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1.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 483, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933490

RESUMO

Data on marine biota exist in many formats and sources, such as published literature, data repositories, and unpublished material. Due to this heterogeneity, information is difficult to find, access and combine, severely impeding its reuse for further scientific analysis and its long-term availability for future generations. To address this challenge, we present CRITTERBASE, a publicly accessible data warehouse and interactive portal that currently hosts quality-controlled and taxonomically standardized presence/absence, abundance, and biomass data for 18,644 samples and 3,664 benthic taxa (2,824 of which at species level). These samples were collected by grabs, underwater imaging or trawls in Arctic, North Sea and Antarctic regions between the years 1800 and 2014. Data were collated from literature, unpublished data, own research and online repositories. All metadata and links to primary sources are included. We envision CRITTERBASE becoming a valuable and continuously expanding tool for a wide range of usages, such as studies of spatio-temporal biodiversity patterns, impacts and risks of climate change or the evidence-based design of marine protection policies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Biota , Data Warehousing , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares
2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(1): 201, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931534

RESUMO

A characteristic feature of the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) is a subsurface layer linked to seasonal sea ice (SSI) and defined by bottom temperatures less than 2 °C, which is termed the cold pool. Cold pool variability is directly tied to regional zooplankton and fish dynamics. Multifrequency (200 and 460 kHz) acoustic backscatter data were collected remotely using upward looking echosounders along the EBS shelf from 2008 and 2018 and used as a proxy of biological abundance. Acoustic data were coupled with bottom temperature and regional SSI data from the cold (2006-2013) and warm (2014-2018) regimes to assess the relationship between biological scattering communities and cold pool variation. Acoustic backscatter was 2 orders of magnitude greater during the cold regime than during the warm regime, with multifrequency analysis indicating a shift in the warm regime frequency-dependent scattering communities. Cold pool proxy SSI was a stronger predictor for biological scattering than bottom temperature in the cold regime, while warm regime bottom temperature and SSI were equal in predictive power and resulted in improved predictive model performance. Results suggest coupled cold pool and frequency-dependent scattering dynamics are a potential regime shift indicator and may be useful for management practices in surrounding Arctic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Zooplâncton , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Peixes , Temperatura
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776708

RESUMO

This study seeks to provide a basic approach to fulfill the spatial visualization of geopolitical environmental factors required for the navigation of vessels in the Arctic. Multi-dimensional geopolitical environmental factors of the Arctic Passage are analyzed and classified into geopolitics, geoeconomics, geo-military, geoculture, and laws and regulations related to geography. Their characteristics are extracted to form an attribute information table matching spatial layers. Based on the information category and basic characteristics, the spatial match method is applied and connected with the spatial layers to examine the spatial point, polyline, and polygon. According to the qualitative description, the study extracted the quantitative indicators for the following spatial-temporal pattern analysis. The standard deviational ellipse is used to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns and trends of the geopolitical environmental indicators of the Arctic Passage in the Arctic and Northeast Asia. The expansion and contraction of geoinformation coexist in the countries surrounding the Arctic Passage. The spatial-temporal changes indicate that the Arctic channel has a great economic impact on the Nordic countries and Northeast Asia, especially the coastal areas of China and Japan. The characteristic extraction and spatial match of the geopolitical environment provide integrated Arctic geoinformation inquiry and services for the diplomatic, administrative, and legal preparations required for Arctic navigation. Therefore, the geospatial analysis conducted provides scientific support and a basis for the geographical distribution and developing trends of visualization and spatial-temporal pattern in Arctic navigation. The results of this research will help decision-makers to make a comprehensive judgment on governance related to the sustainable development of the Arctic Passage.


Assuntos
Análise Espacial , Regiões Árticas , China , Japão , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3843, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788612

RESUMO

Arctic shrub expansion alters carbon budgets, albedo, and warming rates in high latitudes but remains challenging to predict due to unclear underlying controls. Observational studies and models typically use relationships between observed shrub presence and current environmental suitability (bioclimate and topography) to predict shrub expansion, while omitting shrub demographic processes and non-stationary response to changing climate. Here, we use high-resolution satellite imagery across Alaska and western Canada to show that observed shrub expansion has not been controlled by environmental suitability during 1984-2014, but can only be explained by considering seed dispersal and fire. These findings provide the impetus for better observations of recruitment and for incorporating currently underrepresented processes of seed dispersal and fire in land models to project shrub expansion and climate feedbacks. Integrating these dynamic processes with projected fire extent and climate, we estimate shrubs will expand into 25% of the non-shrub tundra by 2100, in contrast to 39% predicted based on increasing environmental suitability alone. Thus, using environmental suitability alone likely overestimates and misrepresents shrub expansion pattern and its associated carbon sink.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Alaska , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Tundra
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1650-1658, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876625

