zinc in the Egypt 1a tesserae provide first evidence for the production of different mosaic colours in a single workshop, specialising in the manufacture of tesserae of different colours. No such trend is apparent in the Levantine samples. Red, cobalt blue and gold leaf tesserae were found to be exclusively made from a Levantine base glass, indicating that the generation of some colours may have been a specialised process. The same may apply to the amber-coloured window glass fragments of Mesopotamian origin that exhibit very unusual characteristics, combining elevated copper (2% CuO) with an excess in iron oxide (5% Fe2O3). These findings have significant implications for the production model of strongly coloured glass and the exploitation of resources during the early Islamic period.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/história , Vidro/química , Vidro/história , Cor , Corantes/análise , Cobre/análise , Egito , Compostos Férricos/análise , História do Século XVIII , Chumbo/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oriente Médio , Minerais/análise , Estanho/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 46, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945978

RESUMO

Traditionally, architectural practice has been dominated by the eye/sight. In recent decades, though, architects and designers have increasingly started to consider the other senses, namely sound, touch (including proprioception, kinesthesis, and the vestibular sense), smell, and on rare occasions, even taste in their work. As yet, there has been little recognition of the growing understanding of the multisensory nature of the human mind that has emerged from the field of cognitive neuroscience research. This review therefore provides a summary of the role of the human senses in architectural design practice, both when considered individually and, more importantly, when studied collectively. For it is only by recognizing the fundamentally multisensory nature of perception that one can really hope to explain a number of surprising crossmodal environmental or atmospheric interactions, such as between lighting colour and thermal comfort and between sound and the perceived safety of public space. At the same time, however, the contemporary focus on synaesthetic design needs to be reframed in terms of the crossmodal correspondences and multisensory integration, at least if the most is to be made of multisensory interactions and synergies that have been uncovered in recent years. Looking to the future, the hope is that architectural design practice will increasingly incorporate our growing understanding of the human senses, and how they influence one another. Such a multisensory approach will hopefully lead to the development of buildings and urban spaces that do a better job of promoting our social, cognitive, and emotional development, rather than hindering it, as has too often been the case previously.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Ambiente Construído , Percepção , Humanos , Percepção/fisiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925958

RESUMO

To prevent fire accidents in high-rise buildings under construction, in this paper, the fire risk assessment of such buildings is studied. First, based on project investigation and a literature review, a fire risk assessment index system suitable for high-rise buildings under construction was established. Second, the unascertained measure theory was applied to establish a fire risk assessment model for high-rise buildings under construction. The index weight was determined by the entropy weight method. Finally, taking a high-rise building project in Xi'an, China, as an example, the feasibility and rationality of the fire risk assessment index system and assessment model were verified. This research provides a new method for objectively assessing the fire risk of high-rise buildings under construction and provides a certain reference for controlling the fire risk of high-rise buildings under construction.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Indústria da Construção , Incêndios/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Modelos Teóricos , China , Estudos de Viabilidade , Medição de Risco/métodos
16.
A A Pract ; 14(6): e01218, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784318

RESUMO

Patient care duties will expose health care workers to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Many are concerned about subsequent household exposure to their families, particularly those family members with high risk of complications or mortality, potentiating additional community spread. Herein is described a temporary isolation room that can be created within a home, thereby decreasing bioburden exposure to family members. The design is simple, expedient, and can be built with locally sourced inexpensive supplies. A viewing and access window facilitates safe family interaction and decreases the emotional costs of isolation while providing a route to pass items as necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Arquitetura , COVID-19 , Habitação , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(4): 1301-1314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological condition characterized by the development of daily disabling symptoms. Although the architecture and design of a PD patient's environment can hinder or facilitate full participation in daily activities, their putative role in the management of these patients has received little attention to date. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of architectural and design features in the management of people with PD. METHODS: An electronic database search of observational and experimental studies was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase from inception to May 2020, with two independent reviewers identifying the studies. Falls, fear of falling, postural instability, gait impairment/disability, and functional mobility were our outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies were included, among which nineteen were observational and seventeen were experimental studies (overall participants = 2,965). Pavement characteristics, notably unstable surfaces and level differences, were found to be a major cause of falling. Ground-based obstacles and confined/narrowed spaces were found to disturb gait, increase postural instability, and decrease functional mobility. Housing type did not appear to increase risk of falling, nor to significantly explain concerns about falling. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a need to adjust architectural features of the surrounding space to ensure appropriate care and provide a safe environment to PD patients. More evidence about the impact of such modifications on PD outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Arquitetura , Ambiente Construído , Marcha , Limitação da Mobilidade , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Equilíbrio Postural , Humanos
18.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 42: 39-46, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841731

RESUMO

Insects build myriad structures out of diverse materials. These structures serve purposes that range from facilitating prey capture to housing their entire colony. Whereas some insects operate solitarily, others collectively build large and complex structures. The architecture of these structures vis-à-vis their ultimate function poses fascinating questions that require multidisciplinary investigations. Importantly, because the underlying design and architectural principles have evolved over millions of years to withstand multitude of environmental perturbations, they offer important lessons for human-made structures. The vast variety of insect-built structures reflects how diverse insects have adapted to resolve the ecological challenges in their specific habitats. Here, we survey insect-built structures from a comparative perspective to ask what design and architectural principles can be gleaned from them. We discuss the key hypotheses about building-behaviours, their neural underpinnings, the functional role of insect-built structures and their biomimetic potential.


Assuntos
Insetos , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Arquitetura , Engenharia
19.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 40: 62-70, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604053

RESUMO

Materials, structures, surfaces and buildings of insects are of a great scientific interest, but such basic knowledge about the functional principles of these structures is also highly relevant for technical applications, especially in architecture. Some of the greatest challenges for today's architecture are multifunctionality, energy saving and sustainability - problems that insects have partially solved during their evolution. Entomologists have collected a huge amount of information about the structure and function of such living constructions and surfaces. This information can be utilized in order to mimic them for applications in architecture. The main technology areas, in which insect-inspired ideas can be applied, are the following: (1) new materials, (2) constructions, (3) surfaces, (4) adhesives and bonding technology, (5) optics and photonics. A few selected examples are discussed in this short review, but having more than one million described insect species as a source for inspiration, one might expect many more ideas from entomology for insect-inspired biomimetics in architecture. The incorporation of additional knowledge from insect biology into architecture will improve performance of future buildings. However, biologists still do not have a complete understanding of structure-function relationship of insect materials and construction. Hence, many technological areas will benefit from additional basic entomology research. Also the screening for new inspirations from insects is likely to remain an important research field in the near future.


Assuntos
Arquitetura , Biomimética , Insetos , Crescimento Sustentável , Animais , Cidades
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