RESUMO

Several caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations have been declining concurrently with increases in infectious diseases in the Arctic. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a zoonotic bacterium, was first described in 2015 as a notable cause of illness and death among several Arctic wildlife species. We investigated epidemiologic and environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of E. rhusiopathiae in the Arctic and found that seropositivity was highest during warmer months, peaking in September, and was highest among adult males. Summer seroprevalence increases tracked with the oestrid index from the previous year, icing and snowing events, and precipitation from the same year but decreased with growing degree days in the same year. Seroprevalence of E. rhusiopathiae varied more during the later years of the study. Our findings provide key insights into the influence of environmental factors on disease prevalence that can be instrumental for anticipating and mitigating diseases associated with climate change among Arctic wildlife and human populations.


Assuntos
Erysipelothrix , Rena , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Regiões Árticas , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891510

RESUMO

Arctic regions are ecologically significant for the environmental persistence and geographic dissemination of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by avian hosts and other wildlife species. Data describing the epidemiology and ecology of IAVs among wildlife in the arctic are less frequently published compared to southern temperate regions, where prevalence and subtype diversity are more routinely documented. Following PRISMA guidelines, this systematic review addresses this gap by describing the prevalence, spatiotemporal distribution, and ecological characteristics of IAVs detected among wildlife and the environment in this understudied region of the globe. The literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar using a set of pre-defined search terms to identify publications reporting on IAVs in Arctic regions between 1978 and February 2022. A total of 2125 articles were initially screened, 267 were assessed for eligibility, and 71 articles met inclusion criteria. IAVs have been detected in multiple wildlife species in all Arctic regions, including seabirds, shorebirds, waterfowl, seals, sea lions, whales, and terrestrial mammals, and in the environment. Isolates from wild birds comprise the majority of documented viruses derived from wildlife; however, among all animals and environmental matrices, 26 unique low and highly pathogenic subtypes have been characterized in the scientific literature from Arctic regions. Pooled prevalence across studies indicates 4.23% for wild birds, 3.42% among tested environmental matrices, and seroprevalences of 9.29% and 1.69% among marine and terrestrial mammals, respectively. Surveillance data are geographically biased, with most data from the Alaskan Arctic and many fewer reports from the Russian, Canadian, North Atlantic, and Western European Arctic. We highlight multiple important aspects of wildlife host, pathogen, and environmental ecology of IAVs in Arctic regions, including the role of avian migration and breeding cycles for the global spread of IAVs, evidence of inter-species and inter-continental reassortment at high latitudes, and how climate change-driven ecosystem shifts, including changes in the seasonal availability and distribution of dietary resources, have the potential to alter host-pathogen-environment dynamics in Arctic regions. We conclude by identifying gaps in knowledge and propose priorities for future research.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Regiões Árticas , Aves , Canadá , Ecossistema , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
9.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(8)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776963

RESUMO

Due to climate change, increased microbial activity in high-latitude soils may lead to higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, microbial GHG production and consumption mechanisms in tundra soils are not thoroughly understood. To investigate how the diversity and functional potential of bacterial and archaeal communities vary across vegetation types and soil layers, we analyzed 116 soil metatranscriptomes from 73 sites in the Finnish sub-Arctic. Meadow soils were characterized by higher pH and lower soil organic matter (SOM) and carbon/nitrogen ratio. By contrast, dwarf shrub-dominated ecosystems had higher SOM and lower pH. Although Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were dominant in all communities, there were significant differences at the genus level between vegetation types; plant polymer-degrading groups were more active in shrub-dominated soils than in meadows. Given that climate-change scenarios predict the expansion of shrubs at high latitudes, our results indicate that tundra soil microbial communities harbor potential decomposers of increased plant litter, which may affect the rate of carbon turnover in tundra soils. Additionally, transcripts of methanotrophs were detected in the mineral layer of all soils, which may moderate methane fluxes. This study provides new insights into possible shifts in tundra microbial diversity and activity due to climate change.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Regiões Árticas , Bactérias/genética , Carbono/análise , Finlândia , Plantas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Tundra
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12565, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869102

RESUMO

At the edge of alpine and Arctic ecosystems all over the world, a transition zone exists beyond which it is either infeasible or unfavorable for trees to exist, colloquially identified as the treeline. We explore the possibility of a thermodynamic basis behind this demarcation in vegetation by considering ecosystems as open systems driven by thermodynamic advantage-defined by vegetation's ability to dissipate heat from the earth's surface to the air above the canopy. To deduce whether forests would be more thermodynamically advantageous than existing ecosystems beyond treelines, we construct and examine counterfactual scenarios in which trees exist beyond a treeline instead of the existing alpine meadow or Arctic tundra. Meteorological data from the Italian Alps, United States Rocky Mountains, and Western Canadian Taiga-Tundra are used as forcing for model computation of ecosystem work and temperature gradients at sites on both sides of each treeline with and without trees. Model results indicate that the alpine sites do not support trees beyond the treeline, as their presence would result in excessive CO[Formula: see text] loss and extended periods of snowpack due to temperature inversions (i.e., positive temperature gradient from the earth surface to the atmosphere). Further, both Arctic and alpine sites exhibit negative work resulting in positive feedback between vegetation heat dissipation and temperature gradient, thereby extending the duration of temperature inversions. These conditions demonstrate thermodynamic infeasibility associated with the counterfactual scenario of trees existing beyond a treeline. Thus, we conclude that, in addition to resource constraints, a treeline is an outcome of an ecosystem's ability to self-organize towards the most advantageous vegetation structure facilitated by thermodynamic feasibility.


Assuntos
Altitude , Ecossistema , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Temperatura , Árvores
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1977): 20221002, 2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765837

RESUMO

Reindeer are the only mammal known to seasonally adapt their eyes to the extremely blue colour of the extended twilight that occupies a large part of the winter 24 h cycle in their Arctic habitat. We describe the atmospheric phenomenon that results in this extreme spectral change in light environment. Reflectance spectroscopy is used to characterize the photonic nanostructure that generates the reflective region of the tapetum lucidum behind the retina. A model is proposed to explain the reversible reformatting of the reflector by seasonal changes in the volume of interstitial fluid within the two-dimensional photonic crystal of parallel collagen fibrils. This model is tested by allowing slow evaporation of the fluid from both summer and winter tapetum surfaces while monitoring changes in the reflectance spectrum. Coupled variations in the spacing and the degree of order of the fibril packing can transform the typical gold-turquoise colour of such a tapetal reflector to a deep blue that matches the peak spectral irradiance of twilight. The mechanism we describe might be applied by other animals with similar tapeta that experience prolonged changes in light environment.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Rena , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Corioide , Retina
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10191, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715455

RESUMO

Precipitation in Europe shows natural fluctuations that differ considerably between seasons and geographical regions. A number of studies have linked local or seasonal rainfall variability to various long-distance air pressure differences in north-south or west-east direction. This paper presents the first continent-wide analysis of European rainfall variability on a month-by-month and country-by-country basis. We calculated Pearson r values for unsmoothed monthly rainfall data of 39 European countries over the period 1950-2019 with five potential climatic drivers, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the North Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP), and two indices of Mediterranean Oscillation (MOI2, WeMOI). For a variety of countries and months we found substantial and statistically significant r values of up to r = 0.7 and more. The dynamic temporal-spatial evolution of the Pearson correlations was mapped out across the continent, tracking the gradual or abrupt expansion, displacement and subsequent waning of the various effects over the course of the year. The correlation analysis was complemented by best subset multiple regression, controlling for intercorrelation of the potential drivers. Our results may help to improve short- to midterm rainfall prognoses in Europe and provide important calibration data for the further refinement of climate models.


Assuntos
Chuva , Pressão do Ar , Regiões Árticas , Europa (Continente) , Estações do Ano
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 841: 156566, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697218

RESUMO

Arctic Indigenous Peoples are among the most exposed humans when it comes to foodborne mercury (Hg). In response, Hg monitoring and research have been on-going in the circumpolar Arctic since about 1991; this work has been mainly possible through the involvement of Arctic Indigenous Peoples. The present overview was initially conducted in the context of a broader assessment of Hg research organized by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. This article provides examples of Indigenous Peoples' contributions to Hg monitoring and research in the Arctic, and discusses approaches that could be used, and improved upon, when carrying out future activities. Over 40 mercury projects conducted with/by Indigenous Peoples are identified for different circumpolar regions including the U.S., Canada, Greenland, Sweden, Finland, and Russia as well as instances where Indigenous Knowledge contributed to the understanding of Hg contamination in the Arctic. Perspectives and visions of future Hg research as well as recommendations are presented. The establishment of collaborative processes and partnership/co-production approaches with scientists and Indigenous Peoples, using good communication practices and transparency in research activities, are key to the success of research and monitoring activities in the Arctic. Sustainable funding for community-driven monitoring and research programs in Arctic countries would be beneficial and assist in developing more research/monitoring capacity and would promote a more holistic approach to understanding Hg in the Arctic. These activities should be well connected to circumpolar/international initiatives to ensure broader availability of the information and uptake in policy development.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Groenlândia , Humanos , Povos Indígenas
14.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(3): 550-561, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666850

RESUMO

Rabies is an important zoonotic disease with high fatality rates in animals and humans. In the Arctic, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is regarded as the principal reservoir, but there is considerable debate about how the disease persists at the low population densities that are typical for this species. We describe an outbreak of rabies among Arctic foxes and Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) during 2011-12 on the remote Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, an area with a very low and relatively stable Arctic fox density. The aim of the research was to increase knowledge of Arctic rabies in this ecosystem and in the presumed spillover host, the Svalbard reindeer. Phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus (RABV) RNA isolates from Arctic fox and reindeer was performed, and clinical observations and histologic and immunohistochemical findings in reindeer were described. An ongoing capture-mark-recapture project allowed collection of serum samples from clinically healthy reindeer from the affected population for detection of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. The outbreak was caused by at least two different variants belonging to the RABV Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 clades, which suggests that rabies was introduced to Svalbard on at least two different occasions. The RABV variants found in Arctic fox and reindeer were similar within locations, suggesting that Arctic foxes and reindeer acquired the infection from the same source(s). The histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in 10 reindeer were consistent with descriptions in other species infected with RABV of non-Arctic lineages. Evidence of RABV was detected in both brain and salivary gland samples. None of 158 examined serum samples from clinically healthy reindeer had virus-neutralizing antibodies against RABV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Rena , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Regiões Árticas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Ecossistema , Raposas , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Svalbard
15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(17): 5007-5026, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722720

RESUMO

The physical and chemical changes that accompany permafrost thaw directly influence the microbial communities that mediate the decomposition of formerly frozen organic matter, leading to uncertainty in permafrost-climate feedbacks. Although changes to microbial metabolism and community structure are documented following thaw, the generality of post-thaw assembly patterns across permafrost soils of the world remains uncertain, limiting our ability to predict biogeochemistry and microbial community responses to climate change. Based on our review of the Arctic microbiome, permafrost microbiology, and community ecology, we propose that Assembly Theory provides a framework to better understand thaw-mediated microbiome changes and the implications for community function and climate feedbacks. This framework posits that the prevalence of deterministic or stochastic processes indicates whether the community is well-suited to thrive in changing environmental conditions. We predict that on a short timescale and following high-disturbance thaw (e.g., thermokarst), stochasticity dominates post-thaw microbiome assembly, suggesting that functional predictions will be aided by detailed information about the microbiome. At a longer timescale and lower-intensity disturbance (e.g., active layer deepening), deterministic processes likely dominate, making environmental parameters sufficient for predicting function. We propose that the contribution of stochastic and deterministic processes to post-thaw microbiome assembly depends on the characteristics of the thaw disturbance, as well as characteristics of the microbial community, such as the ecological and phylogenetic breadth of functional guilds, their functional redundancy, and biotic interactions. These propagate across space and time, potentially providing a means for predicting the microbial forcing of greenhouse gas feedbacks to global climate change.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Retroalimentação , Pergelissolo/química , Filogenia , Solo/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3667, 2022 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760781

RESUMO

Lateral CH4 inputs to Arctic lakes through groundwater discharge could be substantial and constitute an important pathway that links CH4 production in thawing permafrost to atmospheric emissions via lakes. Yet, groundwater CH4 inputs and associated drivers are hitherto poorly constrained because their dynamics and spatial variability are largely unknown. Here, we unravel the important role and drivers of groundwater discharge for CH4 emissions from Arctic lakes. Spatial patterns across lakes suggest groundwater inflows are primarily related to lake depth and wetland cover. Groundwater CH4 inputs to lakes are higher in summer than in autumn and are influenced by hydrological (groundwater recharge) and biological drivers (CH4 production). This information on the spatial and temporal patterns on groundwater discharge at high northern latitudes is critical for predicting lake CH4 emissions in the warming Arctic, as rising temperatures, increasing precipitation, and permafrost thawing may further exacerbate groundwater CH4 inputs to lakes.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Lagos , Regiões Árticas , Metano/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3537, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725737

RESUMO

The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth, prompting glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and sea ice decline. These severe consequences induce feedbacks that contribute to amplified warming, affecting weather and climate globally. Aerosols and clouds play a critical role in regulating radiation reaching the Arctic surface. However, the magnitude of their effects is not adequately quantified, especially in the central Arctic where they impact the energy balance over the sea ice. Specifically, aerosols called ice nucleating particles (INPs) remain understudied yet are necessary for cloud ice production and subsequent changes in cloud lifetime, radiative effects, and precipitation. Here, we report observations of INPs in the central Arctic over a full year, spanning the entire sea ice growth and decline cycle. Further, these observations are size-resolved, affording valuable information on INP sources. Our results reveal a strong seasonality of INPs, with lower concentrations in the winter and spring controlled by transport from lower latitudes, to enhanced concentrations of INPs during the summer melt, likely from marine biological production in local open waters. This comprehensive characterization of INPs will ultimately help inform cloud parameterizations in models of all scales.


Assuntos
Clima , Camada de Gelo , Aerossóis , Regiões Árticas , Estações do Ano
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2202720119, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727968

RESUMO

Sea ice levies an impost on maritime navigability in the Arctic, but ice cover diminution due to anthropogenic climate change is generating expectations for improved accessibility in coming decades. Projections of sea ice cover retreating preferentially from the eastern Arctic suggest key provisions of international law of the sea will require revision. Specifically, protections against marine pollution in ice-covered seas enshrined in Article 234 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea have been used in recent decades to extend jurisdictional competence over the Northern Sea Route only loosely associated with environmental outcomes. Projections show that plausible open water routes through international waters may be accessible by midcentury under all but the most aggressive of emissions control scenarios. While inter- and intraannual variability places the economic viability of these routes in question for some time, the inevitability of a seasonally ice-free Arctic will be attended by a reduction of regulatory friction and a recalibration of associated legal frameworks.


Assuntos
Efeitos Antropogênicos , Mudança Climática , Camada de Gelo , Poluição da Água , Regiões Árticas , Previsões , Legislação como Assunto , Oceanos e Mares , Poluição da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156550, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688252

RESUMO

Fires across the Arctic-boreal zone (ABZ) play an important role in the boreal forest succession, permafrost thaw, and the regional and global carbon cycle and climate. These fires occur mainly in summer with large interannual variability. Previous studies primarily focused on the impacts of local surface climate and tropical El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study, for the first time, comprehensively investigates the influence of summer leading large-scale atmospheric teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics on interannual variability of ABZ fires. We use correlation and regression analysis of 1997-2019 multiple satellite-based products of burned area and observed/reanalyzed climate data. Results show that eight leading teleconnection patterns significantly affect 63 ± 2 % of burned areas across the ABZ. Western North America is affected by the East Pacific/North Pacific pattern (EP/NP) and the West Pacific pattern (WP); boreal Europe by the Scandinavia pattern (SCA); eastern North America, western and central Siberia, and southeastern Siberia by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO); and eastern Siberia /Russian Far East by the East Atlantic pattern (EA). NAO/EA induces lower-tropospheric drier northwesterly/northerly airflow passing through the east of boreal North America/Eurasia, which decreases surface relative humidity. Other teleconnections trigger a high-pressure anomaly, forcing downward motion that suppresses cloud formation and increases solar radiation reaching the ground to warm the surface air as well as brings drier air downward to reduce surface relative humidity. The drier and/or warmer surface air can decrease fuel wetness and thus increase burned area. Our study highlights the important role of the extra-tropical teleconnection patterns on ABZ fires, which is much stronger than ENSO that was thought to control interannual variability of global fires. It also establishes a theoretical foundation for ABZ fire prediction based on extra-tropical teleconnections, and has the potential to facilitate ABZ fire prediction and management.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Regiões Árticas , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Estações do Ano , Taiga
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